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NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Porous cross-linked polyimide networks are provided. The networks comprise an anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer. The oligomer (i) comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and terminal anhydride groups, (ii) has an average degree of polymerization of 10 to 50, (iii) has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups, and (iv) has been chemically...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THIN FILMS, POLYIMIDES, OLIGOMERS, CROSSLINKING,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team evaluated surface power needs for a conceptual crewed 500-day Mars mission. This study had four goals: 1. Determine estimated surface power needed to support the reference mission; 2. Explore alternatives to minimize landed power system mass; 3. Explore alternatives to minimize Mars Lander power self-sufficiency burden; and 4. Explore alternatives to minimize power system handling and surface transportation mass. The study team...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MANNED MARS MISSIONS, MARS SURFACE, MISSION PLANNING,...
Due to recently identified vision changes associated with space flight, JSC Space and Clinical Operations (SCO) implemented broad mission-related vision testing starting in 2009. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), 3 Tesla Brain and Orbit MRIs, Optical Biometry were implemented terrestrially for clinical monitoring. While no inflight vision testing was in place, already available onorbit technology was leveraged to facilitate in-flight clinical monitoring, including visual acuity, Amsler grid,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE MEDICINE, OPHTHALMOLOGY, VISION, EYE EXAMINATIONS,...
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Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GLOVES, INJURIES, HAND (ANATOMY), EXTRAVEHICULAR MOBILITY...
The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT SAFETY, FLIGHT SAFETY, HUMAN PERFORMANCE, HUMAN...
This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARS EXPLORATION, MARS MISSIONS, MISSION PLANNING,...
High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-chem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GAS COMPOSITION, HEAT TRANSFER, VORTICITY, AIR MASSES, OZONE,...
Plant phenology and maximum photosynthetic state determine spatiotemporal variability of gross primary productivity (GPP) of vegetation. Recent warming induced impacts accelerate shifts of phenology and physiological status over Northern vegetated land. Thus, understanding and quantifying these changes are very important. Here, we investigate 1) how vegetation phenology and physiological status (maximum photosynthesis) are evolved over last three decades and 2) how such components (phenology...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PHENOLOGY, PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, NORTHERN...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
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We tested the hypothesis that the relative water content (RWC) of the sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from polarized canopy imagery. Recently (IGARSS, July 27-31, 2015, Milan, Italy), we reported the results of laboratory polarization measurements of single detached leaves during dry down. We found that RWC was linearly related to the ratio of the reflectance of the interior of the leaf and the leaf transmittance. Here we report application of the laboratory results to estimate...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), POLARIZERS, CANOPIES (VEGETATION), PLANTS (BOTANY), REMOTE...
My main project was to determine and implement updates to be made to MODEAR (Mission Operations Data Enterprise Architecture Repository) process definitions to be used for CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation-100) related missions. Emphasis was placed on the scheduling aspect of the processes. In addition, I was to complete other tasks as given. Some of the additional tasks were: to create pass-through command look-up tables for the flight controllers, finish one of the MDT (Mission Operations...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECREWS, SPACE TRANSPORTATION, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA...
As the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed communications network over major US airports, it is now time to contemplate whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS is sufficient to meet the demands set forth by all fixed and mobile applications over the airport surface given the AeroMACS constraints regarding bandwidth and transmit power. The underlying idea in this article is to present IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX as a...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIO RELAY SYSTEMS, FREQUENCY HOPPING, AUGMENTATION, MOBILE...
With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2:30:11025 WHz(exp -1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94% of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTRONOMICAL POLARIMETRY, ELECTRONS, GALACTIC CLUSTERS,...
Coronagraphic imagery of the circumstellar disk around HD 169142 in H-band polarized intensity (PI) with Subaru/HiCIAO is presented. The emission scattered by dust particles at the disk surface in 0.''2=r=1.''2, or 29=r=174 AU, is successfully detected. The azimuthally-averaged radial profile of the PI shows a double power-law distribution, in which the PIs in r = 29-52 AU and r = 81.2-145 AU respectively show r-3-dependence. These two power-law regions are connected smoothly with a transition...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, CORONAGRAPHS, INFRARED STARS, PLANETARY...
On August 3rd and 4th, 2015, a workshop was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at the Moffett Federal Airfield in California to explore the aviation communities interest in Transformative Vertical Flight (TVF) Concepts. The Workshop was sponsored by the AHS International (AHS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and hosted by the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). This second annual...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRANSPORTATION, CONFERENCES, TECHNOLOGIES, MARKET...
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Optical linear polarization? In remote sensing it's due to specular reflection. The first surface that incident light encounters - a smooth water surface or the waxy first surface of a leaf's cuticle, if it's even somewhat smooth (i.e. shiny) - will specularly reflect and linearly polarize the incident light. We provide three examples of the types of ecological information contained in remotely sensed optical linear polarization measurements. Remove the surface reflection to better see the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL POLARIZATION, ECOLOGY, SPECULAR REFLECTION, LINEAR...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOUTHEAST ASIA, LAND USE, AGRICULTURE, FORESTS, REMOTE...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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This User Guide describes SOSS (Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler) software build and graphic user interface. SOSS is a desktop application that simulates airport surface operations in fast time using traffic management algorithms. It moves aircraft on the airport surface based on information provided by scheduling algorithm prototypes, monitors separation violation and scheduling conformance, and produces scheduling algorithm performance data.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS (COMPUTERS), AIRFIELD SURFACE...
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The Space Science and Astrobiology Division at NASA Ames Research Center consists of over 50 civil servants and more than 110 contractors, co-­-ops, post-­-docs and associates. Researchers in the division are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology and astrophysics. In addition, division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions including (but not limited to) Kepler, SOFIA, LADEE, JWST, and New Horizons. With such a wide...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXOBIOLOGY, EXTRASOLAR PLANETS, NASA PROGRAMS, ASTROPHYSICS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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In August 2015, NASA conducted a two-­aircraft, coordinated campaign based out of Thule Air Base, Greenland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the summer melt season. The survey was conducted with a photon-counting laser altimeter in one aircraft and an imaging spectrometer in the second aircraft. Ultimately, the mission, SIMPL/AVIRIS-NG Greenland 2015,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ICE, CLOUD AND LAND ELEVATION SATELLITE, AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT,...
With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFUSION FLAMES, CHEMILUMINESCENCE, LAMINAR FLOW,...
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The purpose of this test report is to summarize results from the vibration testing of the INFICON Transpector MPH100M model Mass Spectrometer. It also identifies requirements satisfied, and procedures used in the test. As a payload of Resource Prospector, it is necessary to determine the survivability of the mass spectrometer to proto-qualification level random vibration. Changes in sensitivity of the mass spectrometer can be interpreted as a change in alignment of the instrument. The results...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VIBRATION TESTS, RANDOM VIBRATION, MASS SPECTROMETERS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) station is the prototype for NASA's Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) systems which will be deployed around the world in the coming decade. The NGSLR system will be an autonomous, photon-counting SLR station with an expected absolute range accuracy of better than one centimeter and a normal point (time-averaged) range precision better than one millimeter. The system provides continuous (weather permitting), 24 hour tracking coverage to an...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATELLITE LASER RANGING, SATELLITE GROUND SUPPORT, GROUND...
The persistent monitoring capability provided by acoustic telemetry systems allows us to study behavior, movement, and resource selection of mobile marine animals. Current marine acoustic telemetry systems are challenged by localization errors and limits in the number of animals that can be tracked simultaneously. We designed a new system to provide detection ranges of up to 1 km, to reduce localization errors to less than 1 m, and to increase to 500 the number of unique tags simultaneously...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTIC SOUNDING, UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS, AUDIO EQUIPMENT,...
In the search for evidence of life, Icebreaker will drill in to the Martian ice-rich regolith to collect samples, which will then be analyzed by an array of instruments designed to identify biomarkers. In addition, drilling into the subsurface will provide the opportunity to assess the vertical distribution of ice to a depth of 1 meter. The purpose of this particular project was to understand the uncertainties involved in the use of the imaging system to constrain the water ice content in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARS SURFACE, REGOLITH, ICE, MOISTURE CONTENT, BIOMARKERS,...
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH ORBITAL ENVIRONMENTS, LOW EARTH ORBITS,...
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"Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology -...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXOBIOLOGY, EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE, AMINO ACIDS, ORGANISMS,...
Following the onset of damage caused by an impact load on a composite laminate structure, delaminations often form propagating outwards from the point of impact and in some cases can migrate via matrix cracks between plies as they grow. The goal of the present study is to develop an accurate finite element modeling technique for simulation of the delamination-migration phenomena in laminate impact damage processes. An experiment was devised where, under a quasi-static indentation load, an...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SANDWICH STRUCTURES, DELAMINATING, CARBON FIBER REINFORCED...
With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS, MICROGRAVITY, METHANE, FLAMES,...
A computational assessment of the aerodynamic performance of the midspan section of a variable-speed power-turbine blade is described. The computation comprises a periodic single blade that represents the 2-D Midspan section VSPT blade that was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. A commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) software package, Pointwise and CFD++, was used for the grid generation and RANS and URANS computations. The CFD code, which offers...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBINE BLADES, SUPERSONIC TURBINES, APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A gas-fueled burner, the Burning Rate Emulator (BRE), is used to emulate condensed-phase fuel flames. The design has been validated to easily measure the burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels by igniting a controlled stream of gas fuel and diluent. Four properties, including the heat of combustion, the heat of gasification, the surface temperature, and the laminar smoke point, are assumed to be sufficient to define the steady burning rate of a condensed-phase fuel. The heat of gasification...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROGRAVITY, BURNERS, FUEL COMBUSTION, BURNING RATE, HEAT...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, SIMPLIFICATION, HEURISTIC METHODS,...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA BASES, FLIGHT RULES, PAYLOADS, HAZARDS, CATALOGS...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The objective of this study is the development of a comprehensive radiation model (UMOD) of the Uranian environment for JPL mission planning. The ultimate goal is to provide a description of the high energy electron and proton environments and the magnetic field at Uranus that can be used for engineering design. Currently no model exists at JPL. A preliminary electron radiation model employing Voyager 2 data was developed by Selesnick and Stone in 1991. The JPL Uranian Radiation Model extends...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), URANUS (PLANET), ELECTRON RADIATION, MISSION PLANNING, HIGH...
Independent Earth orientation measurements taken by the space-geodetic techniques of lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System have been combined using a Kalman filter. The resulting combined Earth orientation series, SPACE2013, consists of values and uncertainties for Universal Time, polar motion, and their rates that span from September 28, 1976, to June 30, 2014, at daily intervals and is available in versions with epochs given at...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TIME MEASUREMENT, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, POLAR WANDERING...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Since publication in 1983 by N. Divine and H. Garrett, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's plasma and radiation models have been the design standard for NASA's missions to Jupiter. These models consist of representations of the cold plasma and electrons, the warm and auroral electrons and protons, and the radiation environment (electron, proton, and heavy ions). To date, however, the high-energy proton model has been limited to an L-shell of 12. With the requirement to compute the effects of the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), JUPITER (PLANET), PLANETARY MAGNETOSPHERES, PLANETARY...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The purpose of this report is to address uncertainties in the plasma models at Jupiter responsible for surface charging and to update the jovian plasma models using the most recent data available. The updated plasma environment models were then used to evaluate two proposed Europa mission designs for spacecraft charging effects using the Nascap-2k code. The original Divine/Garrett jovian plasma model (or "DG1", T. N. Divine and H. B. Garrett, "Charged particle distributions in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACECRAFT CHARGING, COLD PLASMAS, JUPITER (PLANET), MISSION...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE PROGRAMS, ELECTRIC CONNECTORS, FAULT TOLERANCE, SAFETY,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PRESSURE VESSELS, COMPOSITE WRAPPING, PERFORMANCE TESTS,...
Following a Commercial Launch Vehicle On-Pad COPV (Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels) failure, a request was received by the NESC (NASA Engineering and Safety Center) June 14, 2014. An assessment was approved July 10, 2014, to develop and assess the capability of scanning eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for mapping thickness and inspection for flaws. Current methods could not identify thickness reduction from necking and critical flaw detection was not possible...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SAFETY, EDUCATION, DESIGN ANALYSIS, OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR CORPUSCULAR RADIATION, RISK ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE, LOW...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE DEBRIS, COLLISIONS, PROBABILITY THEORY, POSITION...
NASA is planning to launch the next generation of a space based Earth relay in 2025 to join the current Space Network, consisting of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites in space and the corresponding infrastructure on Earth. While the requirements and architecture for that relay satellite are unknown at this time, NASA is investing in communications technologies that could be deployed to provide new communications services. One of those new technologies is optical communications. The Laser...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE COMMUNICATION, OPTICAL COMMUNICATION, TDR SATELLITES,...
Accurate quantification of combustor pressure dynamics for the primary purpose of experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes requires the use of robust, reliable and sensitive pressure sensors that can resolve sub--pound-per-square-inch pressure levels in high temperature environments (i.e., combustor). The state of the art microfabricated piezoresistive silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors that we have developed are capable of operating reliably at 600 degrees...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DOPING (MATERIALS), REACTIVITY, PLASMA ETCHING, SILICON...
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There is a need to derive a power spectral density (PSD) envelope for nonstationary acceleration time histories, including launch vehicle data, so that components can be designed and tested accordingly. This paper presents the results of the three methods for an actual flight accelerometer record. Guidelines are given for the application of each method to nonstationary data. The method can be extended to other scenarios, including transportation vibration.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FATIGUE LIFE, VIBRATION, SPECTRA, SIGNAL ANALYSIS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The NASA propagation terminal has been designed and developed by the Glenn Research Center and is presently deployed at over 5 NASA and partner ground stations worldwide collecting information on the effects of the atmosphere on Ka-band and millimeter wave communications links. This lecture provides an overview of the fundamentals and requirements of the measurement of atmospheric propagation effects and, specifically, the types of hardware and digital signal processing techniques employed by...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATELLITE COMMUNICATION, SATELLITE TRANSMISSION,...
Molecular biomarkers are the most direct biosignatures of life on early Earth and a key target in the search for life on Mars. Lipid biomarkers are of particular interest given their ability to survive oxidative degradation and record microbial presence and activity of microorganisms that occurred billions of years ago (Eigenbrode, 2008). Environmental conditions that suspend biotic and abiotic degradative processes prior to lithification can lead to enhanced biomolecular preservation over...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BIOMARKERS, LIPIDS, ARID LANDS, GEOCHRONOLOGY, HYDROCARBONS,...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXOBIOLOGY, BIOSYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, AMINO ACIDS,...
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Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and re-supply. Thus materials brought from earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHEMICAL REACTIONS, PRINTING, ADDITIVES, METALS, ADDITIVE...
Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the design margin concept with one of failure probability.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION, PROBABILITY THEORY, AEROSPACE...
These slides discuss the flight software testing methodology and examples of applying these methods used on programs at NASA.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT CONTROL, CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN, COMPUTER SYSTEMS...
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Synthetic biological engineering can be utilized to aide the advancement of improved long-term space flight. The potential to use synthetic biology as a platform to biomanufacture desired equipment on demand using the three dimensional (3D) printer on the International Space Station (ISS) gives long-term NASA missions the flexibility to produce materials as needed on site. Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are biodegradable, have properties similar to plastics, and can be produced in Escherichia coli...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CELL DIVISION, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOASSAY, INTERNATIONAL...
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTEROIDS, ASTEROID COLLISIONS, TRAJECTORIES, DISASTERS,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS), EOS DATA AND INFORMATION...
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This paper describes a transfer-of-training study performed in the NASA Ames Vertica lMotion Simulator. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of false tilt cues on training and transfer of training of manual roll control skills. Of specific interest were the skills needed to control unstable roll dynamics of a mid-size transport aircraft close to the stall point. Nineteen general aviation pilots trained on a roll control task with one of three motion conditions: no motion, roll...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATTITUDE (INCLINATION), CUES, MOTION SIMULATORS, EDUCATION,...
Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ESCHERICHIA, LONG DURATION SPACE FLIGHT, IN SITU RESOURCE...
This paper proposes a new departure pushback decision-support tool (DST) for airport ramp-tower controllers. It is based on NASA's Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) collaborative decision-making concept, except with the modification that the gate releases now are controlled by tactical pushback (or gate-hold) advisories instead of strategic pre-assignments of target pushback times to individual departure flights. The proposed ramp DST relies on data exchange with the airport traffic...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL, RUNWAYS, AIRPORT TOWERS, AIRLINE...
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Aircraft flying over the airspace of different countries are subject to over-flight charges. These charges vary from country to country. Airspace charges, while necessary to support the communication, navigation and surveillance services, may lead to aircraft flying routes longer than wind-optimal routes and produce additional carbon dioxide and other gaseous emissions. This paper develops an optimal route between city pairs by modifying the cost function to include an airspace cost whenever an...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ROUTES, TRAJECTORIES, AIRSPACE, FLIGHT PATHS, FLIGHT PLANS,...
In this paper, successful Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) scheduling systems for arrivals are considered and adapted to apply to departures. We present a concept of operations that integrates Controller-Managed Spacing tools for departures (CMS-D) with existing tactical departure scheduling tools to coordinate demand at departure fixes in a metroplex environment. We tested our concept in a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and compared the effect of two scheduling conditions: 1) "Departure...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SCHEDULING, AIRCRAFT SAFETY, TIME, TAKEOFF, ARRIVALS, AIR...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACE, GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE, EXPERT...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA ACQUISITION, FLIGHT TESTS, LESSONS LEARNED, NATIONAL...
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These cards are part of the Series 3 flight test documentation conducted between primary aircraft and intruder aircraft. This research is part of the UAS in the NAS Flight Test Program.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, FLIGHT TESTS, LOW SPEED, A-6...
This presentation will help to promote air-launch technologies that are being developed at NASA AFRC and enhance the public and aeromodeling communities awareness of current progress.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIR LAUNCHING, AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, FLIGHT TESTS, GLIDERS,...
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Presentation will be for a general audience and focus on plant science and ecosystem science in NASA. Examples from the projects involving the presenter will be used to illustrate. Specifically, the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta project. This collaboration supports the goals of the Delta Plan in developing science-based, adaptive-management strategies. The mission is to improve reliability of water supply and restore a healthy Delta ecosystem while enhancing agriculture and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ECOSYSTEMS, AGRICULTURE, WATER MANAGEMENT, WATER RESOURCES,...
We are developing a compact tensor superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) for obtaining gravimetric measurements from planetary orbits. A new and innovative design gives a potential sensitivity of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2)( 1 E = 10(sup -9 S(sup -2) in the measurement band up to 0.1 Hz (suitale for short wavelength static gravity) and of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2) in the frequency band less than 1 mHz (for long wavelength time-variable gravity) from the same...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAVITATION, GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS, GRAVIMETRY, MARS...
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. The mission consisted of two spacecraft, which were launched in September 2011 on a Discovery-class NASA mission. Ka-band tracking between the two satellites was the single science instrument, augmented by...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS, GRAVITATION, MODELS, MOON, GRAIL...
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The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MESSENGER (SPACECRAFT), DEEP SPACE NETWORK, GRAVITATIONAL...
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The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS, MARS (PLANET), MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR,...
This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOIL MOISTURE, SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR, PASSIVE L-BAND...
This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOIL MOISTURE, LAND MANAGEMENT, DATA SYSTEMS, EARTH SURFACE,...
The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars rover will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from radiative and oxidative degradation. The MOMA instrument is centered around a miniaturized linear ion trap (LIT) that facilitates two modes of operation: i) pyrolysisgas chromatography mass spectrometry (pyrGC-MS); and, ii) laser desorptionionization mass...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARS SURFACE, MINERALOGY, MOLECULES, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION,...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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This paper gives a calculation of the range correction and cross section of the SARAL (Satellite with Argos and ALtiKa) Indian/French ocean radar satellite retroreflector array assuming the cube corners are coated and have a dihedral angle offset of about 1.5 arcseconds to account for velocity aberration. The cubes are assumed to all have the same orientation within the mounting. The derived range correction may be applied in precise orbit determination analyses that use Satellite Laser Ranging...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRBORNE RANGE AND ORBIT DETERMINATION, ANTENNA ARRAYS, ARGOS...
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A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm (sup -1) far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north the cloud, which extends from 55 North to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the South...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CASSINI MISSION, TRACE ELEMENTS, TITAN, ANNUAL VARIATIONS,...
Hybrid composite laminates that contain alternating layers of titanium alloys and carbon fabric reinforced polyimide matrix composites (PMC) are excellent candidates for light-weight, high-temperature structural materials for high-speed aerospace vehicles. The delamination resistance of the hybrid titanium-PMC interface is of crucial consideration for structural integrity during service. Here, we report the first investigations on the use of laser ablation in combination with sol-gel treatment...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LASER ABLATION, METAL SURFACES, TEMPERATURE EFFECTS, FRACTURE...
Although NASA's preparations for the Apollo lunar missions had only a limited time to consider issues associated with the protection of the Moon from biological contamination and the quarantine of the astronauts returning to Earth, they learned many valuable lessons (both positive and negative) in the process. As such, those efforts represent the baseline of planetary protection preparations for sending humans to Mars. Neither the post-Apollo experience or the Shuttle and other follow-on...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLANETARY PROTECTION, EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY, POLICIES,...
Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WEATHER FORECASTING, REAL TIME OPERATION, HIGH RESOLUTION,...
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This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, COLLISION...
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This paper describes a Detect and Avoid (DAA) concept for integration of UAS into the NAS developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and provides results from recent human-in-the-loop experiments performed to investigate interoperability and acceptability issues associated with these vehicles and operations. The series of experiments was designed to incrementally assess critical elements of the new concept and the enabling technologies that will be required.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRSPACE, SURVEILLANCE, COLLISION AVOIDANCE, AIRCRAFT...
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates for use as reinforcements in next generation structural composite materials because of their extremely high specific stiffness and strength. They cannot, however, be viewed as simple replacements for carbon fibers because there are key differences between these materials in areas such as handling, processing, and matrix design. It is impossible to know for certain that CNT composites will represent a significant advance over carbon fiber...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FRACTURE MECHANICS, CARBON NANOTUBES, AMORPHOUS MATERIALS,...
The Rapid Response Radiation Survey (R3S) experiment, designed as a quick turnaround mission to make radiation measurements in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will fly as a hosted payload in partnership with NovaWurks using their Hyper-integrated Satlet (HISat) architecture. The need for the mission arises as the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionization Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model moves from a research effort into an operational radiation assessment tool. Currently, airline professionals are...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION, DESIGN ANALYSIS, MAGNETIC SHIELDING,...
Boundary-layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic and vortical disturbances for hypersonic flows over two-dimensional and axi-symmetric geometries were numerically investigated. The role of bluntness, wall cooling, and pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability were analyzed and compared with the sharp nose cases. It was found that for flows over sharp nose geometries in adiabatic wall conditions the instability waves are generated in the leading-edge region and that the boundary...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYERS, HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER, PRESSURE...
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The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGH SPEED, ONBOARD DATA PROCESSING, REAL TIME OPERATION,...
Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPARISON, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, WIND TUNNEL TESTS,...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, FLIGHT TESTS, SELF TESTS, AIRCRAFT...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION TRANSPORT, ATOMIC INTERACTIONS, EXTRATERRESTRIAL...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS, SIMULATORS, PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES,...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STRUCTURAL DESIGN, NANOCOMPOSITES, AEROSPACE ENGINEERING,...
There has been studies (e.g., Schweiger, 2004) suggest significant increase of Arctic clouds during the last three decades, especially in the western Arctic region. Such studies are based on passive remote sensing that are not highly reliable due to the lack of contrasts in temperature and reflectance between clouds and snow/ice surfaces. Changes in the Arctic clouds can be evaluated more accurately using the space-based lidar measurements from CALIPSO during the last nine years since CALIPSO...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLOUDS (METEOROLOGY), CLOUD PHYSICS, TROPICAL REGIONS, ARCTIC...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AQUA SPACECRAFT, AEROSOLS, MODIS (RADIOMETRY), CLOUDSAT,...
In recent years it was proposed to combine AERONET network photometer capabilities with a high precision lunar model used for satellite calibration to retrieve columnar nighttime AODs. The USGS lunar model can continuously provide pre-atmosphere high precision lunar irradiance determinations for multiple wavelengths at ground sensor locations. When combined with measured irradiances from a ground-based AERONET photometer, atmospheric column transmissions can determined yielding nighttime column...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NIGHT, AEROSOLS, OPTICAL THICKNESS, PHOTOMETERS, MOON, LIGHT...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PERFORMANCE TESTS, UNSTEADY FLOW, AEROELASTICITY, VIBRATION...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IDEAL GAS, TURBULENCE MODELS, TURBULENT FLOW, MATHEMATICAL...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, MULTIBLOCK GRIDS, REYNOLDS NUMBER,...
During inactive phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BACKGROUND NOISE, CLOUD PHYSICS, CONVECTION, CONVECTIVE HEAT...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEAD-UP DISPLAYS, FIELD OF VIEW, ENHANCED VISION, SUPERSONIC...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ADJOINTS, STEADY FLOW, COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, CARBON NANOTUBES, YARNS, MECHANICAL...
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The robotic architecture of State-of-the-Art (SOA) space manipulators, represented by the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), inherently limits their capabilities to extend reach, reduce mass, apply force and package efficiently. TALISMAN uses a new and innovative robotic architecture that incorporates a combination of lightweight truss links, a novel hinge joint, tendon-articulation and passive tension stiffening to achieve revolutionary performance. A TALISMAN with performance similar...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REMOTE MANIPULATOR SYSTEM, ROBOTICS, DEGREES OF FREEDOM,...
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Recent changes in the climate system have led to growing concern, especially in communities which are highly vulnerable to resource shortages and weather extremes. There is an urgent need for better climate information to develop solutions and strategies for adapting to a changing climate. Climate models provide excellent tools for studying the current state of climate and making future projections. However, these models are subject to biases created by structural uncertainties. Performance...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLIMATE CHANGE, EARTH SURFACE, SURFACE TEMPERATURE, ENERGY...
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Nov 19, 2016 NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY, SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTS, DATA PRODUCTS,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS), RADIANT...