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We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X RAY BINARIES, STELLAR MASS, STAR FORMATION, X RAY SOURCES,...
Space-based microwave sensors have been available for several decades, and with time more frequencies have been offered. Observations made at frequencies between 7 and 183 GHz were often used for monitoring cryospheric properties (e.g. sea ice concentration, snow accumulation, snow melt extent and duration). Since 2009, satellite observations are available at the low frequency of 1.4 GHz. Such observations are collected by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIOMETERS, SCATTEROMETERS, SEA ICE, CRYOSPHERES, MICROWAVE...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR LIMB, EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, SOLAR RADIATION,...
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Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL COATINGS, FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, PROGRESS,...
A comparison is made of a Solar Power Satellite concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a Concentrating Solar Power system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR POWER SATELLITES, EARTH ORBITS, GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBITS,...
Many physiological, environmental, and operational risks exist for crewmembers during spaceflight. An understanding of these risks from an integrated perspective is required to provide effective and efficient mitigations during future exploration missions that typically have stringent limitations on resources available, such as mass, power, and crew time. The Human Research Program (HRP) is in the early stages of developing collaborative modeling approaches for the purposes of managing its...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RISK, PHYSIOLOGY, CREWS, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, MANAGEMENT...
The requirement that physical quantities not vary with a hybrid LESRANS model's blending parameter imposes conditions on the computation that lead to better results across LES-RANS transitions. This promises to allow placement of those transitions so that LES is performed only where required by the physics, improving computational efficiency. The approach is applied to separated flow past periodic hills, where good predictions of separation-bubble size are seen due to the gradual, controlled,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, SEPARATED FLOW, EDDY VISCOSITY,...
Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in geostationary orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, OPTICAL THICKNESS, SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE,...
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VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FABRICS, MOISTURE, MOISTURE CONTENT, VEGETATION GROWTH,...
Following the failure of 44 Progress (44P) on launch in August 2011, and the subsequent grounding of all Russian Soyuz rocket based launches, the International Space Station (ISS) ground teams engaged in an effort to determine how long the ISS could remain crewed, what would be required to safely configure the ISS for decrewing, and what would be required to recrew the ISS upon resumption of Soyuz rocket launches if decrewing became necessary. This White Paper was written to capture the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, SPACECREWS, PRIORITIES, REAL...
Using ALMA observations of the Galactic center with a spatial resolution of 2.61" x 0.97 ", we detected 11 SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas in the within 0.6pc (15") of Sgr A*, interior of the 2-pc circumnuclear molecular ring. Three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities of approximately 150 kilometers per second and broadest asymmetric linewidths with total linewidths FWZI approximately 110-147 kilometers per second. Other clumps are distributed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SILICON DIOXIDE, BLACK HOLES (ASTRONOMY), MOLECULAR CLOUDS,...
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It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions. These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR CYCLES, SOLAR ACTIVITY EFFECTS, SPACECRAFT CHARGING,...
Disclosed herein is a textured substrate comprising a base comprising silicon, the base having a plurality of needle like structures depending away from the base, wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a depth of greater than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined perpendicular to the base, and wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a width of less than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined parallel to the base. An anode and a lithium ion battery...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SILICON, METAL IONS, CRYOGENICS, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, ETCHING,...
The isotopic compositions of elements are often used to characterize nucelosynthetic contributions in early Solar System objects. Coordinated multiple middle-mass elements with differing volatilities may provide information regarding the location of condensation of early Solar System solids. Here we detail new procedures that we have developed to make high-precision multi-isotope measurements of chromium and calcium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and characterize a suite of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHONDRITES, CHROMIUM ISOTOPES, CALCIUM ISOTOPES, METEORITIC...
On the Moon, the energetics of smaller impactors and the physical/chemical characteristics of the granular regolith target combine to form a key product of lunar space weathering: chemically reduced shock melts containing optically-active nanophase Fe metal grains (npFe0) [1]. In addition to forming the optically dark glassy matrix phase in lunar agglutinitic soil particles [1], these shock melts are becoming increasingly recognized for their contribution to optically active patina coatings on...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IMPACT MELTS, AGGLUTINATION, LUNAR ROCKS, X RAY SOURCES,...
Analyze new coil configurations with maturing superconductor technology -Develop vehicle-level concept solutions and identify engineering challenges and risks -Shielding performance analysis Recent advances in superconducting magnet technology and manufacturing have opened the door for re-evaluating active shielding solutions as an alternative to mass prohibitive passive shielding.Publications on static magnetic field environments and its bio-effects were reviewed. Short-term exposure...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION SHIELDING, MANUFACTURING, SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS,...
The Sutter's Mill meteorite fell in N. California on April 22, 2012 and numerous pieces have been recovered and studied. We present Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of fragments from several stones of the meteorite. Methods and analysis: Infrared spectra of the samples were recorded with a Nicolet iN10 MX FTIR microscope in the mid-IR range (4000-675/cm; spectral resolution 4/cm). All samples were deposited on a clean glass slide, crushed with a stainless steel roller tool, and placed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), METEORITES, CARBONATES, SILICATES, METEORITIC COMPOSITION,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATELLITE OBSERVATION, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, DATA...
We compare the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved by the near-UV two-channel algorithm (OMAERUV) applied to the Aura-Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements with an equivalent inversion made by the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). This work is the first comprehensive effort to globally compare the OMI-retrieved SSA with that of AERONET using all available sites spanning the regions of biomass burning, dust, and urban pollution. An analysis of the co-located...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, ALBEDO, ELECTROMAGNETIC ABSORPTION, NEAR...
Long-term, global offline (land-only) simulations with a dynamic vegetation phenology model are used to examine the control of hydroclimate over vegetation-related quantities. First, with a control simulation, the model is shown to capture successfully (though with some bias) key observed relationships between hydroclimate and the spatial and temporal variations of phenological expression. In subsequent simulations, the model shows that: (i) the global spatial variation of seasonal phenological...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROL SIMULATION, DYNAMIC MODELS, VEGETATION, PHENOLOGY,...
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The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIAMOND FILMS, NUCLEATION, METALORGANIC CHEMICAL VAPOR...
Context. We investigate iPTF13bvn, a core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5806. This object was discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) very close to the estimated explosion date and was classified as a stripped-envelope CC SN, likely of Type Ib. Furthermore, a possible progenitor detection in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images was reported, making this the only SN Ib with such an identification. Based on the luminosity and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERNOVAE, COLLAPSE, SPIRAL GALAXIES, WOLF-RAYET STARS,...
The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched into a highly elliptical orbit that does not possess sufficient energy to achieve a proper Sun-Earth L2 libration point orbit. Three mid-course correction (MCC) maneuvers are planned to rectify the energy deficit: MCC-1a, MCC-1b, and MCC-2. To validate the propellant budget and trajectory design methods, a set of Monte Carlo analyses that incorporate MCC maneuver modeling and execution are employed. The first analysis focuses on the effects of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE, LIBRATION, ELLIPTICAL ORBITS,...
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An algorithm has been developed to take advantage of the graphics processing hardware in modern computers to efficiently compute high-fidelity solar pressure forces and torques on spacecraft, taking into account the possibility of self-shading due to the articulation of spacecraft components such as solar arrays. The process is easily extended to compute other results that depend on three-dimensional attitude analysis, such as solar array power generation or free molecular flow drag. The impact...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PRESSURE EFFECTS, RADIATION PRESSURE, ILLUMINANCE, SOLAR...
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The Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is a family of airborne systems designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS~II, the current generation of TCAS devices, provides resolution advisories that direct pilots to maintain or increase vertical separation when aircraft distance and time parameters are beyond designed system thresholds. This paper presents a mathematical model of the TCAS~II Resolution Advisory (RA) logic that assumes accurate aircraft...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, COLLISION AVOIDANCE, DETECTION, WARNING...
Ground System Supply Chain Requirements Flow-Down for the Joint Polar Satellite System.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES, GROUND OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM,...
NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANOMALIES, AUTONOMY, DEEP SPACE, HABITATS, SPACE EXPLORATION,...
The focus of the Living With a Star (LWS) Space Environment Testbed (SET) program is to improve the performance of hardware in the space radiation environment. The program has developed a payload for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) spacecraft that is scheduled for launch in August 2015 on the SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. The primary structure of DSX is an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. DSX will...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION, MILITARY...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTRONOMY, CONSTELLATIONS, STARS, MOON, PLANETS, ECLIPTIC,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REMOTE SENSING, AEROSOLS, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, AIR...
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John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER SATELLITE, COSMIC MICROWAVE...
International Space Station (ISS) Structural and Mechanical Systems Manager, requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide a quantitative assessment of commercially available nondestructive evaluation (NDE) instruments for potential application to the ISS. This work supports risk mitigation as outlined in the ISS Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) Watch Item #4669, which addresses the requirement for structural integrity after an ISS pressure wall leak in the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, MICROMETEOROIDS, NONDESTRUCTIVE...
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This paper presents a Cabin Environment Physics Risk (CEPR) model that predicts the time for an initial failure of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functionality to propagate into a hazardous environment and trigger a loss-of-crew (LOC) event. This physics-of failure model allows a probabilistic risk assessment of a crewed spacecraft to account for the cabin environment, which can serve as a buffer to protect the crew during an abort from orbit and ultimately enable a safe...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CABIN ATMOSPHERES, RISK ASSESSMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL,...
Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPOSITE MATERIALS, MECHANICAL DRIVES, CORRELATION,...
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on International Space Station (SAGE3/ISS) is anticipated to be delivered to Cape Canaveral in the spring of 2015. This is the fourth generation, fifth instrument, of visible/near-IR solar occultation instruments operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. The instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. The nominal science products...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SAGE SATELLITE, INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, INFRARED...
Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RESEARCH FACILITIES, DATA ACQUISITION, DATA SYSTEMS,...
The Curiosity Rover landed on the Peace Vallis alluvial fan in Gale crater on August 5, 2012. A primary mission science objective is to search for past habitable environments, and, in particular, to assess the role of past water. Identifying the minerals and mineraloids that result from aqueous alteration at Gale crater is essential for understanding past aqueous processes at the MSL landing site and hence for interpreting the site's potential habitability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTRATERRESTRIAL WATER, MARS SURFACE, PLANETARY GEOLOGY,...
The objective of this study was to compare several approaches to soil moisture (SM) retrieval using L-band microwave radiometry. The comparison was based on a brightness temperature (TB) data set acquired since 2010 by the L-band radiometer ELBARA-II over a vineyard field at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site. ELBARA-II, provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) within the scientific program of the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, measures multiangular TB data at...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOIL MOISTURE, MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS, BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE,...
The thermal expansion and contraction of ring particles orbiting a planet or asteroid can cause secular orbit evolution. This effect, called here the thermal expansion effect, depends on ring particles entering and exiting the shadow of the body they orbit. A particle cools off in the shadow and heats up again in the sunshine, suffering thermal contraction and expansion. The changing cross-section it presents to solar radiation pressure plus time lags due to thermal inertia lead to a net...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMAL EXPANSION, ASTEROIDS, SIZE DISTRIBUTION, SOLAR...
We present results for the single-event effect response of commercial production-level resistive random access memories. We found that the resistive memory arrays are immune to heavy ion-induced upsets. However, the devices were susceptible to single-event functional interrupts, due to upsets from the control circuits. The intrinsic radiation tolerant nature of resistive memory makes the technology an attractive consideration for future space applications.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY, SINGLE EVENT UPSETS, RADIATION...
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, REYNOLDS AVERAGING,...
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The Veggie plant/vegetable production system is scheduled to fly on ISS at the end of2013. Since much of the technology associated with Veggie has not been previously tested in microgravity, a hardware validation flight was initiated. This test will allow data to be collected about Veggie hardware functionality on ISS, allow crew interactions to be vetted for future improvements, validate the ability of the hardware to grow and sustain plants, and collect data that will be helpful to future...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VEGETABLES, MICROGRAVITY, FERTILIZERS, CREW PROCEDURES...
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A first material with a known maximum temperature of operation is coated with a second material on at least one surface of the first material. The coating has a melting temperature that is greater than the maximum temperature of operation of the first material. The coating is heated to its melting temperature until the coating flows into any cracks in the first material's surface.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MELTING, COATINGS, CRACKS, MAINTENANCE, PATENTS, INVENTIONS,...
Characterizing the nature of the solar coronal background would enable scientists to more accurately determine plasma parameters, and may lead to a better understanding of the coronal heating problem. Because scientists study the 3D structure of the Sun in 2D, any line of sight includes both foreground and background material, and thus, the issue of background subtraction arises. By investigating the intensity values in and around an active region, using multiple wavelengths collected from the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR CORONA, SUN, CORONAL LOOPS, LINE OF SIGHT, HEATING,...
Predictions about the future are contingent on future usage, but also on the quality of the models employed and the assessment of the current health state. These factors, amongst others, need to be considered to arrive at a prediction that is conducted through a rigorous method but where the confidence bounds are not prohibitively large.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INVENTORY MANAGEMENT, DECISION MAKING, PROBABILITY THEORY,...
Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center, is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Starting with a coarse grid, a series of successively finer grids...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, LANDING GEAR, NAVIER-STOKES...
A research program has been implemented to develop and validate the use of a commercial 3-D laser scanning system to record ice accretion geometry in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. A main component of the program was the geometric assessment of the 3- D laser scanning system on a 2-D (straight wing) and a 3-D (swept wing) airfoil geometries. This exercise consisted of comparison of scanned ice accretion to castings of the same ice accretion. The scan data were also used to create rapid...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROVING, ICE FORMATION, AIRCRAFT ICING, DIMENSIONAL...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE MISSIONS, LAUNCH VEHICLES, SAFETY, PROPELLANTS,...
Cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks is required for future NASA missions. A cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) can provide a closed-loop cooling system for this purpose and has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A neon CLHP was tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryopump as the heat sink to characterize its transient and steady performance and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOGENIC COOLING, HEAT PIPES, EVAPORATORS, AMBIENT...
Quiescent galaxies at zeta approximately 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 less than z less than 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to H(Beta) (lambda 4861 Angstroms), we...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BALMER SERIES, GALAXIES, STAR FORMATION, LINE SPECTRA,...
Demonstrated viability and utilization of: a) Fluidized powder bed. b) WCl6 CVD process. c) Coated spherical particles with tungsten. The highly corrosive nature of the WCl6 solid reagent limits material of construction. Indications that identifying optimized process variables with require substantial effort and will likely vary with changes in fuel requirements.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COATINGS, POWDER (PARTICLES), CORROSION, VAPOR DEPOSITION,...
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A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEART, BIOMETRICS, ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, PATENTS, POLARIZATION...
Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, DYNAMIC MODELS, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ROBOTICS, ROBOT DYNAMICS, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, SOFTWARE...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PHYSICAL EXERCISE, PHYSICAL FITNESS, INTERNATIONAL SPACE...
A method for targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds from hydrogels is presented. The method involves administering to a cell a hydrogel in which a therapeutic compound is noncovalently bound to heparin.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GELS, POLYMERS, POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES, CHEMOTHERAPY,...
As part of U.S. National Space Policy, NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. NASA is laying the groundwork to enable humans to safely reach multiple potential destinations, including asteroids, Lagrange points, the Moon and Mars. In support of this, NASA is embarking on the Technology Demonstration Mission Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (TDM CPST) Project to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROPELLANT STORAGE, CRYOGENIC ROCKET PROPELLANTS, CRYOGENIC...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING, LAUNCH VEHICLES, FLIGHT TESTS,...
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM, AIRCRAFT APPROACH SPACING,...
We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom, Lyman alpha, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66 less than z less than 1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LYMAN ALPHA RADIATION, GALAXIES, GRAVITATIONAL LENSES,...
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In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRAB NEBULA, GAMMA RAY BURSTS, LIGHT CURVE, PULSARS, X RAYS,...
Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTREMELY HIGH FREQUENCIES, SPACE COMMUNICATION, RADIOMETERS,...
Delta Ori is the nearest massive, single-lined eclipsing binary (O9.5 II + B0.5III). As such it serves as a fundamental calibrator of the mass-radius-luminosity relation in the upper HR diagram. It is also the only eclipsing O-type binary system which is bright enough to be observable with the CHANDRA gratings in a reasonable exposure. Studies of resolved X-ray line complexes provide tracers of wind mass loss rate and clumpiness; occultation by the X-ray dark companion of the line emitting...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ECLIPSING BINARY STARS, O STARS, X RAY ASTRONOMY, STELLAR...
A method for clock monitoring in a network is provided. The method comprises receiving a first network clock signal at a network device and comparing the first network clock signal to a local clock signal from a primary oscillator coupled to the network device.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REAL TIME OPERATION, TIME SYNCHRONIZATION, EMBEDDING,...
In recent years there has been a renewed interest for high temperature piezoelectrics for both terrestrial and aerospace applications. These applications are limited in part by the operating temperature, which is usually taken as one half of the Curie temperature (Tc), and is 200C for one of the most widely used commercial piezoelectrics, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). In an effort to increase Tc, subsequent research into high temperature Bi(BB)O3 PbTiO3 piezoelectrics led to the discovery of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS, DOPING (MATERIALS), DEPOLARIZATION,...
One of the major types of solar eruption, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) not only impact space weather, but also can have significant societal consequences. CMEs cause intense geomagnetic storms and drive fast mode shocks that accelerate charged particles, potentially resulting in enhanced radiation levels both in ions and electrons. Human and technological assets in space can be endangered as a result. CMEs are also the major contributor to generating large amplitude Geomagnetically Induced...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE WEATHER, FORECASTING, CORONAL MASS EJECTION, SOLAR...
An intelligent autonomous control capability has been developed and is currently being validated in ground cryogenic fluid management operations. The capability embodies a physical architecture consistent with typical launch infrastructure and control systems, augmented by a higher level autonomous control (AC) system enabled to make knowledge-based decisions. The AC system is supported by an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability that detects anomalies, diagnoses causes,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, AUTOMATIC CONTROL,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS, PHARMACOLOGY,...
Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (<10 µg/dL) have indicated associations of blood lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BONE DEMINERALIZATION, MICROGRAVITY, MINERALS, BLOOD,...
Impulse bits produced by conical theta-pinch inductive pulsed plasma thrusters possessing cone angles of 20deg, 38deg, and 60deg, were quantified for 500J/pulse operation by direct measurement using a hanging-pendulum thrust stand. All three cone angles were tested in single-pulse mode, with the 38deg model producing the highest impulse bits at roughly 1 mN-s operating on both argon and xenon propellants. A capacitor charging system, assembled to support repetitively-pulsed thruster operation,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERS, THETA PINCH, CIRCULAR CONES, PULSED...
Crew members face potential consequences following exposure to the space radiation environment including acute radiation syndrome and cancer. The space radiation environment is ample with protons, and numerous studies have been devoted to the understanding of the health consequences of proton exposures. In this project, C57BL/6 mice underwent whole-body exposure to 250 MeV of protons at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 6 Gy and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of each animal was dissected four hours...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GENE EXPRESSION, MICE, TISSUES (BIOLOGY), PROTON IRRADIATION,...
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Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECRAFT CHARGING, SPACECRAFT DESIGN, LOW EARTH ORBITS,...
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Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENZYMES, RIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, ALANINE, RESIDUES, IN VITRO...
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NASA needs a method of not only propelling and rotating small satellites, but also to track their position and orientation. We propose a concept that will, for the first time, demonstrate both tracking and propulsion simultaneously in the same system.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FORMATION FLYING, SATELLITE TRACKING, TRACKING (POSITION),...
Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIOGRAPHY, BACKSCATTERING, PENCIL BEAMS, COMPTON EFFECT, X...
A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FREQUENCY MODULATION, WAVEFORMS, LASER OUTPUTS,...
[1] We analyze the response of the North American Monsoon (NAM) to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing (emissions scenario RCP 8.5) using new simulations available through the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5). Changes in total monsoon season rainfall with GHG warming are small and insignificant. The models do, however, show significant declines in early monsoon season precipitation (June-July) and increases in late monsoon season (September-October) precipitation,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MONSOONS, GREENHOUSE EFFECT, EXHAUST GASES, HYDROCLIMATOLOGY,...
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are typically composed of translucent ceramic oxides that provide thermal protection for metallic components exposed to high-temperature environments in both air- and land-based turbine engines. For advanced turbine engines designed for higher temperature operation, a diagnostic capability for the health and performance of TBCs will be essential to indicate when a mitigating action needs to be taken before premature TBC failure threatens engine performance or...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CERAMICS, LUMINESCENCE, THERMAL CONTROL COATINGS,...
Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INFRARED INSTRUMENTS, NUMERICAL WEATHER FORECASTING, SCALE...
Thermal plasmaspheric densities and temperatures for five ion species have recently become available, even though these quantities were derived some time ago from the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite over the years 1981-1984. The quantitative properties will be presented. Densities are found to have one behavior with lessor statistical variation below about L=2 and another with much greater variability above that Lshell. Temperatures also have a behavior...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLASMASPHERE, HYDROGEN IONS, TEMPERATURE RATIO, HELIUM IONS,...
5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROMACHINING, ANTENNA ARRAYS, SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROORGANISMS, MICROBIOLOGY, BACTERIA, FUNGI, PATHOGENS,...
Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HOT-FILM ANEMOMETERS, HOT-WIRE ANEMOMETERS, BOUNDARY LAYER...
Conventional quantitative protein assays of bodily fluids typically involve multiple steps to obtain desired measurements. Such methods are not well suited for fast and accurate assay measurements in austere environments such as spaceflight and in the aftermath of disasters. Consequently, there is a need for a protein assay technology capable of routinely monitoring proteins in austere environments. For example, there is an immediate need for a urine protein assay to assess astronaut renal...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLASMONS, SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE, ASSAYING, PROTEINS,...
We demonstrated upconversion assisted detection of a 2.05-micron signal by sum frequency generation to generate a 700-nm light using a bulk periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The achieved 94% intrinsic upconversion efficiency and 22.58% overall detection efficiency at a pW level of 2.05 micron pave the path to detect extremely weak infrared (IR) signals for remote sensing applications.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY, SIGNAL DETECTION, REMOTE...
The second Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite mission currently planned by National Aeronautics and Space Administration will measure global ice topography and canopy height using the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System {ATLAS). The ATLAS comprises two lasers; but only one will be used at a time. Each laser will generate between 125 watts and 250 watts of heat, and each laser has its own optimal operating temperature that must be maintained within plus or minus 1 degree Centigrade...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMOSTATS, TOPOGRAPHY, LASER ALTIMETERS, LASERS,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLVENTS, CONTAMINANTS, ULTRASONIC CLEANING, CHEMICAL...
Solar and drag sail technology is entering the mainstream for space propulsion applications within NASA and around the world. Solar sails derive propulsion by reflecting sunlight from a large, mirror- like sail made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous sunlight pressure provides efficient primary propulsion, without the expenditure of propellant or any other consumable, allowing for very high V maneuvers and long-duration deep space exploration. Drag sails increase the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR SAILS, AERODYNAMIC DRAG, PROPULSION, TECHNOLOGY...
A number of methods have been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for eduction of the acoustic impedance of sound-absorbing liners mounted in the wall of a flow duct. This investigation uses methods based on the Pridmore-Brown and convected Helmholtz equations to study the acoustic behavior of a single-layer, conventional liner fabricated by the German Aerospace Center and tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. Two key assumptions are explored in this portion of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAZING FLOW, ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE, DUCTS, LININGS, UNIFORM...
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Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OXYGEN ATOMS, FAILURE, SPACECRAFT COMPONENTS, EXPOSURE, LOW...
We report Ar/Ar release patterns for small maskelynite grains and samples of a K-rich phase separated from the basaltic shergottite Zagami. The purpose of the work is to investigate the well-known discrepancy between published Ar/Ar ages of Zagami, >200 Ma, and its age of approx. 170 Ma as determined by other methods [1-6]. Niihara et al. [7] divide less abundant darker material present in Zagami into an olivine-rich lithology (ORL), from which most of our samples came, and a pyroxene-rich...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACHONDRITES, BASALT, OLIVINE, SHERGOTTITES, CRYSTALLIZATION,...
The objective of this paper is to describe an accurate and efficient reduced order modeling method for aeroelastic (AE) analysis and for determining the flutter boundary. Without losing accuracy, we develop a reduced order model based on the Volterra series to achieve significant savings in computational cost. The aerodynamic force is provided by a high-fidelity solution from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations; the structural mode shapes are determined from the finite element...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLUTTER ANALYSIS,...
The assimilation of observations in reanalyses incurs the potential for the physical terms of budgets to be balanced by a term relating the fit of the observations relative to a forecast first guess analysis. This may indicate a limitation in the physical processes of the background model, or perhaps inconsistencies in the observing system and its assimilation. In the MERRA reanalysis, an area of long term moisture flux divergence over land has been identified over the Central United States....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENERGY BUDGETS, HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE, TIME SERIES ANALYSIS,...
A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TUNABLE LASERS, DIODES, LASER SPECTROSCOPY,...
This project is a collaborative activity between the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) to evaluate a SPoRT Advanced Infrared Sounding Radiometer (AIRS: Aumann et al. 2003) enhanced moisture analysis product. We test the impact of assimilating AIRS temperature and humidity profiles above clouds and in partly cloudy regions, using the three-dimensional variational Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, HYDROMETEOROLOGY, WEATHER...
We introduce global cloud regimes (previously also referred to as "weather states") derived from cloud retrievals that use measurements by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. The regimes are obtained by applying clustering analysis on joint histograms of retrieved cloud top pressure and cloud optical thickness. By employing a compositing approach on data sets from satellites and other sources, we examine regime...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLIMATE MODELS, CLOUDS (METEOROLOGY), RADIANT FLUX DENSITY,...
This report documents message latencies observed over various Live, Virtual, Constructive, (LVC) simulation environment configurations designed to emulate possible system architectures for the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project integrated tests. For each configuration, four scenarios with progressively increasing air traffic loads were used to determine system throughput and bandwidth impacts on message latency.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, VIRTUAL REALITY, SYSTEMS...
It is hypothesized that microphysical predictions have greater uncertainties/errors when there are complex interactions that result from mixedphased processes like riming. Use Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission ground validation studies in Ontario, Canada to verify and improve parameterizations
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PRECIPITATION (METEOROLOGY), PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT, SNOW,...
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NASA's GeneLab aims to greatly increase the number of scientists that are using data from space biology investigations on board ISS, emphasizing a systems biology approach to the science. When completed, GeneLab will provide the integrated software and hardware infrastructure, analytical tools and reference datasets for an assortment of model organisms. GeneLab will also provide an environment for scientists to collaborate thereby increasing the possibility for data to be reused for future...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BIOTECHNOLOGY, SPACE FLIGHT, METADATA, INTERNATIONAL SPACE...
In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS, GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS,...