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The stability to thermal perturbation of static models of coronal loops is considered including the effects of cool, radiatively stable material at the loop base. The linear stability turns out to be sensitive only to the boundary conditions assumed on the velocity at the loop base. The question of the appropriate boundary conditions is discussed, and it is concluded that the free surface condition (the pressure perturbation vanishes), rather than the rigid wall (the velocity vanishes), is...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAL LOOPS, PLASMA TEMPERATURE, SOLAR WIND, THERMAL...
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This report will present ideas closely related to the vortex conception and illustrate them in the simplest possible terms. In addition to these general considerations, this report will attempt to show the application of the vortex theory in connection with the wing theory.
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
A radiation pyrometer for measuring the true temperature of a body is provided by detecting and measuring thermal radiation from the body based on the principle that the effects of angular emission I(sub 1) and reflection I(sub 2) on the polarization states p and s of radiation are complementary such that upon detecting the combined partial polarization state components I(sub p) =I(sub 1p) + I(sub 2p) and I(sub s)=I(sub 1s) + I(sub 2s) and adjusting the intensity of the variable radiation...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EMITTANCE, LIGHT SOURCES, RADIATION PYROMETERS, PATENTS,...
High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FIBER OPTICS, ACTUATORS, F-18 AIRCRAFT, RESEARCH AIRCRAFT,...
The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z approx. 8 - 1.5. It will image > 250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Tele8cope, from the mid-UV to near-IR, and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive ancillary...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GALACTIC EVOLUTION, NEAR INFRARED RADIATION, COSMOLOGY,...
The thermal vacuum facilities located at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have supported both manned and unmanned space flight since the 1960s. Of the eleven facilities, currently ten of the systems are scheduled for refurbishment or replacement as part of a five-year implementation. Expected return on investment includes the reduction in test schedules, improvements in safety of facility operations, and reduction in the personnel support required for a test. Additionally, GSFC will...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REPLACING, THERMAL VACUUM TESTS, VACUUM CHAMBERS, TEST...
Scans of lambda Lep, eta UMa, xi Dra, epsilon Dor, alpha Leo, phi Dra, upsilon Dra, beta Aur, alpha Pic and alpha Dor have been obtained with scanner OAO-2 over the range 1800-3600 A. These scans have been reduced to tracings of F sub lambda in the 20 A pass band vs. wavelength using a wavelength conversion scale and a relative spectral sensitivity function. The general trend of the relative flux plots compares well with the continua predicted by simple model atmospheres.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), A STARS, B STARS, OAO 2, STELLAR SPECTROPHOTOMETRY,...
Piezoelectric materials exhibit an electrical response, such as voltage or charge, in reaction to a mechanical stimuli. The mechanical stimuli can be force, pressure, light, or heat. Therefore, these materials are excellent sensors for various properties. The major disadvantage of state of the art piezoelectric polymers is their lack of utility at elevated temperatures. The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of inducing piezoelectricity in high performance polymer systems....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), POLARIZATION (CHARGE SEPARATION), PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALS,...
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An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIRECT CURRENT, POWER SUPPLY CIRCUITS, CONTROL SYSTEMS...
There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EUROPE, ITALY, MULTISPECTRAL BAND SCANNERS, STRUCTURAL...
The Hyper-X program flew two X-43A Hyper-X Research Vehicles (HXRVs) in 2004, referred to as Ship 2 and Ship 3. The scramjet engine of the X-43A research vehicle was autonomously controlled in flight to track a predetermined fueling schedule. Ship 2 flew at approximately Mach 7 and Ship 3 flew at approximately Mach 10.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT TESTS, RESEARCH VEHICLES, REFUELING, FLIGHT CONTROL,...
The troposphere is the part of the atmosphere where people live. The troposphere goes up to about 12 km above the earth over places at middle latitudes like Washington, D.C. The next layer of air up in the atmosphere is called the stratosphere. The tropopause separates the troposphere and stratosphere. Most of the ozone in the atmosphere is in the stratosphere where it protects people from the harmful rays in sunlight. Near the earth s surface, ozone is a pollutant. In general, air travels from...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, TROPOSPHERE, STRATOSPHERE,...
This interdiscipline research program was undertaken in an effort to investigate the relationship between the mechanical strength of Mo based alloys with their electronic structure. Electronic properties of these alloys were examined through optical studies, and the classical solid solution strengthening mechanisms were considered, based on size and molecular differences to determine if these mechanisms could explain the hardness data.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALLOYS, ELECTRON TRANSITIONS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, OPTICS,...
A series of computer codes were developed to predict solid rocket motor produced contamination to spacecraft sensitive surfaces. Subscale and flight test data have confirmed some of the analytical results. Application of the analysis tools to a typical spacecraft has provided early identification of potential spacecraft contamination problems and provided insight into their solution; e.g., flight plan modifications, plume or outgassing shields and/or contamination covers.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INERTIAL UPPER STAGE, SOLID ROCKET PROPELLANTS, SPACECRAFT...
Strength, fracture toughness and fatigue behavior of free-standing thick thermal barrier coatings of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt % Y2O3 were determined at ambient and elevated temperatures in an attempt to establish a database for design. Strength, in conjunction with deformation (stress-strain behavior), was evaluated in tension (uniaxial and trans-thickness), compression, and uniaxial and biaxial flexure; fracture toughness was determined in various load conditions including mode I, mode II, and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMAL CONTROL COATINGS, FRACTURE STRENGTH, FATIGUE...
The operation of solidification Model 2 is described and documentation of the software associated with the model is provided. Model 2 calculates the macrosegregation in a rectangular ingot of a binary alloy as a result of unsteady horizontal axisymmetric bidirectional solidification. The solidification program allows interactive modification of calculation parameters as well as selection of graphical and tabular output. In batch mode, parameter values are input in card image form and output...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BINARY ALLOYS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION,...
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plasma-polymerized vinyl trimethoxy silane films were deposited on transparent polycarbonate substrates. The adherent, clear films protected the substrates from abrasion and also served as antireflection coatings. Post-treatment of the vinyl trimethoxy silane films in an oxygen glow discharge further improved their abrasion resistance. The coatings were characterized by elemental analysis of the bulk, ESCA analysis of the surface, transmission, thickness, abrasion resistance, haze, and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANTIREFLECTION COATINGS, METHOXY SYSTEMS, POLYCARBONATES,...
The servicing functions definitions and activity data sheets are included. Detailed time and manpower estimates, and cost analysis sheets are presented.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ORBIT TRANSFER VEHICLES, SPACE SHUTTLE PAYLOADS, SPACE...
A flame-tube study was performed to determine the effects of equivalence ratio and residence time on exhaust emissions with premixed, prevaporized propane fuel. Nitrogen oxides emissions as low as .3 g NO2/kg fuel were measured with greater than 99% combustion efficiency at 800 K inlet temperature and an equivalence ratio of .4. For a constant combustion efficiency, lower nitrogen oxides emissions were obtained by burning very lean with relatively long residence times than by using somewhat...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR POLLUTION, EXHAUST GASES, NITROGEN OXIDES, BURNERS,...
The oxidation and corrosion behavior of SiC (in the form of a SiC powder) and hot-pressed and reaction-bound material were studied. The excellent stability of SiC in an oxidizing atmosphere is due to the development of protective SiO2 coatings. Any changes in these protective layers (e.g., due to impurities, reaction with corrosive media, high porosity of SiC, etc.) lead in most cases to increased rates of oxidation and thus restrict the field of SiC application.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGH TEMPERATURE RESEARCH, HOT CORROSION, OXIDATION...
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As the complexity of space missions grows, development of Fault Management (FM) capabilities is an increasingly common driver for significant cost overruns late in the development cycle. FM issues and the resulting cost overruns are rarely caused by a lack of technology, but rather by a lack of planning and emphasis by project management. A recent NASA FM Workshop brought together FM practitioners from a broad spectrum of institutions, mission types, and functional roles to identify the drivers...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FAULT DETECTION, PROJECT MANAGEMENT, COST ESTIMATES,...
Equations for converting AVIRIS digital numbers to percent reflectance were developed using a set of three calibration targets. AVIRIS reflectance spectra from five plant communities exhibit distinct spectral differences.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIGITAL DATA, IMAGING SPECTROMETERS, INFRARED SPECTRA,...
At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a technique for the ultrasonic characterization of plates has been extended to tubes and to curved structures in general. In this technique, one performs measurements that yield a thickness-independent value of the local through-the-thickness speed of sound in a specimen. From such measurements at numerous locations across the specimen, one can construct a map of velocity as a function of location. The gradients of velocity indicated by such a map indicate...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, THICK PLATES,...
To improve aircraft noise impact modeling capabilities and to provide a tool to aid in the development of low noise terminal area operations for rotorcraft and tiltrotors, the Rotorcraft Noise Model (RNM) was developed by the NASA Langley Research Center and Wyle Laboratories. RNM is a simulation program that predicts how sound will propagate through the atmosphere and accumulate at receiver locations located on flat ground or varying terrain, for single and multiple vehicle flight operations....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LOW NOISE, ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES, TILT ROTOR AIRCRAFT, AIRCRAFT...
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This publication reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground based radio astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation and in operations. In geodynamics, the publication reports on the application of radio...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA ACQUISITION, DEEP SPACE NETWORK, GEODYNAMICS,...
This paper presents a quantitative comparison of corrective and perfective software maintenance activities. The comparison utilizes basic data collected throughout the maintenance process. The data collected are extensive and allow the impact of both types of maintenance to be quantitatively evaluated and compared. Basic statistical techniques test relationships between and among process and product data. The results show interesting similarities and important differences in both process and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FILE MAINTENANCE (COMPUTERS), SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, SOFTWARE...
In the third year of the research project, we have (1) tested a 3.5 liter prototype of the Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber, (2) used a prototype having a 4.4 cm drift gap to study the charge and energy resolution response of the 3.5 liter chamber, (3) obtained an energy resolution as good as that previously measured by us using chambers with drift gaps of the order of millimeters, (4) observed the induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays, (4) used the 20 hybrid charge sensitive...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, GAMMA RAY TELESCOPES, LIQUEFIED GASES,...
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EQUILIBRIUM, HOMOGENEOUS TURBULENCE, K-EPSILON TURBULENCE...
We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting the Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to the Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, GEOMAGNETISM, COSMIC RAYS, POSITRONS,...
In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MULTILAYER INSULATION, CRYOGENIC FLUID STORAGE, PRESSURE...
NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to facilitate the transition of mature air traffic management technologies from the laboratory to operational use. The technologies selected for demonstration are the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM), which provides precise timebased scheduling in the terminal airspace; Controller Managed Spacing (CMS), which provides controllers with decision support tools enabling precise schedule...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, AIRSPACE,...
An analysis to predict pressure and flow distribution in a strut-supported wire-cloth vane was developed. Results were compared with experimental data obtained from room-temperature airflow tests conducted over a range of vane inlet airflow rates from 10.7 to 40.4 g/sec (0.0235 to 0.0890 lb/sec). The analytical method yielded reasonably accurate predictions of vane coolant flow rate and pressure distribution.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW DISTRIBUTION, GAS TURBINE ENGINES, PRESSURE...
During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY, SPACE...
A method is developed for determining the laminar-to-turbulent transition point in a boundary layer. The method involves the measurement of pressure on the surface of the body and the computation of pressure fluctuations. This method of determining the transition point is suitable when visualization methods cannot be used.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYERS, FLUID FLOW, LAMINAR FLOW, PRESSURE...
A major component of any liquid propellant rocket is the propellant injection system. Issues of interest include the degree of liquid vaporization and its impact on the combustion process, the pressure and temperature fields in the combustion chamber, and the cooling of the injector face and chamber walls. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS) code is a primary computational tool used in the MSFC Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch. The branch has dedicated a significant amount of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, FINITE...
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The invention concerns a cowling for aircraft propulsion systems of the counterrotating propeller type. The cowling includes a pair of mounting rings located fore and aft of a propeller array. Removable panels extend between the mounting rings and contain openings through which the propeller blades extend.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTRAROTATING PROPELLERS, COWLINGS, PROPULSION SYSTEM...
The Bethe-Bloch stopping power relations for inelastic collisions were used to determine the absorption of electron and proton energy in cured neat epoxy resin and the absorption of electron energy in a graphite/epoxy composite. Absorption of electron energy due to bremsstrahlung was determined. Electron energies from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV and proton energies from 0.3 to 1.75 MeV were used. Monoenergetic electron energy absorption profiles for models of pure graphite, cured neat epoxy resin, and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAPHITE-EPOXY COMPOSITES, LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES, RADIATION...
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A buckling analysis was performed on a hat-stiffened panel subjected to shear loading. Both local buckling and global buckling were analyzed. The global shear buckling load was found to be several times higher than the local shear buckling load. The classical shear buckling theory for a flat plate was found to be useful in predicting the local shear buckling load of the hat-stiffened panel, and the predicted local shear buckling loads thus obtained compare favorably with the results of finite...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, BUCKLING, COMPRESSION LOADS,...
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Coronae on Venus are large, generally circular surface features that have distinctive tectonic, volcanic, and topographic expressions. They range in diameter from less than 200 km to at least 1000 km. Data from the Magellan spacecraft have now allowed complete global mapping of the spatial distribution of coronae on the planet. Unlike impact craters, which show a random (i.e., Poisson) spatial distribution, the distribution of coronae appears to be nonrandom. We investigate the distribution...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAS, PLANETARY GEOLOGY, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, TECTONICS,...
Local heat-transfer coefficients were experimentally mapped on the end-wall surface of a three-times turbine vane passage in a static, single-row cascade operated with room-temperature inlet air over a range of Reynolds numbers. The test surface was a composite of commercially available materials: a Mylar sheet with a layer of cholesteric liquid crystals, which change color with temperature, and a heater made of a polyester sheet coated with vapor-deposited gold, which produces uniform heat...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GAS TURBINE ENGINES, HEAT TRANSFER, LIQUID CRYSTALS, REYNOLDS...
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Contractor shall perform a complete analysis of the potential of the solid state laser in the very long pulse mode (100 ns pulse width, 10-30 hz rep-rate) and in the very short pulse mode (100 ps pulse width 10-30 hz rep rate) concentrating on the operation of the device in the 'hot-rod' mode, where no active cooling the laser operation is attempted. Contractor's calculations shall be made of the phase aberrations which develop during the repped-pulse train, and the results shall feed into the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LASER APPLICATIONS, LASER OUTPUTS, SOLID STATE LASERS, PULSED...
The heat transport in highly porous fiber structures is investigated. The fibers are supposed to be thin, but long, so that the number of the inter-fiber connections along each fiber is large. We show that the effective conductivity of such structures can be found from the correlation length of the two-point correlation function of the local conductivities. Estimation of the parameters, determining the conductivity, from the 2D images of the structures is analyzed.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, HEAT TRANSFER,...
Fracture tests were conducted on 2.3mm thick, 305mm wide sheets of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with from one to five collinear cracks. The cracks were introduced (crack history) into the specimens by three methods: saw cutting, fatigue precracking at a low stress range, and fatigue precracking at a high stress range. For the single crack tests, the initial crack history influenced the stress required for the onset of stable crack growth and the first 10mm of crack growth. The effect on failure...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, CRACK PROPAGATION,...
A new technology developed at Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media stores 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 130 mm disk with a data transfer rate of up to 120 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out photonically, no heating of the recording media is required....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA STORAGE, ELECTRON CAPTURE, ELECTRONS, OPTICAL MEMORY...
An optical disk buffer concept can provide gigabit-per-second data rates and terabit capacity through the use of arrays of solid state lasers applied to a stack of erasable/reusable optical disks. The RCA optical disk buffer has evoked interest by NASA for space applications. The porous graphite air bearings in the rotary spindle as well as those used in the linear translation of the read/write head would be replaced by magnetic bearings or mechanical (ball or roller) bearings. Based upon past...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACTIVE CONTROL, BUFFER STORAGE, ELECTRONIC CONTROL,...
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Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHLORINE, METEORITIC COMPOSITION, ABUNDANCE, NAKHLITES,...
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In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the development and application of ceramic matrix composites consisting of silicon carbide (SiC) based matrices reinforced by small-diameter continuous-length SiC-based fibers. For example, these SiC/SiC composites are now in the early stages of implementation into hot-section components of civil aero-propulsion gas turbine engines, where in comparison to current metallic components they offer multiple advantages due to their lighter...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, HEAT...
The emotional effect of different applications of electrodes and the fixation for cariographic examination was investigated using guinea pigs. The effect of the stress is discussed in terms of heart rhythm and behavior.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HEART RATE,...
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Preformed knitted glass-fabric covers are placed about silicone rubber items in such a way as to completely isolate them from the effects of adjacent fire. These covers permit retention of the desirable resilient properties of the silicone rubber while forming a very effective fire barrier.
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE SHUTTLES, HEAT TRANSFER, LOW FREQUENCIES, FAILURE...
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
ERTS-1 MSS data covering parts of Pennsylvania's southern and eastern middle anthracite coal fields were studied to determine how well accumulations of coal refuse could be identified and mapped by computer analysis and processing. Spectral signatures of coal refuse targets were similar to water, but had higher reflectances in all channels. Relative reflectances were in the order 4 5 or = 6 7. Although no underflight photography was at hand to judge mapping success, correlation was made, with...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANTHRACITE, LANDSAT 1, MAPPING, PENNSYLVANIA, SLAGS, EARTH...
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A stability analysis of a thin horizontal rotating fluid layer which is subjected to arbitrary horizontal and vertical temperature gradients is presented. The basic state is a nonlinear Hadley cell which contains both Ekman and thermal boundary layers; it is given in closed form. The stability analysis is based on the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, and zonally symmetric perturbations in the form of waves propagating in the meridional direction are considered. Numerical methods were used...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BAROCLINIC INSTABILITY, BAROCLINIC WAVES, EKMAN LAYER,...
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Development of device for transferring load from load cell to bypass mechanism
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Single-agent reinforcement learners in time-extended domains and multi-agent systems share a common dilemma known as the credit assignment problem. Multi-agent systems have the structural credit assignment problem of determining the contributions of a particular agent to a common task. Instead, time-extended single-agent systems have the temporal credit assignment problem of determining the contribution of a particular action to the quality of the full sequence of actions. Traditionally these...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROBLEM SOLVING, FUNCTIONS (MATHEMATICS), COMPLEX SYSTEMS,...
We describe activity observed in the near-infrared correlated with a giant gamma-ray flare in the Crab Pulsar. The Crab Pulsar has been observed by the Fermi and AGILE satellites to flare for a period of 3 to 7 days, once every 1-1.5 years, increasing in brightness by a factor of 3-10 between 100MeV and 1GeV. We used Keck NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics imaging to observe the Crab Pulsar and environs before and during the March 2013 flare. We discuss the evidence for the knot as the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NEAR INFRARED RADIATION, GAMMA RAYS, BRIGHTNESS, ADAPTIVE...
We describe here a proposed orbiting interferometer covering the UV, visible, and near-IR spectral ranges. With a 6-m baseline and a collecting area equivalent to about a 1.4 m diameter full aperture, this instrument will offer significant improvements in resolution over the Hubble Space Telescope, and complement the new generation of ground-based interferometers with much better limiting magnitude and spectral coverage. On the other hand, it has been designed as a considerably less ambitious...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANGULAR RESOLUTION, INTERFEROMETERS, NEAR INFRARED RADIATION,...
The research included ongoing development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primative variables. These primative variable may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...
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An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BACTERIA, BIOASSAY, BODY FLUIDS, PHYSIOLOGY, ADENOSINE...
The question of exogenous delivery of water and organics to Earth and other young planets is of critical importance for understanding the origin of Earth's volatiles, and for assessing the possible existence of exo-planets similar to Earth. Viewed from a cosmic perspective, Earth is a dry planet, yet its oceans are enriched in deuterium by a large factor relative to nebular hydrogen and analogous isotopic enrichments in atmospheric nitrogen and noble gases are also seen. Why is this so? What...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMETS, EARTH ATMOSPHERE, ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, COMET...
Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA ACQUISITION, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS), EARTH...
A series of uni-element rocket injector studies were completed to provide benchmark quality data needed to validate computational fluid dynamic models. A shear coaxial injector geometry was selected as the primary injector for study using gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellants. Emphasis was placed on the use of nonintrusive diagnostic techniques to characterize the flowfields inside an optically-accessible rocket chamber. Measurements of the velocity and species...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL MEASUREMENT, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, NONINTRUSIVE...
The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has two definitive attitude determination requirements: the definitive attitude of the Modular Attitude Control Subsystem (MACS) and the definitive attitude of the gimbaled Solar-Stellar Pointing Platform (SSPP). The onboard computer (OBC) will compute the MACS attitude using a Kalman filter and will transform this attitude solution through the SSPP gimbals to calculate the SSPP attitude. The attitude ground support system (AGSS) will compute the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACCURACY, ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES, ATTITUDE CONTROL, RESEARCH,...
An investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale subsonic jet transport model with an externally jet-augmented flap system that would augment lift and provide direct-lift control. The model had a 35 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 7.82 and two side-by-side engines mounted on a single pylon under each wing close to the fuselage. The lift of the flap system was augmented by jet engine exhaust impingement on the triple-slotted flap surfaces. The rearmost...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, JET FLAPS, TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT,...
The peak cold-wall heating rate generated in a combustion chamber of a scram-jet engine can exceed 2000 Btu/sq ft sec (approx. 2344 W/sq cm). Therefore, a very effective heat dissipation mechanism is required to sustain such a high heating load. This research focused on the transpiration cooling mechanism that appears to be a promising approach to remove a large amount of heat from the engine wall. The transpiration cooling mechanism has two aspects. First, initial computations suggest that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TRANSPIRATION, SWEAT COOLING, SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION RAMJET...
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Printed-circuit stick module has reduced comb technique to six steps, cutting process time by approximately 50%. Method incorporates all type of components into one assembly. It reduces design and fabrication time for 14-lead flat pack to less than four hours and for the 22-lead flat pack to four hours. Average weight of each flat pack is also reduced to 2 g.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CIRCUIT BOARDS, ELECTRONIC PACKAGING, PRINTED CIRCUITS,...
A manually operated fuel-cell system was modified to be monitored and controlled by a digital computer. The purpose was to have a test item with which to study possible system-computer interface problems. The modification consisted of installing solenoid valves, circuitry, transducers, and limit switches on the system. These modifications permit computer control of load current, reactant purge, water removal, and electrolyte concentration and computer initiation of system shutdown.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER TECHNIQUES, FUEL CELLS, MANUAL CONTROL, ELECTRIC...
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Guidance theory and trajectory analysis conference - research goals and programs in celestial mechanics, astrodynamics, computer utilization, and optimizational calculations
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Six 48-Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni/H2 cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH electrolyte were life cycle tested in low Earth orbit. All three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed (3729, 4165, and 11,355 cycles), while those with 26 percent KOH were cycled over 14,000 times in the continuing test. Destructive physical analysis (DPA) of the failed cells included visual inspections, measurements of electrode thickness, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and measurements...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DESTRUCTION, EARTH ORBITS, ELECTRODES, ELECTROLYTES, FAILURE,...
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Jet pump cavitation prediction parameter
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Multipass sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron base binary alloys in contact with a single crystal silicon carbide surface in vacuum. Results indicate that the atomic size and concentration of alloy elements play important roles in controlling the transfer and friction properties of iron base binary alloys. Alloys having high solute concentration produce more transfer than do alloys having low solute concentration. The coefficient of friction during multipass sliding...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IRON ALLOYS, SILICON CARBIDES, SLIDING FRICTION, TRIBOLOGY,...
The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPLOYMENT, DROP TESTS, PARACHUTES, TEST VEHICLES, CREW...
An investigation has been made of abort procedures for space shuttle-type vehicles using a point mass trajectory optimization program known as POST. This study determined the minimum time gap between immediate and once-around safe return to the launch site from a baseline due-East launch trajectory for an alternate space shuttle concept which experiences an instantaneous loss of 25 percent of the total main engine thrust.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ABORT TRAJECTORIES, LAUNCHING, SPACE SHUTTLES, ENGINE...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA BASES, DATA MANAGEMENT, DATA...
Profiles of the microphysical properties of clouds and raincells are essential in many areas of atmospheric research and operational meteorology. In order to enhance the understanding of the nonlinear and underconstrained relationships between cloud and hydrometeor microphysical profiles and passive microwave brightness temperatures, estimations of cloud profiles for an anvil, a convective, and an updraft region of an oceanic squall were performed. The estimations relied on comparisons between...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ESTIMATES, ESTIMATING, HYDROMETEORS, RAIN, CLOUD PHYSICS,...
The author has identified the following significant results. Five areas in North America (North Slope-Alaska, Superior Province-Canada, Williston Basin-Montana, Colorado, and New Mexico-West Texas) are being studied for discernibility of geological evidence on ERTS-1 imagery. Evidence mapped is compared with known mineral/hydrocarbon accumulations to determine the value of the imagery in commercial exploration programs. Evaluation has proceeded in the New Mexico-Texas area, and to date, results...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALASKA, CANADA, COLORADO, IMAGERY, MINERAL EXPLORATION,...
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The Bozzolo, Ferrante and Smith (BFS) method for alloys is applied to the study of the defect structure of B2 FeAI alloys. First-principles Linear Muffin Tin Orbital calculations are used to determine the input parameters to the BFS method used in this work. The calculations successfully determine the phase field of the B2 structure, as well as the dependence with composition of the lattice parameter. Finally, the method is used to perform 'static' simulations where instead of determining the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALUMINUM ALLOYS, ATOMIC STRUCTURE, BINARY ALLOYS, CRYSTAL...
The TOPEX/Poseidon Project Satellite Performance Analysis Team's (SPAT) roles and responsibilities have grown to include functions that are typically performed by other teams on JPL Flight Projects. In particular, SPAT Telecommunication's role has expanded beyond the nominal function of monitoring, assessing, characterizing, and trending the spacecraft (S/C) RF/Telecom subsystem to one of End-to-End Information Systems (EEIS) monitoring. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BIT ERROR RATE, DATA LINKS, DATA SYSTEMS, GROUND STATIONS,...
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In order to facilitate Earth science data access, the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) has developed a web prototype, the Hurricane Data Analysis Tool (HDAT; URL: http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/HDAT), to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of several remote sensing and model datasets for educational activities and studies of tropical cyclones and other weather phenomena. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH SCIENCES, HURRICANES, DATA PROCESSING, SCIENTIFIC...
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The Design and Data Management System (DDMS) was developed to automate the NASA Engineering Order (EO) and Engineering Change Request (ECR) processes at the Propulsion Test Facilities at Stennis Space Center for efficient and effective Configuration Management (CM). Prior to the development of DDMS, the CM system was a manual, paper-based system that required an EO or ECR submitter to walk the changes through the acceptance process to obtain necessary approval signatures. This approval process...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT, DATA MANAGEMENT, SYSTEMS...
The author has identified the following significant results. A method for a rapid updating of cartography at scale 1:200,000 was established. An annular tectonic structure was detected north of Madrid which was named Structural Halo of Guadalix, since its center is situated in the locality of Guadalix de la Sierra. This circular complex has from 30 to 40 km of radius and its influences at its most extreme edges reach Madrid.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GEOLOGY, LAND USE, SPAIN, WATER RESOURCES, EARTH RESOURCES...
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS, SPACE...
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Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEBRIS, HEATING, IMPINGEMENT, INSECTS, PATENTS, Spiro,...
Crack length and thickness influence in plane strain fracture toughness tests
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COLD FLOW TESTS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, NOZZLE FLOW,...
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT,...
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Under an SBIR contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International developed a new system for the treatment of wastewater based on the metabolic activity of photorphic bacteria. These microorganisms are now being sold as a liquid product called Mega-Bac TF. It is currently used for septic systems and wastewater ponds, lakes and lagoons to degrade fat, oil, fecal matter and other biologically derived wastes. Potential applications include homes, agriculture, food processors and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BACTERIA, MANUFACTURING, MICROORGANISMS, WASTE WATER, WATER...
An optical path switch divides sample path radiation into a time series of alternating first polarized components and second polarized components. The first polarized components are transmitted along a first optical path and the second polarized components along a second optical path. A first gasless optical filter train filters the first polarized components to isolate at least a first wavelength band thereby generating first filtered radiation. A second gasless optical filter train filters...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL PATHS, OPTICAL SWITCHING, RADIOMETERS, PATENTS,...
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There are three primary objectives for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Growth concepts and configuration study task. The first objective is the development of evolutionary SSF concept consistent with user requirements and program constraints. The second primary objective is to ensure the feasibility of the proposed SSF evolution concepts as the systems level. This includes an assessment of SSF evolution flight control analysis, logistics assessment, maintainability, and operational...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT CONTROL, SPACE STATION FREEDOM, SPACECRAFT...
The absolute rate constant for the reaction Cl + H2CO yields HCl + HCO was determined by the flash-photolysis resonance fluorescence method to be 7.5 plus or minus 0.9 (2 sigma) times 10 to the minus 11th power cu cm/molecule sec at 298 K and to have a negligible temperature dependence. This rate which is more than 2000 times faster than the rate of Cl + CH4 indicates that formaldehyde (H2CO) will compete significantly with methane (CH4) for the conversion of active chlorine in the stratosphere...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHEMICAL REACTIONS, CHLORINE, OZONE, OZONE DEPLETION,...
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Three critical technological areas associated with adapting the method of pulling signal crystal silicon ribbon to a space environment were investigated. Basic parameters such as the magnitude of the forces required and the coupling between thermal and force are discussed. The design of a ribbon puller is described, and the problems encountered are also discussed. The force fields in the vicinity of a coil were characterized and results of attempts to pull ribbon are described. The results of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, CRYSTAL GROWTH, SINGLE CRYSTALS,...
This research program has been conducted in the framework of the NASA Earth and Space Science (ESS) evaluations led by Dr. Thomas Sterling. In addition to the many important research findings for NASA and the prestigious publications, the program has helped orienting the doctoral research program of two students towards parallel input/output in high-performance computing. Further, the experimental results in the case of the MasPar were very useful and helpful to MasPar with which the P.I. has...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INPUT/OUTPUT ROUTINES, PARALLEL PROCESSING (COMPUTERS),...
There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROLOGY, NEW ENGLAND (US), RESERVOIRS, WATER MANAGEMENT,...
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Special emphasis was on corn plants, and the healthy targets were differentiated from stressed ones by remote sensing. Infrared radiometry of plants is reviewed thoroughly with emphasis on agricultural crops. Theory and error analysis of the determination of emittance of a natural target by radiometer is discussed. Experiments were conducted on corn (Zea mays L.) plants with long wavelength spectroradiometer under field conditions. Analysis of multispectral scanner data of ten selected...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MULTISPECTRAL PHOTOGRAPHY, PLANTS (BOTANY), SPECTRAL...
A new fiber optic probe is developed to study different parts of the eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIAGNOSIS, EYE (ANATOMY), FIBER OPTICS, LIGHT SCATTERING,...
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Permeameter for measurement of magnetizing force and magnetic induction at very high temperatures
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Results of research on the chemical modification of TiO2 powders in the gas phase and the examination of the modified powders by infrared absorption spectroscopy are comprehensively summarized. The range of information obtainable by IR spectroscopy of chemically modified semiconductors, and a definition of the optimum reaction conditions for synthesizing a monolayer of methylsilanes using vapor phase reaction conditions were considered.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), POWDER (PARTICLES), SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES, TITANIUM OXIDES,...