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Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERNOVAE, COLLAPSE, GALAXIES, EJECTA, GAMMA RAY BURSTS, RED...
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Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely rare outcome of the collapse of massive stars and are typically found in the distant universe. Because of its intrinsic luminosity (L approx. 3 x 10(exp 53) ergs/s and its relative proximity (z = 0.34), GRB 130427A reached the highest fluence observed in the gamma-ray band. Here, we present a comprehensive multiwavelength view of GRB 130427A with Swift, the 2-meter Liverpool and Faulkes telescopes, and by other ground-based facilities,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GAMMA RAY BURSTS, MASSIVE STARS, RED SHIFT, LUMINOSITY,...
TeV-flaring activity with timescales as short as tens of minutes and an orphan TeV flare have been observed from the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421). The TeV emission from Mrk 421 is believed to be produced by leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission. In this scenario, correlations between the X-ray and the TeV fluxes are expected, TeV orphan flares are hardly explained, and the activity (measured as duty cycle) of the source at TeV energies is expected to be equal to or less than that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VARIABILITY, BLAZARS, BL LACERTAE OBJECTS, OBSERVATORIES,...
Overview briefing of Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) project.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRSPACE, AEROSPACE SAFETY, STRATEGY, AIRCRAFT DESIGN, NASA...
Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere has heightened from airports to the communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APT's) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMMAND AND CONTROL, GROUND OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM,...
Tropospheric ozone plays a major role in Earth's atmospheric chemistry processes and also acts as an air pollutant and greenhouse gas. Due to its short lifetime, and dependence on sunlight and precursor emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources, tropospheric ozone's abundance is highly variable in space and time on seasonal, interannual and decadal time-scales. Recent, and sometimes rapid, changes in observed ozone mixing ratios and ozone precursor emissions inspired us to produce this...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TROPOSPHERE, OZONE, TRENDS, CLIMATE MODELS, MIXING RATIOS,...
NASA's Earth Venture class (EV) of missions are competitively selected, Principal Investigator (PI) led, relatively low cost and narrowly focused in scientific scope. Investigations address a full spectrum of earth science objectives, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, and solid Earth. EV has three program elements: EV-Suborbital (EVS) are suborbital/airborne investigations; EV-Mission (EVM) element comprises small complete spaceborne missions; and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH SCIENCES, NASA PROGRAMS, SPACE MISSIONS, SMALL...
By analogy with Earth, methane in the atmosphere of Mars is a potential signature of ongoing or past biological activity on the planet. During the last decade, Earth-based telescopic and Mars orbit remote sensing instruments have reported significant abundances of methane in the Martian atmosphere ranging from several to tens of parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). Observations from Earth showed plumes of methane with variations on timescales much faster than expected and inconsistent with...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), METHANE, MARS (PLANET), MARS ATMOSPHERE, CURIOSITY ROVER,...
Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLASMAS (PHYSICS), THEORETICAL PHYSICS, SPACECRAFT...
Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a recirculating control loop which had no water quality maintenance. Results show that periodic water maintenance can improve performance of the SWME. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE SUITS, WATER QUALITY, MAINTENANCE, CONTAMINATION, ION...
The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, HIGH PRESSURE OXYGEN, LIFE...
The current paper presents results from a combined research effort by Louisiana Tech University (LTU) and NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a new alumina-silicate based cementitious binder capable of acting as a high performance refractory material with low heat ablation rate and high early mechanical strength. Such a binder would represent a significant contribution to NASA's efforts to develop a new generation of refractory 'hot face' liners for liquid or solid rocket plume...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BINDERS (MATERIALS), ROCKET TEST FACILITIES, FLAME...
This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, VARIABLE CYCLE ENGINES,...
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The Office of Chief Medical Officer (OCHMO) owns all human health and performance risks managed by the Human System Risk Board (HSRB). While the HSRB manages the risks, the Human Research Program (HRP) manages the research portion of the overall risk mitigation strategy for these risks. The HSRB manages risks according to a process that identifies and analyzes risks, plans risk mitigation and tracks and reviews the implementation of these strategies according to its decisions pertaining to the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RISK MANAGEMENT, HUMAN PERFORMANCE, HEALTH, MISSION PLANNING,...
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The objective of this work is to provide the center with a fully tested, flexible, low cost, miniaturized science magnetometer system applicable to small satellite programs, like Cubesats, and to rides of opportunity that do not lend themselves to the high integration costs a science magnetometer on a boom necessitates.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SMALL SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES, MAGNETOMETERS, MINIATURIZATION,...
A very high purity (99.99+%) high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina has recently become commercially available. The raw material of this HTCC alumina is very different from conventional HTCC alumina, and more importantly there is no glass additive in this alumina material for co-firing processing. Previously, selected HTCC and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) alumina materials were evaluated at high temperatures as dielectric and compared to a regularly sintered 96%...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, CERAMICS, HIGH TEMPERATURE, ALUMINUM...
Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE WEATHER, NOWCASTING, FORECASTING, REAL TIME OPERATION,...
Flight test and modeling techniques were developed to accurately identify global nonlinear aerodynamic models onboard an aircraft. The techniques were developed and demonstrated during piloted flight testing of an Aermacchi MB-326M Impala jet aircraft. Advanced piloting techniques and nonlinear modeling techniques based on fuzzy logic and multivariate orthogonal function methods were implemented with efficient onboard calculations and flight operations to achieve real-time maneuver monitoring...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REAL TIME OPERATION, FLIGHT TESTS, AERODYNAMIC...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NANOSATELLITES, LUNAR MAPS, LUNAR SURFACE, SOLAR SAILS,...
Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUBSONIC SPEED, FIXED WINGS, AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS, AIR...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS,...
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The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PIEZOELECTRICITY, MECHANICAL DRIVES, DAMPING, VIBRATION,...
The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH SCIENCES, DATA PROCESSING, TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION,...
A High Temperature Fiber Optic Sensor (HTFOS) has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for aircraft engine applications. After fabrication and preliminary in-house performance evaluation, the HTFOS was tested in an engine environment at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The engine tests enabled the performance of the HTFOS in real engine environments to be evaluated along with the ability of the sensor to respond to changes in the engine's operating condition. Data were collected...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, PERFORMANCE TESTS, FIBER OPTICS,...
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The increase in the number and volume, and sources, of globally available Earth science data measurements and datasets have afforded Earth scientists and applications researchers unprecedented opportunities to study our Earth in ever more sophisticated ways. In fact, the NASA Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) archives have doubled from 2007 to 2014, to 9.1 PB (Ramapriyan, 2009; and https:earthdata.nasa.govaboutsystem-- performance). In addition, other US agency,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH SCIENCES, DATA ACQUISITION, DOCUMENTATION, EOS DATA AND...
KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing: Alternate ammonia removal, Advanced oxidation, Brine purification technologies. KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRINES, PURIFICATION, WATER RECLAMATION, ELECTROLYSIS,...
We present the analysis of Cassini spectral data from spectral mapping of Saturnian icy moons Dione and Rhea, to investigate possible effects of impact crater formation on the relative abundances of crystalline and amorphous water ice in the moons' ice crusts. Both moons display morphologically young ray craters as well as older craters. Possible changes in ice properties due to crater formation are conjectured to be more visible in younger craters, and as such Rhea's well imaged ray crater...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AMORPHOUS MATERIALS, CRYSTALLINITY, WATER, ICE, GRAIN SIZE,...
The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeters, including the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, POLARIMETERS, ECOSYSTEMS, ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION,...
An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NOISE REDUCTION, AIRFRAMES, EFFECTIVE PERCEIVED NOISE LEVELS,...
Spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Hawaii provide important clues about the composition of the oceanic lithosphere, and can be used to assess its contribution to mantle heterogeneity upon recycling. The peridotites have lower bulk H2O (approximately 70-114 ppm) than the MORB source, qualitatively consistent with melt depletion. The garnet pyroxenites (high pressure cumulates) have higher H2O (200-460 ppm, up to 550 ppm accounting for phlogopite) and low H2O/Ce ratios (less...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RECYCLING, LITHOSPHERE, WATER, IRON 57, OCEANS, PERIDOTITE,...
Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAGRAPHS, FOCAL PLANE DEVICES, EXTRASOLAR PLANETS,...
Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) have undergone minimal parent body alteration and contain an assemblage of highly primitive materials, including molecular cloud material, presolar grains, and material that formed in the early solar nebula [1-3]. The exact parent bodies of individual IDPs are not known, but IDPs that have extremely high abundances of presolar silicates (up to 1.5%) most likely have cometary origins [1, 4]. The presolar grain abundance among...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPINEL, SILICATES, MINERALOGY, INTERPLANETARY DUST,...
Detailed studies of Apollo 15 green glass and related beads have shown they were formed in gas-rich fire fountains.. As the magmatic fluid became super-saturated in volatile gas, bubbles or vesicles formed within the magma. These exsolved gases became trapped within vesicles as the glasses were ejected from the fire-fountain and subsequently quenched. One of the keys to understanding formation processes on the ancient moon includes determining the composition of volatile species and elements,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MOON, LUNAR COMPOSITION, LUNAR ROCKS, SELENOLOGY, GLASS,...
A time-dependent extension of the first-order hyperbolic system method for advection-diffusion problems is introduced. Diffusive/viscous terms are written and discretized as a hyperbolic system, which recovers the original equation in the steady state. The resulting scheme offers advantages over traditional schemes: a dramatic simplification in the discretization, high-order accuracy in the solution gradients, and orders-of-magnitude convergence acceleration. The hyperbolic advection-diffusion...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYPERBOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, FINITE VOLUME METHOD,...
We examine the major stratosphere sudden warming (SSW) that occurred on 6 January 2013, using output from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) GEOS-5 (Goddard Earth Observing System) near-real-time data assimilation system (DAS). Results show that the major SSW of January 2013 falls into the vortex splitting type of SSW, with the initial planetary wave breaking occurring near 10 hPa. The vertical flux of wave activity at the tropopause responsible for the SSW occurred mainly...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STRATOSPHERIC WARMING, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS),...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL COATINGS, VAPOR DEPOSITION, X RAY OPTICS, OPTICAL...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROGEN, METHANE, SPACECRAFT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS,...
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This presentation provides information on the progress the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) development effort. In addition, a vision is presented on integration of the IPM architecture with the GeoSocial Application Program Interface (API) architecture to enable efficient distribution of satellite data products.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PARALLEL PROCESSING (COMPUTERS), ONBOARD DATA PROCESSING,...
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In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS (PERSONNEL),...
Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG). Its 100-year global warming potential (GWP) is 25 times larger than that for carbon dioxide. The 100-yr integrated GWP of CH4 is sensitive to changes in OH levels. Methane's atmospheric growth rate was estimated to be more than 10 ppb yr(exp -1) in 1998 but less than zero in 2001, 2004 and 2005 (Kirschke et al., 2013). Since 2006, the CH4 is increasing again. This phenomena is yet not well understood. Oxidation of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), METHANE, CARBON MONOXIDE, HYDROXYL COMPOUNDS, OXIDATION,...
The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket instrument currently being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), and other partners. The goal of this instrument is to observe and detect the Hanle effect in the scattered Lyman-Alpha UV (121.6nm) light emitted by the Sun's chromosphere. The polarized spectrum imaged by the CCD cameras will capture information about the local magnetic field,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CCD CAMERAS, LYMAN ALPHA RADIATION, SOUNDING ROCKETS,...
In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, an approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRAB NEBULA, FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE, GAMMA RAY...
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Short term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Mission: Apply NASA and NOAA measurement systems and unique Earth science research to improve the accuracy of short term weather prediction at the regional/local scale. Goals: Evaluate and assess the utility of NASA and NOAA Earth science data and products and unique research capabilities to address operational weather forecast problems; Provide an environment which enables the development and testing of new capabilities to improve...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH SCIENCES, WEATHER FORECASTING, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM...
Massive stars like Eta Carinae are extremely rare in comparison to stars such as the Sun, and currently we know of only a handful of stars with masses of more than 100 solar mass in the Milky Way. Such massive stars were much more frequent in the early history of the Universe and had a huge impact on its evolution. Even among this elite club, Eta Car is outstanding, in particular because of its giant eruption around 1840 that produced the beautiful bipolar nebula now known as the Homunculus. In...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MASSIVE STARS, SHAPES, THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELS, BINARY...
The computationally efficient HZETRN code has been used in recent trade studies for lunar and Martian exploration and is currently being used in the engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and extra vehicular activity equipment. A new version (3DHZETRN) capable of transporting High charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation is under development. In the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION SHIELDING, MONTE CARLO METHOD, EXTRATERRESTRIAL...
Sprites are a category of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the upper atmosphere above the tops of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). They are commonly associated with lightning strokes that produce large charge moment changes (CMCs). Synergistic use of satellite and radar-retrieved observations together with sounding data, forecasts, and lightning-detection networks allowed the diagnosis and analysis of the meteorological conditions associated with sprites as well as large-CMC...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPRITES (ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS), LIGHTNING, MESOSCALE...
The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THUNDERSTORMS, METEOROLOGICAL RADAR, LIGHTNING, FORECASTING,...
SERVIR, an acronym meaning "to serve" in Spanish, is a joint venture between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) which provides satellite-based Earth observation data, modeling, and science applications to help developing nations in Central America, East Africa and the Himalayas improve environmental decision making. Anticipating climate variability / climate change impacts has now become an important component of the SERVIR efforts to build capacity in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLIMATE CHANGE, CLIMATE, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, HYDROLOGY...
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (NASA SPoRT) has transitioned a total column ozone product from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrievals to the Weather Prediction Center and Ocean Prediction Center. The total column ozone product is used to diagnose regions of warm, dry, ozone-rich, stratospheric air capable of descending to the surface to create high-impact non-convective winds. Over the past year, forecasters...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OZONE, STRATOSPHERE, WIND (METEOROLOGY), WEATHER FORECASTING,...
MSFC has embarked on use of green propellant replacement of hydrazine for a variety of applications. This paper focused on activities for auxiliary power unit but MSFC is actively investigating use of green propellants for thruster applications. MSFC is interested in partnership with the international community to address the infusion of green propellant into greater use.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AUXILIARY POWER SOURCES, PROPELLANTS, HYDRAZINES, AMMONIUM...
Intelligent or autonomous control of an entire spacecraft is a major technology that must be developed to enable NASA to meet its human exploration goals. NASAs current long term human space platform, the International Space Station, is in low earth orbit with almost continuous communication with the ground based mission control. This permits the near real-time control by the ground of all of the core systems including power. As NASA moves beyond Low Earth Orbit, the issues of communication...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROLLERS, SPACECRAFT CONTROL, SPACECRAFT POWER SUPPLIES,...
The Aerosciences Branch (EV33) at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been responsible for a series of wind tunnel tests on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) vehicles. The primary purpose of these tests was to obtain aerodynamic data during the ascent phase and establish databases that can be used by the Guidance, Navigation, and Mission Analysis Branch (EV42) for trajectory simulations. The paper describes the test...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING, AERODYNAMICS, DATA BASES, LAUNCH...
Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, RISK ASSESSMENT, ORTHOSTATIC...
Double-layer capacitors capable of operating at extremely low temperatures (e.g., as low as -80.degree. C.) are disclosed. Electrolyte solutions combining a base solvent (e.g., acetonitrile) and a cosolvent are employed to lower the melting point of the base electrolyte. Example cosolvents include methyl formate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, propionitrile, butyronitrile, and 1,3-dioxolane. A quaternary ammonium salt including at least one of triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB)...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE, LOW TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS,...
Despite the wide usage of hollow retroreflectors, there is limited literature involving their fabrication techniques and only two documented construction methods could be found. One consists of an adjustable fixture that allows for the independent alignment of each mirror, while the other consists of a modified solid retroreflector that is used as a mandrel. Although both methods were shown to produce hollow retroreflectors with arcsecond dihedral angle errors, a comparison and analysis of each...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FABRICATION, RETROREFLECTORS, MIRRORS, BONDING, EPOXY RESINS,...
We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIOMETERS, LOADS (FORCES), THERMAL VACUUM TESTS, VACUUM...
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The Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is an integral part of many NASA satellite and launch vehicle programs, providing analyses of the space and terrestrial environments that are used for program development efforts, operational support, and anomaly investigations. The space environment capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at MSFC will be presented. These capabilities include model development, analysis of space and terrestrial related data, spacecraft...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, LAUNCH VEHICLES, LOW EARTH ORBITS,...
We present time series analyses of the full Kepler dataset of Zw 229- 15. This Kepler light curve- with a baseline greater than three years, composed of virtually continuous, evenly sampled 30-minute measurements - is unprecedented in its quality and precision. We utilize two methods of power spectral analysis to investigate the optical variability and search for evidence of a bend frequency associated with a characteristic optical variability timescale. Each method yields similar results. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TIME SERIES ANALYSIS, SPECTRUM ANALYSIS, POWER SPECTRA,...
An aircraft control structure can be utilized for purposes of drag management, noise control, or aircraft flight maneuvering. The control structure includes a high pressure engine nozzle, such as a bypass nozzle or a core nozzle of a turbofan engine. The nozzle exhausts a high pressure fluid stream, which can be swirled using a deployable swirl vane architecture. The control structure also includes a variable geometry pylon configured to be coupled between the nozzle and the aircraft. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VARIABLE GEOMETRY STRUCTURES, PYLONS, AIRCRAFT CONTROL,...
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As part of NASAs UAS in the NAS project, human factor guidelines are being developed for the ground control station of unmanned aircraft systems. A critical task for the pilot of a UAS is the management and control of the terrestrial radio links used to provide control of the vehicle and relay communications with air traffic control. An analysis of the task of the UAS pilot has been conducted to identify areas where guidelines are required. This analysis has identified a set of information...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM, UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, SYSTEMS...
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Wavelength-dependent or spectral radiation effects are potentially significant for thermal protection materials. NASA atmospheric entry simulations include trajectories with significant levels of shock layer radiation which is concentrated in narrow spectral lines. Tests using two different high powered lasers, the 10.6 micron LHMEL I CO2 laser and the near-infrared 1.07 micron fiber laser, on low density ablative thermal protection materials offer a unique opportunity to evaluate spectral...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ABLATIVE MATERIALS, RADIATION EFFECTS, THERMAL PROTECTION,...
A modal test was performed on the six-meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test article to gain a firm understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the unloaded structure within the low frequency range. The tests involved various configurations of the HIAD to understand the influence of the tri-torus, the varying pressure within the toroids and the influence of straps. The primary test was conducted utilizing an eletrodynamic shaker and the results were verified using a...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INFLATABLE STRUCTURES, AERODYNAMIC BRAKES, HYPERSONICS,...
Long-duration space flight carries the risk of developing Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), optic nerve kinking and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. The slow onset of VIIP, its chronic nature, and certain clinical features strongly suggest that biomechanical factors acting on the ONS play a role in VIIP. Here we...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPHTHALMOLOGY, EYE (ANATOMY), INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE,...
The OMPS Limb Profiler (LP) was launched on board the NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011. OMPS-LP is a limb-scattering hyperspectral sensor that provides ozone profiling capability at 1.5 km vertical resolution from cloud top to 60 km altitude. The use of three parallel slits allows global coverage in approximately four days. We have recently completed a full reprocessing of all LP data products, designated as Release 2, that improves the accuracy...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OZONE, SATELLITE OBSERVATION, AEROSOLS, CLIMATOLOGY,...
This study examines the consistency and microphysics assumptions among satellite ice water content (IWC) retrievals in the upper troposphere with collocated A-Train radiances from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and lidar backscatters from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). For the cases in which IWC values are small (less than 10mg m(exp-23)), the cloud ice retrievals are constrained by both MLS 240- and 640- GHz radiances and CALIOP 532-nm backscatter beta(532). From the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ICE, EARTH LIMB, THERMAL EMISSION, MICROWAVE SOUNDING,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VESTA ASTEROID, METEORITE PARENT BODIES, IGNEOUS ROCKS,...
To investigate the ability of column (or partial column) information to represent surface air quality, results of linear regression analyses between surface mixing ratio data and column abundances for O3 and NO2 are presented for the July 2011 Maryland deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ mission. Data collected by the P-3B aircraft, ground-based Pandora spectrometers, Aura/OMI satellite instrument, and simulations for July 2011 from the CMAQ air quality model during this deployment provide a large...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NITROGEN DIOXIDE, MIXING RATIOS, AIR QUALITY, ENVIRONMENT...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPOSITE MATERIALS, DIAMONDS, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ROCKET...
Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species-environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSERVATION, CURRENT DISTRIBUTION, BEES, NORMALIZED...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INFLATABLE SPACE STRUCTURES, STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, MANNED...
The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR ROCKS, LUNAR GEOLOGY, CORE SAMPLING, SANDS, LUNAR...
Design of TES microcalorimeters requires a tradeoff between resolution and dynamic range. Often, experimenters will require linearity for the highest energy signals, which requires additional heat capacity be added to the detector. This results in a reduction of low energy resolution in the detector. We derive and demonstrate an algorithm that allows operation far into the nonlinear regime with little loss in spectral resolution. We use a least squares optimal filter that varies with photon...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY, CALORIMETERS, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS,...
We show that the scaling of structure functions of magnetic and velocity fields in a mostly highly Alfvenic fast solar wind stream depends strongly on the joint distribution of the dimensionless measures of cross helicity and residual energy. Already at very low frequencies, fluctuations that are both more balanced (cross helicity approx. 0) and equipartitioned (residual energy approx.0) have steep structure functions reminiscent of "turbulent" scalings usually associated with the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS, SOLAR WIND, TURBULENCE, PLASMAS...
The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed, to be cured, and be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHARACTERIZATION, BASALT, CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES, FIBER...
This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AUTONOMY, MANNED SPACECRAFT, SPACECRAFT CONTROL, TECHNOLOGY...
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Under the conditions of microgravity, astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month, particularly in the lower extremities such as the proximal femur: (1) The most commonly used countermeasure against bone loss has been prescribed exercise, (2) However, current exercise countermeasures do not completely eliminate bone loss in long duration, 4 to 6 months, spaceflight, (3,4) leaving the astronaut susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and a greater risk of fracture later in their...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROGRAVITY, BONE DEMINERALIZATION, FEMUR, BONE MINERAL...
The editors of Loss of Signal wanted to document the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia mishap. The book is intended to be an accurate and easily understood account of the entire process of recovering and analyzing the human remains, investigating and analyzing what happened to the crew, and using the resulting information to recommend ways to prevent mishaps and provide better protection to crewmembers. Our goal is to capture the passions of those who devoted their...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, LESSONS LEARNED,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROJECT PLANNING, TRADEOFFS, PROJECT MANAGEMENT,...
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NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT TESTS, VERTICAL TAKEOFF, PLANETARY LANDING, FLIGHT...
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This presentation summarizes the current plans and efforts at NASA Goddard to develop new thermal control technology for anticipated future missions. It will also address some of the programmatic developments currently underway at NASA, especially with respect to the Technology Development Program at NASA. While funding for basic technology development is still scarce, significant efforts are being made in direct support of flight programs. New technology development continues to be driven by...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TEMPERATURE CONTROL, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, ELECTRICAL...
Automating the coupling of data assimilation (DA) and modeling systems is a unique challenge in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) research community. In recent years, the Development Testbed Center (DTC) has released well-documented tools such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) DA system that can be easily downloaded, installed, and run by researchers on their local systems. However, developing a coupled system in which the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUMERICAL WEATHER FORECASTING, INFORMATION SYSTEMS,...
A new polarized radiative transfer code Atmospheric Polarization Computations (APC) is described. The code is based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth (regular) parts. The anisotropic part is computed analytically. The smooth regular part is computed numerically using the discrete ordinates method. Vertical stratification of the atmosphere, common types of bidirectional surface reflection and scattering by spherical particles or spheroids are included. A...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATIVE TRANSFER, POLARIZED LIGHT, LIGHT SCATTERING,...
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The accomplishments and status of the Project ELaNa.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NANOSATELLITES, SMALL SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY, SPACE MISSIONS,...
Quantitative sedimentologic analysis of gravel surfaces dominated by pebble-sized clasts has been employed in an effort to untangle aspects of the provenance of surface sediments on Mars using Curiosity's MARDI nadir-viewing camera operated at twilight Images have been systematically acquired since sol 310 providing a representative sample of gravel-covered surfaces since the rover departed the Shaler region. The MARDI Twilight imaging dataset offers approximately 1 millimeter spatial...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAVELS, IMAGING TECHNIQUES, MARS (PLANET), ILLUMINATING,...
The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADIABATIC CONDITIONS, DEMAGNETIZATION, REFRIGERATORS, HELIUM,...
AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES, WHITE DWARF STARS, ROTATION, X RAYS, X...
Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, LIFE (DURABILITY), FLIGHT TESTS, GROUND TESTS,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SALIVA, IMMUNOLOGY, BIOMARKERS, STRESS (PHYSIOLOGY),...
Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TEMPERATURE CONTROL, HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT, ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY,...
The Air Revitalization Lab at KSC tested Chemsorb 1000 and 1425, two candidate sorbents for use in future air revitalization technologies being evaluated by the ARREM project. Chemsorb 1000 and 1425 are granular coconut-shell activated carbon sorbents produced by Molecular Products, Inc. that may be used in the TCCS. Chemsorb 1000 is a high grade activated carbon for organic vapor adsorption. In contrast, Chemsorb 1425 is a high-grade impregnated activated carbon for adsorption of airborne...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADSORPTIVITY, SORBENTS, ACTIVATED CARBON, TRACE CONTAMINANTS,...
Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PILOTLESS AIRCRAFT, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, AIR TRAFFIC...
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The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUCLEAR PROPULSION, NUCLEAR FUELS, CERMETS, SAFETY,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROPULSION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS, ION PROPULSION,...
Space weathering alters the spectral properties of airless body surface materials by redden-ing and darkening their spectra and attenuating characteristic absorption bands, making it challenging to characterize them remotely [1,2]. It also causes a discrepency between laboratory analysis of meteorites and remotely sensed spectra from asteroids, making it difficult to associate meteorites with their parent bodies. The mechanisms driving space weathering include mi-crometeorite impacts and the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NANOPARTICLES, SPACE WEATHERING, REMOTE SENSING, ASTEROIDS,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FORECASTING, METEOROLOGY, FEEDBACK, EDUCATION, DATA...
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The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approx. 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X RAY OPTICS, ANGULAR RESOLUTION, CADMIUM TELLURIDES,...
Long-period comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will experience a close encounter with Mars on 2014 Oct 19. A collision between the comet and the planet has been ruled out, but the comet's coma may envelop Mars and its man-made satellites. By the time of the close encounter, five operational spacecraft will be present near Mars. Characterizing the coma is crucial for assessing the risk posed to these satellites by meteoroid impacts. We present an analytic model of cometary comae that describes the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMETS, FLUENCE, METEORITE COLLISIONS, METEOROID...
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Specialized photogrammetric and image processing MATLAB functions useful for wind tunnel and other ground-based testing of aerospace structures are described. These functions include single view and multi-view photogrammetric solutions, basic image processing to determine image coordinates, 2D and 3D coordinate transformations and least squares solutions, spatial and radiometric camera calibration, epipolar relations, and various supporting utility functions.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PHOTOGRAMMETRY, IMAGE PROCESSING, LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECRAFT ENVIRONMENTS, MENTAL PERFORMANCE, HUMAN REACTIONS,...