The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, THERMAL...

This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC,...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER...

A summary of activities of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board for the period January 1, 1985 to March 31, 1985 is given. Information is given on Space Technology Research activities.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING, NASA PROGRAMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...

This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of a new super computer, called Columbia, capable of operating at 62 Tera Flops. This computer is the 4th fastest computer in the world. This computer will serve all mission directorates. The applications that it would serve are: aerospace analysis and design, propulsion subsystem analysis, climate modeling, hurricane prediction and astrophysics and cosmology.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NASA PROGRAMS, SUPERCOMPUTERS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...

CFD analysis provides a means of discerning H-seal functionality. H-Seal geometry can be modified to provide smaller or larger operational gap. H-Seal can be installed with large cold clearance and maintain a small operational effective clearance.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SEALING, FORCE DISTRIBUTION,...

The results of a series of Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) simulations are compared to each other over a wide range of operating conditions. It is found that the PaSR results can be simulated by a PSR solution with just an adjusted chemical reaction rate. A simple expression has been developed that gives the required change in reaction rate for a PSR solution to simulate the PaSR results. This expression is the basis of a simple turbulence-chemistry...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBULENCE MODELS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, REACTION...

A methodology for surface grid generation in three dimensional space is described. The method solves a Poisson equation for each coordinate on arbitrary surfaces using successive line over-relaxation. The complete surface curvature terms were discretized and retained within the nonhomogeneous term in order to preserve surface definition; there is no need for conventional surface splines. Control functions were formulated to permit control of grid orthogonality and spacing. A method for...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS),...

This project is a continuation of the work performed in the summers of 1991 and 1992, during which a 9-block structured grid for the computational domain around each of the four NTF 65-degree Delta Wing models with the sting mount were created. The objective of the project is to validate and supplement the test data on the wing models by computing the viscous flow field about the models.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, DELTA WINGS, TRANSONIC FLOW, VISCOUS...

So what is Shrinkwrap all about? For those of you who may not know about it, Shrinkwrap is a type of data structure that can manifest itself as a feature or model. It is cleverly covered up, almost hidden, and doesn't get the press or widespread use of a solid or surface. The shrinkwrap feature is located under the data sharing submenu of the feature menu. The shrinkwrap feature, as described by PTC, is a collection of surfaces and datum features of a model that represents the exterior of the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA STRUCTURES, MODELS, COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, ASSEMBLIES,...

Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER...

A roadmap for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation is developed. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DATA BASES, HYPERSONIC FLOW,...

This bibliography lists 425 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in January 1985.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING, AIRCRAFT DESIGN,...

The field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has advanced to the point where it can now be used for the purpose of fluid dynamics physics education. Because of the tremendous wealth of information available from numerical simulation, certain fundamental concepts can be efficiently communicated using an interactive graphical interrogation of the appropriate numerical simulation data base. In other situations, a large amount of aerodynamic information can be communicated to the student by...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTERIZED...

The usage model of supercomputers for scientific applications, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), has changed over the years. Scientific visualization has moved scientists away from looking at numbers to looking at three-dimensional images, which capture the meaning of the data. This change has impacted the system models for computing. This report details the model which is used by scientists at NASA's research centers.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION,...

In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PUMP...

A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code is used to simulate the J-2X engine exhaust in the center-body diffuser and spray chamber at the Spacecraft Propulsion Facility (B-2). The CFD code is named as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) Euler solver and is very robust at shock capturing. The CESE results are compared with independent analysis results obtained by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) and show excellent agreement.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SIMULATION, SPACECRAFT...

The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD has become standard practice in the design and analysis of the major components used for space propulsion. In an attempt to standardize and improve the CFD process a series of automated tools have been developed. Through the use of these automated tools the application of CFD to the design cycle has been improved and streamlined. This paper presents a series of applications in which deficiencies were identified in the CFD process and corrected...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ENGINE DESIGN, AUTOMATION,...

This viewgraph presentation reviews the overall work of the Stennis Space Center, with particular attention paid to the systems analysis and modeling being done with ANSYS Workbench and CFX. Examples of the analyses done with ANSYS Workbench and CFX and planned analyses are reviewed.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MODELS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...

This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, TURBULENCE MODELS, TURBULENT...

The Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysis. Paper topics included advances an uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, CONFERENCES, THERMAL ANALYSIS,...

A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DETECTION, INERTIAL NAVIGATION,...

Physical and transform space filtering has been applied to the Fourier spectral collocation solution of the constant coefficient scalar wave equation with a discontinuous initial condition. High order accuracy can be extracted from the unfiltered solution. Smooth, high order Fourier space filtering gives expected polynomial order solutions away from the discontinuity. Spectral accuracy is observed with the physical space filter of Gottlieb and Tadmor.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DISCONTINUITY, HYPERBOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SPECTRAL...

Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FIRE CONTROL, DETECTION, GAS DETECTORS, MICROGRAVITY,...

Condition queries on distributed data ask where particular conditions are satisfied. It is possible to represent condition queries as geometric objects by plotting field data in various spaces derived from the data, and by selecting loci within these derived spaces which signify the desired conditions. Rather simple geometric partitions of derived spaces can represent complex condition queries because much complexity can be encapsulated in the derived space mapping itself A geometric view of...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DETECTION, FLOW VISUALIZATION,...

The Eulerian mapping closure approach is developed for uncertainty propagation in computational fluid mechanics. The approach is used to study the Probability Density Function (PDF) for the concentration of species advected by a random shear flow. An analytical argument shows that fluctuation of the concentration field at one point in space is non-Gaussian and exhibits stretched exponential form. An Eulerian mapping approach provides an appropriate approximation to both convection and diffusion...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROBABILITY THEORY, DENSITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

The problem of applying modular attitude control to a rigid body-flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft with some state variables inaccessible was addressed by developing a sequence of single axis models and generating a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order to reconstruct those scalar state variables that were inaccessible. The specific single axis models treated consisted of two, three and four rigid bodies, respectively, interconnected by a flexible shaft...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT, SATELLITE...

This document summarizes the initial results from a research effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center on blisk and bladed disk mistuning, including both structural and aerodynamic coupling. The structural coupling model is based on the Fundamental Mistuning Model (FMM, developed by Feiner and Griffin). This effort extends the FMM technique to accept aerodynamic coupling coefficients from computational fluid dynamic codes. The model was applied to a representative modern front compressor stage....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS,...

This report describes results of benchmark tests on Steger, a 250 MHz Origin 2000 system with R10K processors, currently installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility. For comparison purposes, the tests were also run on Lomax, a 400 MHz Origin 2000 with R12K processors. The BT, LU, and SP application benchmarks in the NAS Parallel Benchmark Suite and the kernel benchmark FT were chosen to measure system performance. Having been written to measure performance on...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PERFORMANCE TESTS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPILERS,...

A new method of generating unstructured triangular/tetrahedral grids with high-aspect-ratio cells is proposed. The method is based on new grid-marching strategy referred to as 'advancing-layers' for construction of highly stretched cells in the boundary layer and the conventional advancing-front technique for generation of regular, equilateral cells in the inviscid-flow region. Unlike the existing semi-structured viscous grid generation techniques, the new procedure relies on a totally...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, GRID...

With the interest in jet propulsion at the end of World War II, aerodynamicists were challenged to develop mathematical models which could be used to design turbomachinery components for jets. NASA Lewis engineers and scientists played a major role in meeting this challenge. Some of their accomplishments are highlighted as well as those of others. Several problems are addressed which must be solved if jet propulsion technology is to advance.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW DISTRIBUTION, JET PROPULSION, MATHEMATICAL MODELS,...

Slides are reproduced that describe the importance of having high performance number crunching and graphics capability. They also indicate the types of research and development underway at Ames Research Center to ensure that, in the near term, Ames is a smart buyer and user, and in the long-term that Ames knows the best possible solutions for number crunching and graphics needs. The drivers for this research are real computational physics applications of interest to Ames and NASA. They are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MISSILES,...

North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. received assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center engineers in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) branch of the Structure and Dynamics Laboratory in improving the proposed design of a new impeller for their jet-propulsion systems. Marshall used advanced CFD techniques, which included creating a three-dimensional computer model of the impeller for analysis. With Marshall input, the company modified the design, then Marshall used a computer model to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, IMPELLERS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...

An introduction is given to the research activity that is underway to enable the prediction of turbomachinery aeroelastic forced response. An effort is being made to assemble a computer program (FREPS) which incorporates the aeroelastic structural models, unsteady aerodynamic models, and forcing function models. The structural and aerodynamic models are currently well developed. The forcing function models are at a primitive level. A significant activity has begun to identify the forcing...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROELASTICITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MATHEMATICAL...

The accuracy and complexity of solving multicomponent gaseous diffusion using the detailed multicomponent equations, the Stefan-Maxwell equations, and two commonly used approximate equations have been examined in a two part study. Part I examined the equations in a basic study with specified inputs in which the results are applicable for many applications. Part II addressed the application of the equations in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) computational code...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROTHERMODYNAMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY,...

The evolving role of computational aerothermodynamics (CA) within NASA over the past 20 years is reviewed. The presentation highlights contributions to understanding the Space Shuttle pitching moment anomaly observed in the first shuttle flight, prediction of a static instability for Mars Pathfinder, and the use of CA for damage assessment in post-Columbia mission support. In the view forward, several current challenges in computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics for hypersonic...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROTHERMODYNAMICS, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

The overset grid methodology has significantly reduced time-to-solution of highfidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations about complex aerospace configurations. The solution process resolves the geometrical complexity of the problem domain by using separately generated but overlapping structured discretization grids that periodically exchange information through interpolation. However, high performance computations of such large-scale realistic applications must be handled...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, MULTIBLOCK...

The WIND code is a general-purpose, structured, multizone, compressible flow solver that can be used to analyze steady or unsteady flow for a wide range of geometric configurations and over a wide range of flow conditions. WIND is the latest product of the NPARC Alliance, a formal partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). WIND Version 1.0 was released in February 1998, and Version 2.0 will be released in February 1999. The...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...

Issues & Topics Discussed: a) Aviation Week reported shortfall In LPT efficiency due to the application of "high lift airfoils". b) Progress in the design technologies in LPTs during the last 20 years: 1) Application of RANS based CFD codes. 2) Integration of recent experimental data and modeling of LPT airfoil specific flows into design methods. c) Opportunities to further enhance LPT efficiency for commercial aviation and military transport application and to impact emissions,...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, TURBINES, LOW PRESSURE,...

Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) has become a powerful conceptual and parametric geometry tool with numerous export capabilities for third-party analysis codes as well as robust surface meshing capabilities for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. However, a capability gap currently exists for reconstructing a fully parametric VSP model of a geometry generated by third-party software. A computer code called GEO2VSP has been developed to close this gap and to allow the integration of VSP into a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FEEDBACK CONTROL, DESIGN...

A theory for obtaining approximate solutions to nonlinear problems whose exact solutions require the use of large computational procedures is described. The technique represents in some respects a generalization of the method of base and comparison solutions for flows depending on a parameter. For the generalized problem, the input variable is no longer a parameter but a function that is incremented over its entire domain. After performing calculations for a base configuration and a small...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS, APPROXIMATION, COMPUTATIONAL...

Over the period of this grant (1986-92), 23 graduate students were supported by the Center and received education and training in hypersonics through MS and Ph.D. programs. An additional 8 Ph.D. candidates and 2 MS candidates, with their own fellowship support, were attracted to The University of Texas and were recruited into the hypersonics program because of the Center. Their research, supervised by the 10 faculty involved in the Center, resulted in approximately 50 publications and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, EDUCATION, HYPERSONICS,...

With the renewed interest in Cartesian gridding methodologies for the ease and speed of gridding complex geometries in addition to the simplicity of the control volumes used in the computations, it has become important to investigate ways of extending the existing Cartesian grid solver functionalities. This includes developing methods of modeling the viscous effects in order to utilize Cartesian grids solvers for accurate drag predictions and addressing the issues related to the distributed...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARTESIAN COORDINATES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, VISCOUS...

Over three million Americans and 20 million people worldwide suffer from some form of heart failure. Mechanical heart assist devices are being used as a temporary support to sick ventricle and valves as a bridge-to-transplant or bridge-to-recovery. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the development of NASA-DeBakey Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) using numerical aerospace simulation technology.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEART, MECHANICAL DEVICES, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION,...

A complete list of Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) reports are listed. Since ICASE reports are intended to be preprints of articles that will appear in journals or conference proceedings, the published reference is included when it is available. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, AERODYNAMICS, APPLICATIONS OF MATHEMATICS,...

Aerospace data analysis tools that significantly reduce the time and effort needed to analyze large-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations have emerged this year. The current approach for most postprocessing and visualization work is to explore the 3D flow simulations with one of a dozen or so interactive tools. While effective for analyzing small data sets, this approach becomes extremely time consuming when working with data sets larger than one gigabyte. An active area of research...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER GRAPHICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SEARCHING, DATA...

Genetic algorithms, which simulate evolution in natural systems, have been used to find solutions to optimization problems that seem intractable to standard approaches. In this study, the feasibility of using a GA to find an optimum, fixed profile nozzle for a pulse detonation engine (PDE) is demonstrated. The objective was to maximize impulse during the detonation wave passage and blow-down phases of operation. Impulse of each profile variant was obtained by using the CFD code Mozart/2.0 to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DETONATION WAVES, GENETIC ALGORITHMS, OPTIMAL CONTROL,...

No abstract available

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BELLOWS, JOINTS (JUNCTIONS), FLUID FLOW, VIBRATION,...

The goal here was to present one approach to rapid CFD for S&C using an unstructured inviscid method, in order to eventually assess S&C properties as early in the design process as possible. Specific results are presented regarding time, accuracy (as compared to a baseline wind tunnel database) and simplicity for the user. For COMSAC, it s more important to talk about the "specifications" required by Advanced Design and S&C, as well as how the CFD results can be combined...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AIRCRAFT DESIGN, DATA BASES,...

Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of an optimized, fixed PDRE nozzle configuration is reported. The results are compared to a steady-state rocket system using similar modeling assumptions.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PULSE DETONATION ENGINES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

The aerospace plane design challenge is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are included: the CFD design technology development; CFD validation vs. measurable fluid dynamics validation; and discussion of results.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE PLANES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER...

This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DATA PROCESSING, ALGORITHMS,...

This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics and computer science during the period April 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustic and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMBUSTION STABILITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...

This presentation is designed as a limited-scope "tutorial" and is aimed primarily at the CFDer who has not been exposed to stability and control problems. Examples of some classic S&C problems are used for illustration. S&C is a fundamental technology for enabling flight, but significant problems with the prediction of S&C characteristics persists, especially where separated flow is involved. Even after 100 years of flight, experimental methods still have significant...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, STABILITY, ACTIVE CONTROL,...

For DES, RANS is responsible for predicting boundary layer growth and separation. LES is responsible for predicting the geometry dependent turbulent flow features. Grid adaptation done using NASA Langley s RefineMesh program. Adaptation on time average of vorticity

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERODYNAMIC STALLING, TURBULENT...

Raisbeck Mark Five Sabreliner 60A is a modernized, higher performance version of the Sabreliner business jet designed more than 20 years ago. Rockwell decided to update the design to incorporate NASA's computational fluid dynamics technology, thereby insuring continuing production of a competitive new airplane and protecting Sabreliner owners' investments by allowing them to convert to the update configuration. Redesign of the airplane involved extensive changes in aerodynamics structure and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WINGS, AIRCRAFT DESIGN, AERODYNAMICS, AIRFOILS, CONSUMPTION,...

This report is the documentation of the work performed for the Subsonic Rotary Wing Project under the NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. It was funded through Task Number NNC10E420T under GESS-2 Contract NNC06BA07B in the period of 10/1/2010 to 8/31/2011. The objective of the task is to provide support for the development of variable speed power turbine technology through application of computational fluid dynamics analyses. This includes work elements in mesh generation, multistage URANS...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERODYNAMICS, TURBINES, GRID...

This report describes a two level parallelization of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solver with multi-zone overset structured grids. The approach is based on a hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming model suitable for shared memory and clusters of shared memory machines. The performance investigations of the hybrid application on an SGI Origin2000 (O2K) machine is reported using medium and large scale test problems.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

The coding of high-performance fluids simulations requires significant knowledge of both numerical and computational details. The magnitude and complexity of low-level details is often enough to discourage many users of turbulence data wishing to study more important, higher-level fluid dynamical questions. These same complexities are often a practical barrier to simulation experts who develop, verify and maintain the codes which generate this data. Future fluids codes, with high resolution and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CODING, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, PROGRAMMING...

NASA has planned a supercomputer for computational fluid dynamics research since the mid-1970's. With the approval of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program as a FY 1984 new start, Congress requested an assessment of the program's objectives, projected short- and long-term uses, program design, computer architecture, user needs, and handling of proprietary and classified information. Specifically requested was an examination of the merits of proceeding with multiple high speed processor...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

A design methodology based on streamline-tracing is discussed for the design of external-compression, supersonic inlets for flight below Mach 2.0. The methodology establishes a supersonic compression surface and capture cross-section by tracing streamlines through an axisymmetric Busemann flowfield. The compression system of shock and Mach waves is altered through modifications to the leading edge and shoulder of the compression surface. An external terminal shock is established to create...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERSONIC INLETS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ENGINE...

Procedures and methods for veri.cation of coding algebra and for validations of models and calculations used in the aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community would be ef.cacious if used by the glacier dynamics modeling community. This paper presents some of those methods, and how they might be applied to uncertainty management supporting code veri.cation and model validation for glacier dynamics. The similarities and differences between their use in CFD analysis and the proposed...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ALGEBRA, CODING, ANALOGIES,...

Market forces are driving industry to reproduce product cycle time (the time required to conceive, design, build, test, validate and deliver a product). Application of existing tools in new areas can reduce the time required to design a new product and increase the confidence of acceptable test results later in the expensive testing and validation phase. Finite element methods, computational fluid dynamics codes and sharing of CAD datasets when applied to the design of engine externals can...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, COMPUTER...

This report describes results of benchmark tests on the Origin 3000 system currently being installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing facility. This machine will ultimately contain 1024 R14K processors. The first part of the system, installed in November, 2000 and named mendel, is an Origin 3000 with 128 R12K processors. For comparison purposes, the tests were also run on lomax, an Origin 2000 with R12K processors. The BT, LU, and SP application benchmarks in the NAS Parallel...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WORKLOADS (PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

RotCFD is a software intended to ease the design of NextGen rotorcraft. Since RotCFD is a new software still in the development process, the results need to be validated to determine the software's accuracy. The purpose of the present document is to explain one of the approaches to accomplish that goal.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), HELICOPTER DESIGN,...

This document in large part is based on the Masters Thesis of Cole Stephens. The document encompasses a variety of technical and practical issues involved when using the STARS codes for Aeroservoelastic analysis of vehicles. The document covers in great detail a number of technical issues and step-by-step details involved in the simulation of a system where aerodynamics, structures and controls are tightly coupled. Comparisons are made to a benchmark experimental program conducted at NASA...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AEROSERVOELASTICITY, CONTROL...

In 1973 engineers at Dryden began investigating ways to reduce aerodynamic drag on land vehicles. They began with a delivery van whose shape they changed dramatically, finally reducing its aerodynamic drag by more than 5 percent. They then turned their attention to tracator-trailers, modifying a cab-over and reducing its aerodynamic drag by nearly 25 percent. Further research identified additional areas worth attention, but in the intervening decades few of those changes have appeared.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC DRAG, AERODYNAMICS, DRAG REDUCTION, SHAPES,...

An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, RAREFIED...

Several features make Java an attractive choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, JAVA (PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE),...

Recent studies of 2-D boundary layers undergoing bypass transition were reviewed. Bypass transition is characterized by the sudden appearance of turbulent spots in boundary layer without first the regular, observable growth of disturbances predicted by linear stability theory. There are no standard criteria or parameters for defining bypass transition, but it is known to be the mode of transition when the flow is disturbed by perturbations of sufficient amplitude.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION, BYPASSES, CURVATURE, FLOW...

This paper addresses the use of the Constrained Direct Iterative Surface Curvature (CDISC) design method in the aircraft design process. A discussion of some of the requirements for practical use of CFD in the design process is followed by a description of different CFD design methods, along with their relative strengths and weaknesses. A detailed description of the CDISC design method highlights some of the aspects of the method that provide computational efficiency and portability, as well as...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VISCOSITY, FLOW GEOMETRY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD). However, changes in the Aerospace...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERONAUTICS, WIND TUNNEL TESTS,...

Goertler vortices are thought to be the cause of transition in many fluid flows of practical importance. A review of the different stages of vortex growth is given. In the linear regime, nonparallel effects completely govern this growth, and parallel flow theories do not capture the essential features of the development of the vortices. A detailed comparison between the parallel and nonparallel theories is given and it is shown that at small vortex wavelengths, the parallel flow theories have...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION, GOERTLER INSTABILITY, LEADING...

Structured grid solvers such as NASA's OVERFLOW compressible Navier-Stokes flow solver can generate large data files that contain convergence histories for flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, component forces and moments, and component relative motion dynamics variables. Most of today's large-scale problems can extend to hundreds of grids, and over 100 million grid points. However, due to the lack of efficient tools, only a small fraction of information contained in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, STRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS),...

This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These semantic parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS, COMPUTER...

One of the challenges in the computational fluid dynamics area is the accurate calculation of aeroacoustic phenomena, especially in the presence of shock waves. One such phenomenon is "transonic resonance," where an unsteady shock wave at the throat of a convergent-divergent nozzle results in the emission of acoustic tones. The space-time Conservation-Element and Solution-Element (CE/SE) method developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center can faithfully capture the shock waves, their...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROACOUSTICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MATHEMATICAL...

Because the governing equations in fluid dynamics contain partial differentials and are too difficult in most cases to solve analytically, these differentials are generally replaced by finite difference terms. These terms contain terms in the solution at nearby states. This procedure discretizes the field into a finite number of states. These states, when plotted, form a grid, or mesh, of points. It is at these states, or field points, that the solution is found. The optimum choice of states,...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, GRID...

A pulse detonation engine uses a series of high frequency intermittent detonation tubes to generate thrust. The process of filling the detonation tube with fuel and air for each cycle may yield non-uniform mixtures. Uniform mixing is commonly assumed when calculating detonation tube thrust performance. In this study, detonation cycles featuring idealized non-uniform H2/air mixtures were analyzed using a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code with detailed chemistry....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PULSE DETONATION ENGINES, SPECIFIC IMPULSE, THRUST,...

The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center is combining the key elements of computational fluid dynamics, aerothermodynamic experiments, and advanced computational technology to bring internal computational fluid dynamics (ICFM) to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion system design. This paper presents an overview of efforts under way at NASA Lewis to advance and apply computational technology to ICFM. These efforts include the use of modern,...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DESIGN ANALYSIS, PROPULSION...

The characteristics of the recirculation zones in confined coaxial turbulent jets are investigated numerically employing the kappa - epsilon turbulence model. The geometrical arrangement corresponds to the experimental study of Owen (AIAA J. 1976) and the investigation is undertaken to provide information for isothermal flow relevant to combustor flows. For the first time, the shape, size, and location of the recirculation zones for the above experimental configuration are correctly predicted....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, ISOTHERMAL FLOW, PREDICTIONS,...

In this work, a novel graphics processing unit (GPU) distributed sharing model for hybrid many-core architectures is introduced and employed in the acceleration of a production-level computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The latest generation graphics hardware allows multiple processor cores to simultaneously share a single GPU through concurrent kernel execution. This feature has allowed the NASA FUN3D code to be accelerated in parallel with up to four processor cores sharing a single GPU....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS),...

Perturbation procedures and associated computational codes for determining nonlinear flow solutions were developed to establish a method for minimizing computational requirements associated with parametric studies of transonic flows in turbomachines. The procedure that was developed and evaluated was found to be capable of determining highly accurate approximations to families of strongly nonlinear solutions which are either continuous or discontinuous, and which represent variations in some...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRFOILS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, PERTURBATION THEORY,...

This paper reports the progress made towards developing complete blood flow simulation capability in humans, especially in the presence of artificial devices such as valves and ventricular assist devices. Devices modeling poses unique challenges different from computing the blood flow in natural hearts and arteries. There are many elements needed to quantify the flow in these devices such as flow solvers, geometry modeling including flexible walls, moving boundary procedures and physiological...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BLOOD FLOW, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW,...

The focus of this grant was to experiment with novel user interfaces for immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, and thus to advance the state of the art of user interface technology for this domain. Our primary test application was a scientific visualization application for viewing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) datasets. This technology has been transferred to NASA via periodic status reports and papers relating to this grant that have been published in conference proceedings. This final...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELS, INTERFACES, VIRTUAL REALITY,...

An implicit ADI numerical method for the calculation of 2-D unsteady flows with strong convection effects is described. The method is based on the conventional Crank-Nicholson approach for parabolic equations but an upwind-downwind differencing is used for the first order spatial derivatives associated with convection. The differencing is carried out in the current and previous time plane in such a way that the algorithm is second order accurate in both space and time. The difference equations...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CONVECTION, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, UNSTEADY FLOW,...

Results from a recently completed enhanced mixing program are summarized in the two technical papers. These studies were parts of a High Speed Research (HSR)-supported joint Government/industry/university program that involved, in addition to the NASA Lewis Research Center, researchers at United Technologies Research Center, Allison Engine Company, CFD Research Corporation, and the University of California, Irvine. The studies investigated the mixing of jets injected normal to a confined...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, CROSS FLOW, FLOW GEOMETRY, GAS TURBINE...

Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLOW VELOCITY, BOUNDARY...

In early 1995, NASA s Glenn Research Center (then Lewis Research Center) formed an industry-government team with several jet engine companies to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which would help aerospace engineers solve complex aerodynamics and combustion problems in gas turbine, rocket, and hypersonic engines. The original development team consisted of Allison Engine Company (now Rolls-Royce Allison), CFD Research Corporation, GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt and Whitney, and NASA. After...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, GAS TURBINES, AERODYNAMICS,...

The work presented here concerns the numerical development and simulation of the flow, pressure patterns and motion of a pair of fingers arranged behind each other and axially aligned in-line. The fingers represent the basic elemental component of a Finger Seal (FS) and form a tight seal around the rotor. Yet their flexibility allows compliance with rotor motion and in a passive-adaptive mode complies also with the hydrodynamic forces induced by the flowing fluid. While the paper does not treat...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ROTORS, SOLID MECHANICS, SEALS...

This viewgraph presentation discusses geometry and flow configuration, effect of y+ on heat transfer computations, standard and extended k-epsilon turbulence model results with wall function, low-Re model results (the Lam-Bremhorst model without wall function), a criterion for flow reversal in a radially rotating square duct, and a summary.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, K-EPSILON...

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALTERNATING DIRECTION IMPLICIT METHODS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...

In this paper we have investigated the condensation of water vapor in a short tube. A numerical model of condensation heat transfer was incorporated in a flow network code. The flow network code that we have used in this paper is Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a finite volume based flow network code. Four different condensation models were presented in the paper. Soliman's correlation has been found to be the most stable in low flow rates which is of particular...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEAT TRANSFER, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, CONDENSING,...

A sub-model is developed to account for the drag and heat transfer enhancement resulting from deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) inducing obstacles commonly used in pulse detonation engines (PDE). The sub-model is incorporated as a source term in a time-accurate, quasi-onedimensional, CFD-based PDE simulation. The simulation and sub-model are then validated through comparison with a particular experiment in which limited DDT obstacle parameters were varied. The simulation is then used to examine...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PULSE DETONATION ENGINES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

An implicit, finite-difference, upwind, full Navier-Stokes solver was applied to supersonic/hypersonic flows over two-dimensional ramps and three-dimensional obstacle. Some of the computed results are presented. The numerical scheme used in the study is an implicit, spacially second order accurate, upwind, LU-ADI scheme based on Roe's approximate Reimann solver with MUSCL differencing of Van Leer. An algebraic grid generation scheme based on generalized interpolation scheme was used in...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FINITE DIFFERENCE THEORY, GRID...

Recent improvements in subgrid-scale modeling as well as increases in computer power make it feasible to investigate flows using large-eddy simulation (LES) which have been traditionally studied with techniques based on Reynolds averaging. However, LES has not yet been applied to many flows of immediate technical interest. Preliminary results from LES of a plane diffuser flow are described. The long term goal of this work is to investigate flow separation as well as separation control in ducts...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL, BOUNDARY LAYER SEPARATION,...

The creation of parameter study suites has recently become a more challenging problem as the parameter studies have become multi-tiered and the computational environment has become a supercomputer grid. The parameter spaces are vast, the individual problem sizes are getting larger, and researchers are seeking to combine several successive stages of parameterization and computation. Simultaneously, grid-based computing offers immense resource opportunities but at the expense of great difficulty...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERCOMPUTERS, GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE, PARALLEL COMPUTERS,...

A new framework is presented for shape optimization using analytical shape functions and high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) via Cart3D. The focus of the paper is the system-level integration of several key enabling analysis tools and automation methods to perform shape optimization and reduce sonic boom footprint. A boom mitigation case study subject to performance, stability and geometrical requirements is presented to demonstrate a subset of the capabilities of the framework....

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SHAPE OPTIMIZATION, SHAPE FUNCTIONS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...

The parallel diagonal dominant (PDD) algorithm is an efficient tridiagonal solver. This paper presents for study a variation of the PDD algorithm, the reduced PDD algorithm. The new algorithm maintains the minimum communication provided by the PDD algorithm, but has a reduced operation count. The PDD algorithm also has a smaller operation count than the conventional sequential algorithm for many applications. Accuracy analysis is provided for the reduced PDD algorithm for symmetric Toeplitz...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ALGORITHMS, PROBLEM SOLVING,...

This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, THERMAL PROTECTION, TEST...

A NASA SBIR contract served as the beginning for the development of Daat Research Corporation's Coolit software. Coolit is a unique computational fluid dynamics (CFD) application aimed at thermal and cooling design problems. Coolit can generate 3-D representations of the thermofluid environment and "sketch" the component on the computer. The software modeling reduces time and effort in prototype building and testing.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS),...