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A summary of activities of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board for the period January 1, 1985 to March 31, 1985 is given. Information is given on Space Technology Research activities.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING, NASA PROGRAMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
The Fourth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, THERMAL...
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1993 through March 31, 1994. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER...
CFD analysis provides a means of discerning H-seal functionality. H-Seal geometry can be modified to provide smaller or larger operational gap. H-Seal can be installed with large cold clearance and maintain a small operational effective clearance.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SEALING, FORCE DISTRIBUTION,...
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This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of a new super computer, called Columbia, capable of operating at 62 Tera Flops. This computer is the 4th fastest computer in the world. This computer will serve all mission directorates. The applications that it would serve are: aerospace analysis and design, propulsion subsystem analysis, climate modeling, hurricane prediction and astrophysics and cosmology.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NASA PROGRAMS, SUPERCOMPUTERS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...
A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DETECTION, INERTIAL NAVIGATION,...
The field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has advanced to the point where it can now be used for the purpose of fluid dynamics physics education. Because of the tremendous wealth of information available from numerical simulation, certain fundamental concepts can be efficiently communicated using an interactive graphical interrogation of the appropriate numerical simulation data base. In other situations, a large amount of aerodynamic information can be communicated to the student by...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTERIZED...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The usage model of supercomputers for scientific applications, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), has changed over the years. Scientific visualization has moved scientists away from looking at numbers to looking at three-dimensional images, which capture the meaning of the data. This change has impacted the system models for computing. This report details the model which is used by scientists at NASA's research centers.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION,...
This viewgraph presentation reviews the overall work of the Stennis Space Center, with particular attention paid to the systems analysis and modeling being done with ANSYS Workbench and CFX. Examples of the analyses done with ANSYS Workbench and CFX and planned analyses are reviewed.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MODELS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
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The Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysis. Paper topics included advances an uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, CONFERENCES, THERMAL ANALYSIS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PUMP...
A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code is used to simulate the J-2X engine exhaust in the center-body diffuser and spray chamber at the Spacecraft Propulsion Facility (B-2). The CFD code is named as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) Euler solver and is very robust at shock capturing. The CESE results are compared with independent analysis results obtained by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) and show excellent agreement.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, SIMULATION, SPACECRAFT...
This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, TURBULENCE MODELS, TURBULENT...
The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD has become standard practice in the design and analysis of the major components used for space propulsion. In an attempt to standardize and improve the CFD process a series of automated tools have been developed. Through the use of these automated tools the application of CFD to the design cycle has been improved and streamlined. This paper presents a series of applications in which deficiencies were identified in the CFD process and corrected...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ENGINE DESIGN, AUTOMATION,...
Physical and transform space filtering has been applied to the Fourier spectral collocation solution of the constant coefficient scalar wave equation with a discontinuous initial condition. High order accuracy can be extracted from the unfiltered solution. Smooth, high order Fourier space filtering gives expected polynomial order solutions away from the discontinuity. Spectral accuracy is observed with the physical space filter of Gottlieb and Tadmor.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DISCONTINUITY, HYPERBOLIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SPECTRAL...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FIRE CONTROL, DETECTION, GAS DETECTORS, MICROGRAVITY,...
This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MISSILES,...
This document summarizes the initial results from a research effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center on blisk and bladed disk mistuning, including both structural and aerodynamic coupling. The structural coupling model is based on the Fundamental Mistuning Model (FMM, developed by Feiner and Griffin). This effort extends the FMM technique to accept aerodynamic coupling coefficients from computational fluid dynamic codes. The model was applied to a representative modern front compressor stage....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS,...
Condition queries on distributed data ask where particular conditions are satisfied. It is possible to represent condition queries as geometric objects by plotting field data in various spaces derived from the data, and by selecting loci within these derived spaces which signify the desired conditions. Rather simple geometric partitions of derived spaces can represent complex condition queries because much complexity can be encapsulated in the derived space mapping itself A geometric view of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DETECTION, FLOW VISUALIZATION,...
Slides are reproduced that describe the importance of having high performance number crunching and graphics capability. They also indicate the types of research and development underway at Ames Research Center to ensure that, in the near term, Ames is a smart buyer and user, and in the long-term that Ames knows the best possible solutions for number crunching and graphics needs. The drivers for this research are real computational physics applications of interest to Ames and NASA. They are...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
The Eulerian mapping closure approach is developed for uncertainty propagation in computational fluid mechanics. The approach is used to study the Probability Density Function (PDF) for the concentration of species advected by a random shear flow. An analytical argument shows that fluctuation of the concentration field at one point in space is non-Gaussian and exhibits stretched exponential form. An Eulerian mapping approach provides an appropriate approximation to both convection and diffusion...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROBABILITY THEORY, DENSITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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With the interest in jet propulsion at the end of World War II, aerodynamicists were challenged to develop mathematical models which could be used to design turbomachinery components for jets. NASA Lewis engineers and scientists played a major role in meeting this challenge. Some of their accomplishments are highlighted as well as those of others. Several problems are addressed which must be solved if jet propulsion technology is to advance.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLOW DISTRIBUTION, JET PROPULSION, MATHEMATICAL MODELS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
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The problem of applying modular attitude control to a rigid body-flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft with some state variables inaccessible was addressed by developing a sequence of single axis models and generating a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order to reconstruct those scalar state variables that were inaccessible. The specific single axis models treated consisted of two, three and four rigid bodies, respectively, interconnected by a flexible shaft...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLEXIBLE SPACECRAFT, SATELLITE...
This report describes results of benchmark tests on Steger, a 250 MHz Origin 2000 system with R10K processors, currently installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility. For comparison purposes, the tests were also run on Lomax, a 400 MHz Origin 2000 with R12K processors. The BT, LU, and SP application benchmarks in the NAS Parallel Benchmark Suite and the kernel benchmark FT were chosen to measure system performance. Having been written to measure performance on...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PERFORMANCE TESTS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPILERS,...
A new method of generating unstructured triangular/tetrahedral grids with high-aspect-ratio cells is proposed. The method is based on new grid-marching strategy referred to as 'advancing-layers' for construction of highly stretched cells in the boundary layer and the conventional advancing-front technique for generation of regular, equilateral cells in the inviscid-flow region. Unlike the existing semi-structured viscous grid generation techniques, the new procedure relies on a totally...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, GRID...
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A roadmap for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation is developed. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DATA BASES, HYPERSONIC FLOW,...
So what is Shrinkwrap all about? For those of you who may not know about it, Shrinkwrap is a type of data structure that can manifest itself as a feature or model. It is cleverly covered up, almost hidden, and doesn't get the press or widespread use of a solid or surface. The shrinkwrap feature is located under the data sharing submenu of the feature menu. The shrinkwrap feature, as described by PTC, is a collection of surfaces and datum features of a model that represents the exterior of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA STRUCTURES, MODELS, COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, ASSEMBLIES,...
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The results of a series of Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) simulations are compared to each other over a wide range of operating conditions. It is found that the PaSR results can be simulated by a PSR solution with just an adjusted chemical reaction rate. A simple expression has been developed that gives the required change in reaction rate for a PSR solution to simulate the PaSR results. This expression is the basis of a simple turbulence-chemistry...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBULENCE MODELS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, REACTION...
A methodology for surface grid generation in three dimensional space is described. The method solves a Poisson equation for each coordinate on arbitrary surfaces using successive line over-relaxation. The complete surface curvature terms were discretized and retained within the nonhomogeneous term in order to preserve surface definition; there is no need for conventional surface splines. Control functions were formulated to permit control of grid orthogonality and spacing. A method for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS),...
This project is a continuation of the work performed in the summers of 1991 and 1992, during which a 9-block structured grid for the computational domain around each of the four NTF 65-degree Delta Wing models with the sting mount were created. The objective of the project is to validate and supplement the test data on the wing models by computing the viscous flow field about the models.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, DELTA WINGS, TRANSONIC FLOW, VISCOUS...
Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER...
This bibliography lists 425 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in January 1985.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING, AIRCRAFT DESIGN,...
Over three million Americans and 20 million people worldwide suffer from some form of heart failure. Mechanical heart assist devices are being used as a temporary support to sick ventricle and valves as a bridge-to-transplant or bridge-to-recovery. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the development of NASA-DeBakey Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) using numerical aerospace simulation technology.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEART, MECHANICAL DEVICES, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION,...
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The goal here was to present one approach to rapid CFD for S&C using an unstructured inviscid method, in order to eventually assess S&C properties as early in the design process as possible. Specific results are presented regarding time, accuracy (as compared to a baseline wind tunnel database) and simplicity for the user. For COMSAC, it s more important to talk about the "specifications" required by Advanced Design and S&C, as well as how the CFD results can be combined...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AIRCRAFT DESIGN, DATA BASES,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A complete list of Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) reports are listed. Since ICASE reports are intended to be preprints of articles that will appear in journals or conference proceedings, the published reference is included when it is available. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTICS, AERODYNAMICS, APPLICATIONS OF MATHEMATICS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Aerospace data analysis tools that significantly reduce the time and effort needed to analyze large-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations have emerged this year. The current approach for most postprocessing and visualization work is to explore the 3D flow simulations with one of a dozen or so interactive tools. While effective for analyzing small data sets, this approach becomes extremely time consuming when working with data sets larger than one gigabyte. An active area of research...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER GRAPHICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SEARCHING, DATA...
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Genetic algorithms, which simulate evolution in natural systems, have been used to find solutions to optimization problems that seem intractable to standard approaches. In this study, the feasibility of using a GA to find an optimum, fixed profile nozzle for a pulse detonation engine (PDE) is demonstrated. The objective was to maximize impulse during the detonation wave passage and blow-down phases of operation. Impulse of each profile variant was obtained by using the CFD code Mozart/2.0 to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DETONATION WAVES, GENETIC ALGORITHMS, OPTIMAL CONTROL,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BELLOWS, JOINTS (JUNCTIONS), FLUID FLOW, VIBRATION,...
The aerospace plane design challenge is presented in the form of the view-graphs. The following topics are included: the CFD design technology development; CFD validation vs. measurable fluid dynamics validation; and discussion of results.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE PLANES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER...
Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of an optimized, fixed PDRE nozzle configuration is reported. The results are compared to a steady-state rocket system using similar modeling assumptions.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PULSE DETONATION ENGINES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
This presentation is designed as a limited-scope "tutorial" and is aimed primarily at the CFDer who has not been exposed to stability and control problems. Examples of some classic S&C problems are used for illustration. S&C is a fundamental technology for enabling flight, but significant problems with the prediction of S&C characteristics persists, especially where separated flow is involved. Even after 100 years of flight, experimental methods still have significant...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, STABILITY, ACTIVE CONTROL,...
For DES, RANS is responsible for predicting boundary layer growth and separation. LES is responsible for predicting the geometry dependent turbulent flow features. Grid adaptation done using NASA Langley s RefineMesh program. Adaptation on time average of vorticity
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERODYNAMIC STALLING, TURBULENT...
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This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DATA PROCESSING, ALGORITHMS,...
This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics and computer science during the period April 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustic and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, COMBUSTION STABILITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The WIND code is a general-purpose, structured, multizone, compressible flow solver that can be used to analyze steady or unsteady flow for a wide range of geometric configurations and over a wide range of flow conditions. WIND is the latest product of the NPARC Alliance, a formal partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). WIND Version 1.0 was released in February 1998, and Version 2.0 will be released in February 1999. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...
Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) has become a powerful conceptual and parametric geometry tool with numerous export capabilities for third-party analysis codes as well as robust surface meshing capabilities for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. However, a capability gap currently exists for reconstructing a fully parametric VSP model of a geometry generated by third-party software. A computer code called GEO2VSP has been developed to close this gap and to allow the integration of VSP into a...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FEEDBACK CONTROL, DESIGN...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. received assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center engineers in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) branch of the Structure and Dynamics Laboratory in improving the proposed design of a new impeller for their jet-propulsion systems. Marshall used advanced CFD techniques, which included creating a three-dimensional computer model of the impeller for analysis. With Marshall input, the company modified the design, then Marshall used a computer model to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, IMPELLERS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
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An introduction is given to the research activity that is underway to enable the prediction of turbomachinery aeroelastic forced response. An effort is being made to assemble a computer program (FREPS) which incorporates the aeroelastic structural models, unsteady aerodynamic models, and forcing function models. The structural and aerodynamic models are currently well developed. The forcing function models are at a primitive level. A significant activity has begun to identify the forcing...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROELASTICITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MATHEMATICAL...
The accuracy and complexity of solving multicomponent gaseous diffusion using the detailed multicomponent equations, the Stefan-Maxwell equations, and two commonly used approximate equations have been examined in a two part study. Part I examined the equations in a basic study with specified inputs in which the results are applicable for many applications. Part II addressed the application of the equations in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) computational code...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROTHERMODYNAMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY,...
A theory for obtaining approximate solutions to nonlinear problems whose exact solutions require the use of large computational procedures is described. The technique represents in some respects a generalization of the method of base and comparison solutions for flows depending on a parameter. For the generalized problem, the input variable is no longer a parameter but a function that is incremented over its entire domain. After performing calculations for a base configuration and a small...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS, APPROXIMATION, COMPUTATIONAL...
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Issues & Topics Discussed: a) Aviation Week reported shortfall In LPT efficiency due to the application of "high lift airfoils". b) Progress in the design technologies in LPTs during the last 20 years: 1) Application of RANS based CFD codes. 2) Integration of recent experimental data and modeling of LPT airfoil specific flows into design methods. c) Opportunities to further enhance LPT efficiency for commercial aviation and military transport application and to impact emissions,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, TURBINES, LOW PRESSURE,...
The evolving role of computational aerothermodynamics (CA) within NASA over the past 20 years is reviewed. The presentation highlights contributions to understanding the Space Shuttle pitching moment anomaly observed in the first shuttle flight, prediction of a static instability for Mars Pathfinder, and the use of CA for damage assessment in post-Columbia mission support. In the view forward, several current challenges in computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics for hypersonic...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROTHERMODYNAMICS, ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
With the renewed interest in Cartesian gridding methodologies for the ease and speed of gridding complex geometries in addition to the simplicity of the control volumes used in the computations, it has become important to investigate ways of extending the existing Cartesian grid solver functionalities. This includes developing methods of modeling the viscous effects in order to utilize Cartesian grids solvers for accurate drag predictions and addressing the issues related to the distributed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARTESIAN COORDINATES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, VISCOUS...
The overset grid methodology has significantly reduced time-to-solution of highfidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations about complex aerospace configurations. The solution process resolves the geometrical complexity of the problem domain by using separately generated but overlapping structured discretization grids that periodically exchange information through interpolation. However, high performance computations of such large-scale realistic applications must be handled...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, MULTIBLOCK...
Over the period of this grant (1986-92), 23 graduate students were supported by the Center and received education and training in hypersonics through MS and Ph.D. programs. An additional 8 Ph.D. candidates and 2 MS candidates, with their own fellowship support, were attracted to The University of Texas and were recruited into the hypersonics program because of the Center. Their research, supervised by the 10 faculty involved in the Center, resulted in approximately 50 publications and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, EDUCATION, HYPERSONICS,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Raisbeck Mark Five Sabreliner 60A is a modernized, higher performance version of the Sabreliner business jet designed more than 20 years ago. Rockwell decided to update the design to incorporate NASA's computational fluid dynamics technology, thereby insuring continuing production of a competitive new airplane and protecting Sabreliner owners' investments by allowing them to convert to the update configuration. Redesign of the airplane involved extensive changes in aerodynamics structure and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WINGS, AIRCRAFT DESIGN, AERODYNAMICS, AIRFOILS, CONSUMPTION,...
This report is the documentation of the work performed for the Subsonic Rotary Wing Project under the NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. It was funded through Task Number NNC10E420T under GESS-2 Contract NNC06BA07B in the period of 10/1/2010 to 8/31/2011. The objective of the task is to provide support for the development of variable speed power turbine technology through application of computational fluid dynamics analyses. This includes work elements in mesh generation, multistage URANS...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AERODYNAMICS, TURBINES, GRID...
This report describes a two level parallelization of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solver with multi-zone overset structured grids. The approach is based on a hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming model suitable for shared memory and clusters of shared memory machines. The performance investigations of the hybrid application on an SGI Origin2000 (O2K) machine is reported using medium and large scale test problems.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...
This document in large part is based on the Masters Thesis of Cole Stephens. The document encompasses a variety of technical and practical issues involved when using the STARS codes for Aeroservoelastic analysis of vehicles. The document covers in great detail a number of technical issues and step-by-step details involved in the simulation of a system where aerodynamics, structures and controls are tightly coupled. Comparisons are made to a benchmark experimental program conducted at NASA...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, AEROSERVOELASTICITY, CONTROL...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The coding of high-performance fluids simulations requires significant knowledge of both numerical and computational details. The magnitude and complexity of low-level details is often enough to discourage many users of turbulence data wishing to study more important, higher-level fluid dynamical questions. These same complexities are often a practical barrier to simulation experts who develop, verify and maintain the codes which generate this data. Future fluids codes, with high resolution and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CODING, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, PROGRAMMING...
NASA has planned a supercomputer for computational fluid dynamics research since the mid-1970's. With the approval of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program as a FY 1984 new start, Congress requested an assessment of the program's objectives, projected short- and long-term uses, program design, computer architecture, user needs, and handling of proprietary and classified information. Specifically requested was an examination of the merits of proceeding with multiple high speed processor...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
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Market forces are driving industry to reproduce product cycle time (the time required to conceive, design, build, test, validate and deliver a product). Application of existing tools in new areas can reduce the time required to design a new product and increase the confidence of acceptable test results later in the expensive testing and validation phase. Finite element methods, computational fluid dynamics codes and sharing of CAD datasets when applied to the design of engine externals can...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, COMPUTER...
Procedures and methods for veri.cation of coding algebra and for validations of models and calculations used in the aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community would be ef.cacious if used by the glacier dynamics modeling community. This paper presents some of those methods, and how they might be applied to uncertainty management supporting code veri.cation and model validation for glacier dynamics. The similarities and differences between their use in CFD analysis and the proposed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ALGEBRA, CODING, ANALOGIES,...
A design methodology based on streamline-tracing is discussed for the design of external-compression, supersonic inlets for flight below Mach 2.0. The methodology establishes a supersonic compression surface and capture cross-section by tracing streamlines through an axisymmetric Busemann flowfield. The compression system of shock and Mach waves is altered through modifications to the leading edge and shoulder of the compression surface. An external terminal shock is established to create...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERSONIC INLETS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ENGINE...
This report describes results of benchmark tests on the Origin 3000 system currently being installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing facility. This machine will ultimately contain 1024 R14K processors. The first part of the system, installed in November, 2000 and named mendel, is an Origin 3000 with 128 R12K processors. For comparison purposes, the tests were also run on lomax, an Origin 2000 with R12K processors. The BT, LU, and SP application benchmarks in the NAS Parallel...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WORKLOADS (PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
In 1973 engineers at Dryden began investigating ways to reduce aerodynamic drag on land vehicles. They began with a delivery van whose shape they changed dramatically, finally reducing its aerodynamic drag by more than 5 percent. They then turned their attention to tracator-trailers, modifying a cab-over and reducing its aerodynamic drag by nearly 25 percent. Further research identified additional areas worth attention, but in the intervening decades few of those changes have appeared.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC DRAG, AERODYNAMICS, DRAG REDUCTION, SHAPES,...
RotCFD is a software intended to ease the design of NextGen rotorcraft. Since RotCFD is a new software still in the development process, the results need to be validated to determine the software's accuracy. The purpose of the present document is to explain one of the approaches to accomplish that goal.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), HELICOPTER DESIGN,...
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An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, RAREFIED...
A methodology is developed and implemented to mitigate the lengthy software development cycle typically associated with constructing a discrete adjoint solver for aerodynamic simulations. The approach is based on a complex-variable formulation that enables straightforward differentiation of complicated real-valued functions. An automated scripting process is used to create the complex-variable form of the set of discrete equations. An efficient method for assembling the residual and cost...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS), COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION,...
The following grant objectives were delineated in the proposal to NASA: to offer course work in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and related areas to enable mechanical engineering students at North Carolina A&T State University (N.C. A&TSU) to pursue M.S. studies in CFD, and to enable students and faculty to engage in research in high speed compressible flows. Since no CFD-related activity existed at N.C. A&TSU before the start of the NASA grant period, training of students in the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPRESSIBILITY EFFECTS, COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, COMPUTATIONAL...
Domain decomposition is an intuitive organizing principle for a partial differential equation (PDE) computation, both physically and architecturally. However, its significance extends beyond the readily apparent issues of geometry and discretization, on one hand, and of modular software and distributed hardware, on the other. Engineering and computer science aspects are bridged by an old but recently enriched mathematical theory that offers the subject not only unity, but also tools for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DECOMPOSITION,...
One or the key objectives of the Applied Research Branch in the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division at NASA Allies Research Center is the accelerated introduction of highly parallel machines into a full operational environment. In this report we discuss the performance results obtained from the implementation of some computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications on the Connection Machine CM-2 and the Intel iPSC/860. We summarize some of the experiences made so far with the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, CONNECTION MACHINE, PARALLEL...
There is a wide-spread belief that most explicit one-dimensional advection schemes need to satisfy the so-called 'CFL condition' - that the Courant number, c = udelta(t)/delta(x), must be less than or equal to one, for stability in the von Neumann sense. This puts severe limitations on the time-step in high-speed, fine-grid calculations and is an impetus for the development of implicit schemes, which often require less restrictive time-step conditions for stability, but are more expensive per...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADVECTION, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLOW STABILITY, TVD...
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is necessary in the design processes of all current aerospace plane programs. Single-stage-to-orbit (STTO) aerospace planes with air-breathing supersonic combustion are going to be largely designed by means of CFD. The challenge of the aerospace plane design is to provide credible CFD results to work from, to assess the risk associated with the use of those results, and to certify CFD codes that produce credible results. To establish the credibility of CFD...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE PLANES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DESIGN...
The paper presents the results from a validation study undertaken as a part of the NASA s fundamental aeronautics initiative on high altitude emissions in order to assess the accuracy of several atomization models used in both non-superheat and superheat spray calculations. As a part of this investigation we have undertaken the validation based on four different cases to investigate the spray characteristics of (1) a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPRAYERS, COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
This paper describes a proposed best-practices system that will present expert knowledge in the use of CFD. The best-practices system will include specific guidelines to assist the user in problem definition, input preparation, grid generation, code selection, parameter specification, and results interpretation. The goal of the system is to assist all CFD users in obtaining high quality CFD solutions with reduced uncertainty and at lower cost for a wide range of flow problems. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS), EXPERT SYSTEMS, COMPUTATIONAL...
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The advancements made during the last decade in the areas of combustion modeling, numerical simulation, and computing platform have greatly facilitated the use of CFD based tools in the development of combustion technology. Further development of verification, validation and uncertainty quantification will have profound impact on the reliability and utility of these CFD based tools. The objectives of the present effort are to establish baseline for the National Combustion Code (NCC) and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY,...
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This paper presents computational fluid dynamic studies of the inlet turbulence and wall curvature effects on the flow steadiness at near wall surface locations in boundary layer flows. The time-stepping RANS numerical solver of the NASA Glenn-HT RANS code and a one-equation turbulence model, with a uniform inlet turbulence modeling level of the order of 10 percent of molecular viscosity, were used to perform the numerical computations. The approach was first calibrated for its predictabilities...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBULENCE MODELS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, UNSTEADY...
The use of simulation data bases for the examination of turbulent flows is an effective research tool. Studies of the structure of turbulence have been hampered by the limited number of probes and the impossibility of measuring all desired quantities. Also, flow visualization is confined to the observation of passive markers with limited field of view and contamination caused by time-history effects. Computer flow fields are a new resource for turbulence research, providing all the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUMERICAL...
The goal of this project was to develop models of the interconnection networks of the Intel iPSC/860 and DELTA multicomputers to guide the design of efficient algorithms for interprocessor communication in problems that commonly occur in CFD codes and other applications. Interprocessor communication costs of codes for message-passing architectures such as the iPSC/860 and DELTA significantly affect the level of performance that can be obtained from those machines. This project addressed several...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, HYPERCUBE MULTIPROCESSORS,...
This slide presentation reviews the use of OVERFLOW, a flow solver, to analyze the effect of separation for a launch abort vehicle (i.e., Orion capsule) if required. Included in the presentation are views of the geometry, and the Overset grids, listing of the assumptions, the general run strategy, inputs into the Overflow solver, the required computational resources, the results of the convergence study. Charts and graphics are presented to show the results.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ABORT APPARATUS, SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
A paper describes direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of three-dimensional mixing-layer flows undergoing transition to turbulence; the mixing layers may or may not be laden with evaporating liquid drops.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MIXING LAYERS (FLUIDS), THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW, TURBULENCE,...
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The main objective of this project has been to support the development of multigrid techniques in computational fluid dynamics that can achieve "textbook multigrid efficiency" (TME), which is several orders of magnitude faster than current industrial CFD solvers. Toward that goal we have assembled a detailed table which lists every foreseen kind of computational difficulty for achieving it, together with the possible ways for resolving the difficulty, their current state of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MULTIGRID METHODS, ALGORITHMS,...
To study the effect of cancellations within long-range interactions on local isotropy at the small scales, we calculate explicitly the degree of cancellation in distant interactions in the simulations of Yeung & Brasseur and Yeung, Brasseur & Wang using the single scale disparity parameter 's' developed by Zhou. In the simulations, initially isotropic simulated turbulence was subjected to coherent anisotropic forcing at the large scales and the smallest scales were found to become...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANISOTROPY, ENERGY TRANSFER, LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER, TURBULENCE,...
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Two projects are reported. The first is the development and testing of an eddy viscosity transport model. This project also is a starting point for our work on developing computational tools for solving turbulence models in complex geometries. The second project is a stochastic analysis of the realizability of Reynolds stress transport models.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, EDDY VISCOSITY, MIXING LENGTH...
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An unsteady, three dimensional Navier-Stokes solution in rotating frame formulation for turbomachinery applications is presented. Casting the governing equations in a rotating frame enabled the freezing of grid motion and resulted in substantial savings in computer time. The turbine blade was computationally simulated and probabilistically evaluated in view of several uncertainties in the aerodynamic, structural, material and thermal variables that govern the turbine blade. The interconnection...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STRUCTURAL DESIGN, TURBINE BLADES, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
The present investigation is a continuation of a previous joint project between the Florida State University and the NASA Langley Research Center Liner Physics Team. In the previous project, a study of acoustic liners, in two dimensions, inside a normal incidence impedance tube was carried out. The study consisted of two parts. The NASA team was responsible for the experimental part of the project. This involved performing measurements in an impedance tube with a large aspect ratio slit...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LININGS, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, AEROACOUSTICS, COMPUTATIONAL...
A 2-D high-lift system experiment was conducted in August of 1996 in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain transition measurements on a three element high-lift system for CFD code validation studies. A transition database has been created using the data from this experiment. The present report contains the analysis of the surface hot film data in terms of the transition locations on the three elements. It...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
Results from a study to assess the accuracy of turbulent heating and skin friction prediction techniques for hypersonic applications are presented. The study uses the original and a modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model with a space marching code. Grid converged turbulent predictions using the wall damping formulation (original model) and local damping formulation (modified model) are compared with experimental data for several flat plates. The wall damping and local damping results are...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, DAMPING, TURBULENT HEAT...
The X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) configuration includes the liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant #1 (RP-1) feedlines. The flow analyses of these feedlines were performed and documented in previous studies. These analyses predicted a relatively low inlet distortion and nearly even flow split at the engine interface. The new design for these MPS feedlines has been recommended recently. The new configuration includes a tighter radius in the RP-1 feedline and a neck-down section between...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X-34 REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE, FEED SYSTEMS, ROCKET...
The complexity of modern military systems, as well as the cost and difficulty associated with experimentally verifying system and subsystem design makes the use of high-fidelity based simulation a future alternative for design and development. The predictive ability of such simulations such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural mechanics (CSM) have matured significantly. However, for numerical simulations to be used with confidence in design and development,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, MILITARY TECHNOLOGY,...
Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, CONFERENCES, DESIGN ANALYSIS,...
This document contains a complete list of ICASE Reports. Since ICASE Reports are intended to be preprints of articles that will appear in journals or conference proceedings, the published reference is included when it is available.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, COMPUTER TECHNIQUES,...
This report summarizes the status of computational unsteady aerodynamics methods for aeroelastic analysis and makes recommendations for future research activities. The flight conditions for which various types of flows exist are described and the aeroelastic phenomena that can occur in those flight regimes are discussed. Some important aeroelastic problems of current interest are described, and the aerodynamic methods needed to analyze them are presented. The capabilities and limitations of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMICS, AEROELASTICITY, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
Researchers at NASA Lewis are currently developing an 'intelligent' interface to aid in the development and use of large, computational fluid dynamics flow-solver codes for studying the internal fluid behavior of aerospace propulsion systems. This paper discusses the requirements, design, and implementation of an intelligent interface to Proteus, a general purpose, 3-D, Navier-Stokes flow solver. The interface is called PROTAIS to denote its introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) concepts...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, CODING, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID...
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A source term model which simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force which would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION, VANES, VORTEX GENERATORS,...
The second law of thermodynamics is used as a variational statement to derive a numerical procedure to satisfy the governing equations of motion. The procedure, based on numerical experimentation, appears to be stable provided the CFL condition is satisfied. This stability is manifested no matter how severe the gradients (compression or expansion) are in the flow field. For reasons of simplicity only one dimensional inviscid compressible unsteady flow is discussed here; however, the concepts...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPRESSIBLE FLOW, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ONE...
It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTIMAL CONTROL, SECONDARY FLOW, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, FEEDBACK...
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The full text of a paper presented at the Whither Turbulence Workshop (Cornell University, March 22-24, 1989) on past and future trends in turbulence modeling is provided. It is argued that Reynolds stress models are likely to remain the preferred approach for technological applications for at least the next few decades. In general agreement with the Launder position paper, it is further argued that among the variety of Reynolds stress models in use, second-order closures constitute by far the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, REYNOLDS STRESS, TURBULENCE,...
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There are procedures and methods for verification of coding algebra and for validations of models and calculations that are in use in the aerospace computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community. These methods would be efficacious if used by the glacier dynamics modelling community. This paper is a presentation of some of those methods, and how they might be applied to uncertainty management supporting code verification and model validation for glacier dynamics. The similarities and differences...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GLACIERS, GLACIOLOGY, EXPLORATION, PROVING, CODING, ALGEBRA,...