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NASA's Space Communication and Navigation(SCaN) Testbed was launched to the International Space Station in 2012. The objective is to promote new software defined radio technologies and associated software application reuse, enabled by this first flight of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standard. Pre-launch testing with the testbed's software defined radios was performed as part of system integration. Radio services for the JPL SDR were developed during system...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIO EQUIPMENT, SPACE COMMUNICATION, SYSTEMS INTEGRATION,...
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The Chandra X-ray Observatory, the third of NASA's four Great Observatories and its flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, was launched by NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray sources were observed on August 12, 1999. The brightest of these sources named Leon X-1 in honor of Chandra's Telescope Scientist who played the leading role in establishing the key to Chandra's great advance in angular resolution. Over the past years, the Observatory's ability to provide sub-arc...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X RAY ASTROPHYSICS FACILITY, SPACEBORNE ASTRONOMY, X RAY...
The Saharan air layer (SAL) has received considerable attention in recent years as a potential negative influence on the formation and development of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Observations of substantial Saharan dust in the near environment of Hurricane Helene (2006) during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (AMMA) Experiment (NAMMA) field campaign led to suggestions about the suppressing influence of the SAL in this case. In...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HURRICANES, SAHARA DESERT (AFRICA), TROPICAL STORMS, DUST...
Repeated measurements of the composition of the Mars atmosphere from Curiosity Rover yield a (40)Ar/N2 ratio 1.7 times greater and the (40)Ar/(36)Ar ratio 1.6 times smaller than the Viking Lander values in 1976. The unexpected change in (40)Ar/N2 ratio probably results from different instrument characteristics although we cannot yet rule out some unknown atmospheric process. The new (40)Ar/(36)Ar ratio is more aligned with Martian meteoritic values. Besides Ar and N2 the Sample Analysis at Mars...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARS ATMOSPHERE, ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CURIOSITY ROVER,...
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The Canadian VLBI Technology Development Center (TDC) is involved in activities related to the realization of the VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS).
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VERY LONG BASE INTERFEROMETRY, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS),...
An experimental study is carried out addressing the flowfield and radiated noise from the interaction of a large aspect ratio rectangular jet with a flat plate placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. Sound pressure level spectra exhibit an increase in the noise levels for both the 'reflected' and 'shielded' sides of the plate relative to the free-jet case. Detailed cross-sectional distributions of flowfield properties obtained by hot-wire anemometry are documented for a low...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FREE JETS, FLAT PLATES, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, VELOCITY...
Exoplanets are often associated with disks of dust and debris, analogs of the Kuiper Belt in our solar system. These "debris disks" show a variety of non-trivial structures attributed to planetary perturbations and utilized to constrain the properties of the planets. However, analyses of these systems have largely ignored the fact that, increasingly, debris disks are found to contain small quantities of gas, a component all debris disks should contain at some level. Several debris...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDRODYNAMICS, DEBRIS, ECCENTRICITY, BODIES OF REVOLUTION,...
This report summarizes activities during 2012 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staff supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VERY LONG BASE INTERFEROMETRY, ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS),...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PACKING DENSITY, LUNAR ROCKS, REGOLITH, PARTICLE PRODUCTION,...
We investigate the drift paths of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere by tracing their motion through a model magnetic field. Test particle simulations solving the full Lorentz force show a quasi-trapped energetic particle population that gradient and curvature drift around the planet via "Shabansky" orbits, passing though high latitudes in the compressed dayside by equatorial latitudes on the nightside. Due to their large gyroradii, energetic H+ and Na+ ions will typically...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENERGETIC PARTICLES, MERCURY (PLANET), CHARGED PARTICLES,...
A number of methods have been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for eduction of the acoustic impedance of sound-absorbing liners mounted in the wall of a flow duct. This investigation uses methods based on the Pridmore-Brown and convected Helmholtz equations to study the acoustic behavior of a single-layer, conventional liner fabricated by the German Aerospace Center and tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. Two key assumptions are explored in this portion of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAZING FLOW, ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE, DUCTS, LININGS, UNIFORM...
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The plasma spheroidization system (PSS) is the first process in the development of tungsten-uranium dioxide (W-UO2) fuel cermets. The PSS process improves particle spherocity and surface morphology for coating by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Angular fully dense particles melt in an argon-hydrogen plasma jet at between 32-36 kW, and become spherical due to surface tension. Surrogate CeO2 powder was used in place of UO2 for system and process parameter development. Particles range in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUCLEAR PROPULSION, CERMETS, HYDROGEN PLASMA, URANIUM OXIDES,...
Accurate prediction of coupled fluid slosh and launch vehicle or spacecraft dynamics (e.g., nutation/precessional movement about various axes, attitude changes, ect.) requires Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models calibrated with low-gravity, long duration slosh data. Recently completed investigations of reduced gravity slosh behavior have demonstrated the limitations of utilizing parabolic flights on specialized aircraft with respect to the specific objectives of the experiments. Although...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIQUID SLOSHING, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FUEL TANKS,...
The goal of this study was to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) installed in Node 3. Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WASTE WATER, DROPS (LIQUIDS), DROP SIZE, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
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This program is a Microsoft Access program that performed statistical analysis of the colony counts from assays performed on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft to determine the bioburden density, 3-sigma biodensity, and the total bioburdens required for the MSL prelaunch reports. It also contains numerous tools that report the data in various ways to simplify the reports required. The program performs all the calculations directly in the MS Access program. Prior to this development,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLANETARY PROTECTION, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ASSAYING, MARS...
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, REYNOLDS AVERAGING,...
Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ITT Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MIRRORS, ULTRAVIOLET TELESCOPES, FABRICATION, LOW WEIGHT,...
NASA policy requires each Program or Project to develop a plan for how they will address Lessons Learned. Projects have the flexibility to determine how best to promote and implement lessons learned. A large project might budget for a lessons learned position to coordinate elicitation, documentation and archival of the project lessons. The lessons learned process crosses all NASA Centers and includes the contactor community. o The Office of The Chief Engineer at NASA Headquarters in Washington...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE SYSTEMS, GROUND OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM,...
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RUNWAY INCURSIONS, MANEUVERS, COLLISION AVOIDANCE, AIR...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC BATTERIES, METAL IONS, ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS,...
On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATERIALS HANDLING, HABITATS, WORKSTATIONS, MICROGRAVITY,...
Preparation of lunar samples 74220,861 was discussed in detail in [3, 4]. Our analysis sequence was as follows: optical microscopy, UV fluorescence imaging, -Raman, FESEM-EDX imaging and mapping, FETEMEDX imaging and mapping of a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) extracted section, and NanoSIMs analysis. We observed fluffytextured C-rich regions of interest (ROI) on three different volcanic glass beads. Each ROI was several m2 in size and fluoresced when exposed to UV. Using FESEM/EDX, the largest ROI...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR ROCKS, AMORPHOUS MATERIALS, LUNAR SOIL, BRECCIA,...
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Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROBRAKING, AUTONOMY, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS, ALGORITHMS,...
Here we present our analysis of the near- and mid-infrared spectral properties of pyroclastic deposits within the floor fractured Oppenheimer Crater that are hypothesized to be Vulcanian in origin. These are the first results of our global study of lunar pyroclastic deposits aimed at constraining the range of eruption processes on the Moon. In the near-infrared, we have employed a new method of spectral analysis developed in Horgan et al. (2013) of the 1 ?m iron absorption band in Chandrayaan-1...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MINERALOGY, SPECTRUM ANALYSIS, PYROXENES, CRATERS, IRON,...
NASA has used aerobraking at Mars and Venus to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit compared to an all-propulsive solution. Although aerobraking reduces the propellant, it does so at the expense of mission duration, large staff, and DSN coverage. These factors make aerobraking a significant cost element in the mission design. By moving on-board the current ground-based tasks of ephemeris determination, atmospheric density estimation, and maneuver sizing and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROBRAKING, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS, ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY,...
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This innovation is a tool used to verify and validate spacecraft sequences at the predicted events file (PEF) level for the GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, see http://www.nasa. gov/mission_pages/grail/main/index. html) mission as part of the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Team (MPST) operations process to reduce the possibility for errors. This tool is used to catch any sequence related errors or issues immediately after the seqgen modeling to streamline downstream...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MISSION PLANNING, ERRORS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SEQUENCING,...
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An algorithm has been developed to take advantage of the graphics processing hardware in modern computers to efficiently compute high-fidelity solar pressure forces and torques on spacecraft, taking into account the possibility of self-shading due to the articulation of spacecraft components such as solar arrays. The process is easily extended to compute other results that depend on three-dimensional attitude analysis, such as solar array power generation or free molecular flow drag. The impact...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PRESSURE EFFECTS, RADIATION PRESSURE, ILLUMINANCE, SOLAR...
This study presents an approximate model for the atypical Schumann resonance in Titan's atmosphere that accounts for the observations of electromagnetic waves and the measurements of atmospheric conductivity performed with the Huygens Atmospheric Structure and Permittivity, Wave and Altimetry (HASI-PWA) instrumentation during the descent of the Huygens Probe through Titan's atmosphere in January 2005. After many years of thorough analyses of the collected data, several arguments enable us to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, RESONANCE, ATMOSPHERIC...
A sensor has been demonstrated that can measure distance over a total range of about 300 microns to an accuracy of about 0.1 nm (resolution of about 0.01 nm). This represents an exceptionally large dynamic range of operation - over 1,000,000. The sensor is optical in nature, and requires the attachment of a mirror to the object whose distance is being measured. This work resulted from actively developing a white light interferometric system to be used to measure the depths of defects in the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICHELSON INTERFEROMETERS, DYNAMIC RANGE, DISTANCE, PHASE...
Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCIES, SPACE COMMUNICATION, RADIOMETERS,...
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR) are operated in space to cool detectors of cosmic radiation to a few 10s of mK. A key element of the ADR is a superconducting magnet operating at about 0.3 K that is continually energized and de-energized in synchronism with a thermal switch, such that a piece of paramagnetic salt is alternately warm in a high magnetic field and cold in zero magnetic field. This causes the salt pill or refrigerant to cool, and it is able to suck heat from an object,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), YBCO SUPERCONDUCTORS, REFRIGERATORS, ADIABATIC...
Successful forecasting of energetic particle events in space weather models require algorithms for correctly predicting the spectrum of ions accelerated from a background population of charged particles. We present preliminary results from a model that diffusively accelerates particles at multiple shocks. Our basic approach is related to box models in which a distribution of particles is diffusively accelerated inside the box while simultaneously experiencing decompression through adiabatic...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PARTICLE ACCELERATION, SPACE WEATHER,...
Recent studies at NASA Ames Research Center have investigated the development and use of ground-based (air traffic controller) tools to manage and schedule air traffic in future terminal airspace. An exploratory study was undertaken to investigate the impacts that such tools (and concepts) could have on the flight-deck. Ten Boeing 747-400 crews flew eight optimized profile descents in the Los Angeles terminal airspace, while receiving scripted current day and futuristic speed clearances, to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, DESCENT, FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS, FLIGHT...
This paper presents an integrated approach to the modeling and control of aircraft with exible wings. The coupled aircraft rigid body dynamics with a high-order elastic wing model can be represented in a nite dimensional state-space form. Given a set of desired output covariance, a model reduction process is performed by using the weighted Modal Cost Analysis (MCA). A dynamic output feedback controller, which is designed based on the reduced-order model, is developed by utilizing output...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT CONTROL, AEROELASTIC RESEARCH WINGS, FLEXIBLE WINGS,...
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT, METEORITE COLLISIONS, LUNAR ATMOSPHERE,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR CORONA, SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD, SUN, SOLAR PHYSICS, SOLAR...
Motivated by the question of whether recent indications of decadal climate variability and a possible "climate shift" may have affected the global water balance, we examine evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) variability integrated over the global oceans and global land from three points of view-remotely sensed retrievals / objective analyses over the oceans, reanalysis vertically-integrated moisture convergence (MFC) over land, and land surface models forced with observations-based...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE, SATELLITE OBSERVATION, REMOTE SENSING,...
Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLASMASPHERE, HYDROGEN IONS, TEMPERATURE RATIO, HELIUM IONS,...
This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENGINE NOISE, NOISE INTENSITY, NOISE REDUCTION,...
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The Objectives of this work are: 1) Establish a range of probe atmospheric entry environments based on the Uranus Flagship mission outlined in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey for two launch windows: Year 2021 and 2034. 2) Define Uranus entry trade space by performing parametric studies, by varying vehicle mass and size and entry Flight Path Angle (FPA). 3) Investigate various trajectory options, including direct ballistic entry and aero-capture entry. 4) Identify entry technologies that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY, URANUS (PLANET), DESCENT TRAJECTORIES,...
We present an analysis of the spatial distribution of star formation in a sample of 60 visually identified galaxy merger candidates at z greater than 1. Our sample, drawn from the 3D-HST survey, is flux-limited and was selected to have high star formation rates based on fits of their broad-band, low spatial resolution spectral energy distributions. It includes plausible pre-merger (close pairs) and post-merger (single objects with tidal features) systems,with total stellar masses and star...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, STAR FORMATION RATE, GALACTIC...
This report documents message latencies observed over various Live, Virtual, Constructive, (LVC) simulation environment configurations designed to emulate possible system architectures for the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project integrated tests. For each configuration, four scenarios with progressively increasing air traffic loads were used to determine system throughput and bandwidth impacts on message latency.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, VIRTUAL REALITY, SYSTEMS...
The effective maintenance of air quality aboard spacecraft cabins will be vital to future human exploration missions. A key component will be the air cleaning filtration system which will need to remove a broad size range of particles including skin flakes, hair and clothing fibers, other biological matter, and particulate matter derived from material and equipment wear. In addition, during surface missions any extraterrestrial planetary dust, including dust generated by near-by ISRU equipment,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FILTRATION, DUST, AIR QUALITY, AIR PURIFICATION, SPACECRAFT...
We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguish- ing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we nd a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the ndings of previous C star searches in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), METALLICITY, CARBON STARS, METALLIC STARS, ASYMPTOTIC GIANT...
Delta Ori is the nearest massive, single-lined eclipsing binary (O9.5 II + B0.5III). As such it serves as a fundamental calibrator of the mass-radius-luminosity relation in the upper HR diagram. It is also the only eclipsing O-type binary system which is bright enough to be observable with the CHANDRA gratings in a reasonable exposure. Studies of resolved X-ray line complexes provide tracers of wind mass loss rate and clumpiness; occultation by the X-ray dark companion of the line emitting...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ECLIPSING BINARY STARS, O STARS, X RAY ASTRONOMY, STELLAR...
We present the largest-scale comparison to date between observed extragalactic X-ray binary (XRB) populations and theoretical models of their production. We construct observational X-ray luminosity functions (oXLFs) using Chandra observations of 12 late-type galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy, we obtain theoretical XLFs (tXLFs) by combining XRB synthetic models, constructed with the population synthesis code StarTrack, with observational star...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X RAY BINARIES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, GALAXIES, STELLAR...
In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLOUD PHYSICS, AIR WATER INTERACTIONS, MODIS (RADIOMETRY),...
Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPATIAL RESOLUTION, WATER COLOR, ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION,...
This innovation is capable of significantly reducing the amount of time required to stabilize the strain-temperature response of a shape memory alloy (SMA). Unlike traditional stabilization processes that take days to weeks to achieve stabilized response, this innovation accomplishes stabilization in a matter of minutes, thus making it highly useful for the successful and practical implementation of SMA-based technologies in real-world applications. The innovation can also be applied to complex...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS, ISOTHERMAL PROCESSES, THERMODYNAMICS,...
Almahata Sitta (AS) is a polymict breccia mainly composed of various ureilite lithologies with lesser chondritic lithologies [1]. In the ureilite lithologies, Fe metal is a common accessory phase present either as large grain boundary grains or small particles formed by reduction of olivine and pyroxene. In our earlier studies on grain boundary metals in one of AS fragments (#44) we found unique features never seen in other ureilites [2,3]. In order to further characterize these metal grains,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRECCIA, UREILITES, IRON, COOLING, CHONDRITES, METALS,...
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The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VEGETABLES, MICROGRAVITY, FERTILIZERS, CREW PROCEDURES...
An anti-vortex baffle is a liquid propellant management device placed adjacent to an outlet of the propellant tank. Its purpose is to substantially reduce or eliminate the formation of free surface dip and vortex, as well as prevent vapor ingestion into the outlet, as the liquid drains out through the flight. To design an effective anti-vortex baffle, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were undertaken for the NASA Ares I vehicle LOX tank subjected to the simulated flight loads with...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, BAFFLES, VORTICES, LIQUID...
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Future manned missions to deep space or planetary surfaces will undoubtedly require highly robust, efficient, and regenerable life support systems that require minimal consumables. To meet this requirement, NASA continues to explore a Bosch-based carbon dioxide reduction system to recover oxygen from CO2. In order to improve the equivalent system mass of Bosch systems, we seek to design and test a "Series Bosch" system in which two reactors in series are optimized for the two steps of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS, CARBON DIOXIDE, CONSUMABLES...
Due to their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates, silicone elastomers are the only class of flight qualified elastomer materials that currently meet NASA's needs for various seal applications, which include docking and hatch seals for future space exploration vehicles. However, silicone elastomers are naturally sticky and exhibit sizeable adhesion when mated against metals and other silicone surfaces. This undesirable adhesion can make undocking spacecraft or opening a hatch...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, ELASTOMERS, SEALS (STOPPERS),...
An altitude test facility was modeled using Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). This altitude test facility model represents the most detailed facility model developed in the NPSS architecture. The current paper demonstrates the use of the NPSS system to define the required operating range of a component for the facility. A significant number of additional component models were easily developed to complete the model. Discussed in this paper are the additional components developed and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALTITUDE TESTS, PROPULSION, TEST FACILITIES, OBJECT-ORIENTED...
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VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FABRICS, MOISTURE, MOISTURE CONTENT, VEGETATION GROWTH,...
As part of U.S. National Space Policy, NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. NASA is laying the groundwork to enable humans to safely reach multiple potential destinations, including asteroids, Lagrange points, the Moon and Mars. In support of this, NASA is embarking on the Technology Demonstration Mission Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (TDM CPST) Project to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROPELLANT STORAGE, CRYOGENIC ROCKET PROPELLANTS, CRYOGENIC...
The Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ULTRAVIOLET TELESCOPES, THERMAL STABILITY, APERTURES,...
Spacecraft and launch vehicle ground processing activities require a variety of unique human activities. These activities are being documented in a primitive motion capture library. The library will be used by human factors engineering analysts to infuse real to life human activities into the CAD models to verify ground systems human factors requirements. As the primitive models are being developed for the library, the project has selected several current human factors issues to be addressed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND CREWS, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, POSTURE,...
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This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FABRICATION, POLARIZERS, WIRE, MESH, POLARIMETRY, COSMIC...
A systematic study of crack tip interaction with grain boundaries is critical for improvement of multiscale modeling of microstructurally-sensitive fatigue crack propagation and for the computationally-assisted design of more durable materials. In this study, single, bi- and large-grain multi-crystal specimens of an aluminum-copper alloy are fabricated, characterized using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and deformed under tensile loading and nano-indentation. 2D image correlation...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAIN BOUNDARIES, CRACK TIPS, CRACK PROPAGATION, FATIGUE...
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It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions. These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR CYCLES, SOLAR ACTIVITY EFFECTS, SPACECRAFT CHARGING,...
High inclination orbits during Cassini's solstice mission (2012) are providing us with our first observations of Saturn's high latitudes since the prime mission (2007). Since that time, the northern spring pole has emerged into sunlight and the southern autumn pole has disappeared into winter darkness, allowing us to study the seasonal changes occurring within the polar vortices in response to these dramatic insolation changes. Observations from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer] have...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATURN (PLANET), POLAR CAPS, SEASONS, ANNUAL VARIATIONS,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERCOMPUTERS, COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAMS, MEMORY...
Atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios from the Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project are applied to six three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale and to inform future modeling and field studies. Results indicate (i) growth with warming, except within low-latitude basins (where inland thickening is outpaced by marginal thinning); (ii) mass loss with enhanced sliding (with basins...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANTARCTIC REGIONS, LAND ICE, SEA LEVEL, THREE DIMENSIONAL...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), participating carriers, and labor organizations. It is designed to improve the National Airspace System by collecting and studying reports detailing unsafe conditions and events in the aviation industry. Employees are able to report safety issues or concerns with confidentiality and without fear of discipline. Safety reports...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CIVIL AVIATION, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, FLIGHT SAFETY,...
Disordered thin film SiO2SiOx coatings undergoing electron-beam bombardment exhibit cathodoluminescence, which can produce deleterious stray background light in cryogenic space-based astronomical observatories exposed to high-energy electron fluxes from space plasmas. As future observatory missions push the envelope into more extreme environments and more complex and sensitive detection, a fundamental understanding of the dependencies of this cathodoluminescence becomes critical to meet...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SILICON DIOXIDE, ELECTRON BEAMS, ELECTRON BOMBARDMENT,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION, SPACE TRANSPORTATION, LINEAR...
Future lunar, Mars, asteroid, and comet sample return missions may collect samples that have been preserved at sub-freezing or even cryogenic temperatures. For such samples, the study of volatiles and temperature-sensitive minerals will have high priority. Valuable geochemical and mineralogical information will be lost if such samples are allowed to reach ambient temperatures on Earth. The ability to store, document, subdivide, and transport extraterrestrial geologic samples while maintaining...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURE, SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS, MINERALOGY,...
The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS, RADAR DATA, RADIO FREQUENCIES, RADAR...
We have measured the meridional motions of magnetic elements observed in the photosphere over sunspot cycles 23 and 24 using magnetograms from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. Our measurements confirm the finding of Komm, Howard, and Harvey (1993) that the poleward meridional flow weakens at cycle maxima. Our high spatial and temporal resolution analyses show that this variation is in the form of a superimposed inflow toward the active latitudes. This inflow is weaker in cycle 24 when compared to the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MERIDIONAL FLOW, ACTIVE CONTROL, LATITUDE, SUNSPOT CYCLE,...
The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AUTONOMY, CRYOGENICS, CRYOGENIC FLUIDS, LOADING OPERATIONS,...
Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROELASTICITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DYNAMIC...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROPULSION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS, PROPULSION SYSTEM...
The ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and ITT Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make 4m monolithic spaceflight...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MIRRORS, ULTRAVIOLET TELESCOPES, ASTROPHYSICS, IMAGING...
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Advanced Ultraviolet, Optical, Near-Infrared (UVOIR) Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Testing Summary: (1) Processing of the stacked core mirror converged very quickly using ion figuring. (2) Results show no significant PSD change due to ion figuring in spatial periods smaller than 20mm. (3) Global surface figure limited by mount repeatability
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MIRRORS, STACKS, ULTRAVIOLET TELESCOPES, PERFORMANCE TESTS,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALTERNATIVES, COATINGS, CORROSION PREVENTION, FIELD TESTS,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING, LAUNCH VEHICLES, ROCKET LAUNCHING,...
A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR POWER SATELLITES, EARTH ORBITS, GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBITS,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OBSERVATORIES, AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, FAR ULTRAVIOLET...
Spacecraft parachute recovery systems, especially those with a parachute cluster, require testing to identify and reduce failures. This is especially important when the spacecraft in question is human-rated. Due to the recent effort to make spaceflight affordable, the importance of determining a minimum requirement for testing has increased. The number of tests required to achieve a mature design, with a relatively constant failure rate, can be estimated from a review of previous complex...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RECOVERY PARACHUTES, SPACECRAFT RECOVERY, SYSTEM FAILURES,...
The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTRATERRESTRIAL WATER, MARS SURFACE, PLANETARY GEOLOGY,...
The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover detected both reduced and oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during the pyrolysis of surface materials from three sites at Gale Crater. Preliminary detections of nitrogen species include NO, HCN, ClCN, CH3CN, and TFMA (trifluoro-Nmethyl-acetamide). On Earth, nitrogen is a crucial bio-element, and nitrogen availability controls productivity in many environments. Nitrogen has also recently...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NITROGEN, MARS SURFACE, MARS SURFACE SAMPLES, METEORITIC...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OBSERVATORIES, PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, SPACE WEATHER, UPPER...
There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS, CARBON ISOTOPES, METHANE, ISOTOPES,...
In a series of study tasks conducted as a part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Rotary Wing Project, Boeing and Rolls-Royce explored propulsion, drive, and rotor system options for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR2) concept vehicle. The original objective of this study was to identify engine and drive system configurations to reduce rotor tip speed during cruise conditions and quantify the associated benefits. Previous NASA studies concluded that reducing rotor speed (from 650...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TILT ROTOR AIRCRAFT, ENGINE DESIGN, ROTARY WINGS, ROTOR...
The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover sampled the aeolian bedform called Rocknest as its first solid samples to be analyzed by the analytical instruments CheMin and SAM. The instruments ingested aliquots from a sieved sample of less than 150 micrometer grains. As discussed in other reports at this conference [e.g., 1], CheMin discovered many crystalline phases, almost all of which are igneous minerals, plus some 10s of percent of x-ray amorphous material. The SAM instrument is focused on...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROGEN ISOTOPES, HYDROGEN, MARS ATMOSPHERE, MARS SCIENCE...
The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Analysis Team is responsible for determining parachute inflation parameters and dispersions that are ultimately used in verifying system requirements. A model memo is internally released semi-annually documenting parachute inflation and other key parameters reconstructed from flight test data. Dispersion probability distributions published in previous versions of the model memo were uniform because insufficient data were available for determination...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT TESTS, PARACHUTES, SPACE CAPSULES, STATISTICAL...
A software prototype allows users to backup and restore data to/from both public and private cloud storage such as Amazon's S3 and NASA's Nebula. Unlike other off-the-shelf tools, this software ensures user data security in the cloud (through encryption), and minimizes users operating costs by using space- and bandwidth-efficient compression and incremental backup. Parallel data processing utilities have also been developed by using massively scalable cloud computing in conjunction with cloud...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLOUD COMPUTING, COMPUTER INFORMATION SECURITY, DATA...
Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MODIS (RADIOMETRY), REMOTE SENSING, SPATIAL RESOLUTION,...
A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE SUITS, LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS, VENTILATION, ENVIRONMENTAL...
Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FABRICS, ROBOTICS, ROBOTS, SHAPES, TEXTILES, SHAPE CONTROL,...
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This report describes Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) models for a diverse set of fault-tolerant, embedded data networks and describes the methods and tools used to created these models. It also includes error models per the AADL Error Annex. Some networks were modeled using Error Detection Isolation Containment Types (EDICT). This report gives a brief description for each of the networks, a description of its modeling, the model itself, and evaluations of the tools used for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FAULT TOLERANCE, ERROR ANALYSIS, DETECTION, EMBEDDING,...
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This document specifies the data interface for TSAFE, the Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment. TSAFE is a research prototype of a software application program for alerting air traffic controllers to imminent conflicts in enroute airspace. It is intended for Air Route Traffic Control Centers ("Centers") in the U.S. National Airspace System. It predicts trajectories for approximately 3 minutes into the future, searches for conflicts, and sends data about predicted conflicts...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM, TRAJECTORIES,...
In the design of flight control systems for large flexible boosters, it is common practice to utilize active feedback control of the first lateral structural bending mode so as to suppress transients and reduce gust loading. Typically, active stabilization or phase stabilization is achieved by carefully shaping the loop transfer function in the frequency domain via the use of compensating filters combined with the frequency response characteristics of the nozzle/actuator system. In this paper...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIGITAL FILTERS, CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN, BENDING, ACTIVE...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLIMATE, HUMIDITY, PUBLIC HEALTH, HEAT, ATMOSPHERIC GENERAL...
The Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity, far exceeded their original drive distance expectations and have traveled, at the time of this reporting, a combined 29 kilometers across the surface of Mars. The Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program (RSVP), the current program used to plan drives for MERs, is only a kinematic simulator of rover movement. Therefore, rover response to various terrains and soil types cannot be modeled. Although sandbox experiments attempt to model...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ROVING VEHICLES, DYNAMIC MODELS, TERRAIN, SIMULATORS, MARS...
The Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS) was developed to increase access to space while simplifying the integration process of miniature satellites, called nanosats or cubesats, onto launch vehicles. A standard cubesat measures about 4inches (10 cm) long, 4 inches wide,and 4 inches high, and is called a one-unit (1U) cubesat. A single NLAS provides the capability to deploy 24U of cubesats. The system is designed to accommodate satellites measuring 1U, 1.5U, 2U, 3U and 6U sizes for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NANOSATELLITES, DISPENSERS, ADAPTERS, LAUNCH VEHICLES,...
NASA, military, and commercial satellite users need launch services that are highly reliable, less complex, easier to test, and cost effective. This project has developed a tapered optical fiber sensor for detecting hydrogen. The invention involves incorporating chemical indicators on the tapered end of an optical fiber using organically modified silicate nanomaterials. The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GAS DETECTORS, LEAKAGE, HYDROGEN, CRYOGENIC FLUIDS, THERMAL...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUCLEAR REACTORS, MASS FLOW RATE, NUCLEAR FISSION,...