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THIS STUDY DEALT WITH THE CONCEPT OF DEDUCTIVE LOGIC AND ITS USE BY ADOLESCENTS, AGES 10-18. TWO EMPIRICAL QUESTIONS OF CONCERN IN THIS STUDY WERE (1) THAT OF READINESS FOR MASTERY OF LOGIC AND (2) THAT OF THE NATURAL-CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF MASTERY OF LOGIC. TWO DEDUCTION TESTS WERE DEVELOPED, ONE FOR EACH OF THE TYPES OF LOGIC TREATED. THEY WERE THE CORNELL CONDITIONAL-REASONING TEST, FORM X, AND THE CORNELL CLASS-REASONING TEST, FORM X. THE TESTING OF 803 SUBJECTS LED TO (1) THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adolescents, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes, Critical Thinking, Logical...
THIS SEMINAR WAS A DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITY INTENDED TO STIMULATE RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELD OF ART EDUCATION. PRIOR TO THIS SEMINAR NO SUBSTANTIAL EFFORTS HAD BEEN MADE TO COORDINATE THE VARIOUS ISOLATED EFFORTS AT RESEARCH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT THROUGHOUT THE NATION. THERE HAD BEEN FEW ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS IN ART EDUCATION OR TO FIND MEANS TO STUDY THEM. THIS SEMINAR ATTEMPTED TO FOCUS UPON FIVE MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS--THE PHILOSOPHICAL AREA, THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Art Education, Curriculum Development, Educational Psychology, Educational Research,...
THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE VARIABLES LEADING TO THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF TEACHER TEAMS. THIS PAPER REPORTS A SURVEY OF 533 TEAM MEMBERS AND 242 PRINCIPALS FROM SCHOOLS IN WHICH TEAM TEACHING WAS EMPLOYED AND AN ASSESSMENT OF 63 TEACHERS FROM 15 TEAMS. A SURVEY OF 242 PRINCIPALS INDICATED THAT (1) A SUBSTANTIAL PERCENTAGE OF CURRENT TEAM TEACHING PROGRAMS IS EXPLORATORY, EMPLOYING ONLY ONE TEAM, (2) PLANNING IS INADEQUATE, (3) THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES ARE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Principals, Surveys, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Evaluation, Teacher Participation,...
THIS PROJECT ESTABLISHED PLANS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH ESSENTIAL TO DEFINE AND DEMONSTRATE THE DIMENSION OF SCIENTIFIC LITERACY NEEDED BY CITIZENS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY DURING AN AGE OF RAPID SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE. THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE THE KINDS AND DEGREES OF COMPETENCE ESSENTIAL TO INFORMED CITIZENSHIP AND FUTURE EMPLOYMENT. PROCEDURES FOLLOWED INCLUDED (1) THE INTERVIEWING OF A LIMITED NUMBER OF SCIENTISTS, INDUSTRIALISTS, SCIENCE EDUCATORS, AND LABOR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Citizenship Responsibility, Colleges, Elementary Schools, Literacy, Literature...
A SERIES OF THREE CONFERENCES WAS HELD TO EXPLORE THE FEASIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTING A LONG-RANGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR AN UNGRADED, K-12 SCHOOL, BASED ON RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE CAMBRIDGE CONFERENCE ON SCHOOL MATHEMATICS. OVER 50 MATHEMATICIANS, MATHEMATICS EDUCATORS, AND PERSONS INVOLVED IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH, EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, AND ACADEMIC GAMES DEVELOPMENT PARTICIPATED. PRINCIPAL AREAS OF CONCERN IN THE PROJECT WERE--(1) CURRICULUM...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Ability Grouping, Conferences, Curriculum Research, Experimental Programs,...
BIOGRAPHICAL AND FICTIONAL MATERIALS ABOUT THE NEGRO WERE PREPARED FOR DISADVANTAGED NEGRO EIGHTH-GRADERS IN DEPRESSED AREA SCHOOLS OF NEW YORK CITY TO STUDY THEIR EFFECTS AND OVERALL IMPACT. THE EXPERIMENT WAS FOCUSED ON TEACHING A SINGLE UNIT, THE CIVIL WAR. APPROXIMATELY 180 STUDENTS IN 12 CLASSES PARTICIPATED IN THE TEST PROGRAM FOR A TOTAL OF 6 DAYS. SUBJECTS WERE DIVIDED AMONG A TEXTBOOK GROUP, A PAMPHLET GROUP, AND A BIOGRAPHY GROUP. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA RELATED TO GROUP COMPARISONS ON A...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Black Culture, Black History, Cultural Enrichment, Disadvantaged, Disadvantaged...
A NATIONAL SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE PERTAINING TO POLICIES AND PROCEDURES OF TEACHER SELECTION WAS SENT TO OVER 380 LARGE SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS THE NATION. ONLY THOSE SYSTEMS HAVING AN ENROLLMENT OF AT LEAST 12,000 STUDENTS WERE INCLUDED. COMPARISONS WERE MADE WITH RESPECT TO SCHOOL SYSTEM SIZE, TEACHER SELECTION RATE, TEACHER TURNOVER RATE, AND STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO BY ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING RESPONSES OF 85 PERCENT OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEMS. LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY WERE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, National Surveys, Public Schools, Questionnaires, School...
IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT SIMULATION AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE WOULD PRODUCE RESULTS SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER THAN THOSE OBTAINED IN CLASS GROUPINGS WHICH EMPLOYED ONLY LECTURE-DISCUSSION METHODS. FOUR HUNDRED AND FIVE 12TH-GRADE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT STUDENTS IN 2 HIGH SCHOOLS IN KANSAS WERE THE SUBJECTS. FIVE CLASSES, 225 STUDENTS, CONSTITUTED THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP WHICH EMPLOYED SIMULATION. THE OTHER 180 STUDENTS CONSTITUTED THE CONTROL GROUP AND HAD INSTRUCTION SIMILAR IN EVERY RESPECT TO...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Control Groups, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Experimental...
THE SOCIOCULTURAL INTERACTIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FOREIGN STUDENTS AND AMERICAN STUDENTS ON THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY CAMPUS WERE STUDIED TO ASCERTAIN THEIR IMPACT ON THE NATIVE GROUP AND TO DETERMINE THE DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF FRIENDSHIP PATTERNS AND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN BOTH GROUPS. ABOUT 550 AMERICAN STUDENTS WERE SELECTED FOR THE PROJECT SAMPLE. ALL WERE CLOSE FRIENDS OF FOREIGN STUDENTS ON CAMPUS. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM A BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE, PERSONALITY AND PERSONAL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Foreign Students, Friendship, Intergroup Relations, Interpersonal...
PERSISTENCE IN TEACHING, FOLLOWING COLLEGE GRADUATION IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION, WAS STUDIED TO DEFINE AND DETERMINE THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENT TEACHERS WHICH CAN BE USED TO PREDICT LONGEVITY IN THE TEACHING PROFESSION. THE PROJECT HAD A LONGITUDINAL APPROACH, USING OVER 450 FEMALE SUBJECTS WHO HAD GRADUATED 10 YEARS PREVIOUSLY FROM 4 NEW YORK CITY MUNICIPAL COLLEGES. ALL SUBJECTS HAD TAKEN PERSONALITY AND ATTITUDE TESTS WHILE STILL IN SCHOOL, AND HAD RESPONDED TO FOUR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Persistence, Personality Studies, Predictive Measurement, Psychometrics, Student...
THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN IN AN URBAN AREA WITH PRESCHOOL EXPERIENCE ARE BETTER ADJUSTED IN THE PRIMARY GRADES THAN ARE SIMILAR CHILDREN WITHOUT SUCH EXPERIENCE. A SECONDARY OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE ARE DIFFERENCES IN ADJUSTMENT BETWEEN THOSE HAVING NURSERY SCHOOL AS OPPOSED TO KINDERGARTEN EXPERIENCE. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 42 FIRST-GRADE, 43 SECOND-GRADE, AND 32 THIRD-GRADE PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS LIVING IN A LOW...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Disadvantaged, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Kindergarten, Nursery...
THE PROJECT ATTEMPTED TO PROVIDE FURTHER DATA ON THE DOMINANT HYPOTHESIS ABOUT THE SENSORY MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SKILL ACQUISITION IN TYPEWRITING. IN SO DOING, IT PROPOSED TO FURNISH A BASIS FOR IMPORTANT CORRECTIVES TO SUCH CONVENTIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES AS TOUCH TYPING. SPECIFICALLY, THE HYPOTHESIS HAS BEEN THAT KINESTHESIS IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR USE AT THE START OF LEARNING SUCH A PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR SKILL AS TYPING, BUT THAT IS OCCURS AFTER SOME LEARNING ON THE BASIS OF VISUAL CUES HAS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Psychomotor Skills, Skill Development, Typewriting, Visual...
THE VOCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE HOMEMAKER-WAGE EARNER AND WHAT CONTRIBUTION THE HIGH SCHOOL HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM MAY MAKE TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS IN WHICH THE YOUNG WOMEN WILL BE EMPLOYED AFTER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION WERE THE GOALS OF THIS STUDY. THE DATA OF THE STUDY WERE OBTAINED FROM (1) QUESTIONNAIRES TO FORMER HOMEMAKING STUDENTS, (2) LETTERS TO EMPLOYERS OF THESE STUDENTS, (3) INFORMATION FROM SCHOOL RECORDS, (4) JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND ANALYSES, AND (5) OPINIONS OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Curriculum Enrichment, Curriculum Evaluation, High School Graduates, High School...
INDIVIDUAL TUTORIAL SESSIONS WERE CONDUCTED WITH 42 10TH-GRADE STUDENTS IN A LARGE INNER-CITY HIGH SCHOOL, WITH THE PURPOSE OF REVISING A UNIT OF GENERAL MATHEMATICS FROM A STANDARD TEXT. THE HYPOTHESIS TESTED WAS THAT MATERIAL SO REVISED WOULD YIELD MORE LEARNING FOR STUDENTS OF THIS POPULATION THAN MATERIALS REVISED UNDER STANDARD CURRICULUM WORKSHOP CONDITIONS. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP (50 STUDENTS) STUDIED TUTORIALLY REVISED MATERIALS, AND THE CONTROL GROUP (50 STUDENTS) STUDIED...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Grade 10, Instructional Improvement, Instructional Materials, Mathematics...
A SYMPOSIUM WAS HELD TO DEVELOP A DOCTORAL CURRICULUM FOR VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. THE FORMAT INVOLVED THE PREPARATION OF WORKING PAPERS, COUNTERPART REACTIONS, AND ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSIONS. ALL 48 PARTICIPANTS RECEIVED COPIES OF THE WORKING PAPERS PRIOR TO THE SYMPOSIUM. PARTICIPANTS WERE BROKEN UP INTO SMALL DISCUSSION GROUPS UPON COMPLETION OF EACH PRESENTATION OF A WORKING PAPER. THEY AGREED THAT A DOCTORAL PROGRAM FOR FUTURE VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL LEADERS IS NECESSARY. IT WAS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Curriculum Development, Doctoral Degrees, Educational Needs, Seminars, Teacher...
BACKGROUND PAPERS AT THE CONFERENCE INCLUDED--(1) "NEEDED COUNSELOR COMPETENCIES IN VOCATIONAL ASPECTS OF COUNSELING AND GUIDANCE," BY K. B. HOYT, (2) "SURVEY OF CURRENT TRAINING APPROACHES, FORMAT MATERIALS, AND CURRICULUM CONTENT IN VOCATION ASPECTS OF COUNSELOR EDUCATION," BY R. W. STROWIG AND P. A. PERRONE, (3) "RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT--IMPLICATIONS FOR THE VOCATIONAL ASPECTS OF COUNSELOR EDUCATION," BY H. BOROW, (4) "SOME PROPOSED NEW...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Counseling, Conferences, Counseling, Counseling Services, Counselor Training,...
THIS STUDY TESTED METHODS OF INCREASING TASK-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR OF INATTENTIVE SECOND-GRADE PUPILS TO HELP DEVELOP EFFECTIVE WORK HABITS AND ATTITUDES AT AN EARLY AGE. THE ASSUMPTION WAS MADE THAT THE INATTENTIVE BEHAVIOR OF PUPILS WAS MAINTAINED, IN PART, BY THE REINFORCEMENT UNINTENTIONALLY PROVIDED BY FREQUENT TEACHER REMINDERS FOR THE CHILD TO GET BACK TO WORK. IN ADDITION, THE TEACHER MIGHT NOT BE GIVING SUFFICIENT RECOGNITION AT TIMES WHEN THE PUPIL WAS ATTENDING TO HIS WORK. THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attention Control, Grade 2, Positive Reinforcement, Student Behavior, Student...
THE PRIMARY AIM WAS TO DEVELOP INSTRUMENTS FOR IDENTIFYING HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS. THESE INSTRUMENTS WERE USED TO INVESTIGATE THE FATE OF RECENT GRADUATES AND DROPOUTS OF CLASSES 1963, 1964, AND 1965 IN ALEXANDER COUNTY, ILLINOIS, AND TO ESTABLISH FURTHER CORRELATES IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL DROPOUTS. BOTH THE OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE INSTRUMENTS DEVELOPED SHOWED HIGH DEGREES OF CORRELATION--0.826 AND 0.840 RESPECTIVELY. SOME CONCLUSIONS WERE--(1) THE INSTRUMENTS MAY BE OF VALUE IN IDENTIFYING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Prevention, Dropout Research,...
EDUCATIONAL GUIDELINES AND TECHNIQUES WERE DEVELOPED AND NEEDS ESTABLISHED FOR PLANNING GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS IN THE FIELD OF HOME ECONOMICS, PARTICULARLY IN THE AREAS OF CHILD CARE AND CLOTHING SERVICES. TWO SEPARATE SURVEYS WERE CONDUCTED. THE FIRST INVOLVED CONTACTS WITH POTENTIAL EMPLOYERS AND OTHER INDIVIDUALS WHO HAD KNOWLEDGE OF THE NEED FOR AND COMPETENCIES EXPECTED FROM CHILD CARE AND CLOTHING SERVICE WORKERS. THE AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF POTENTIAL WORKERS WERE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Child Care, Clothing Instruction, Curriculum Development, Educational Needs, Home...
TO ESTABLISH A COLLEGE IN 100 DAYS PRESENTED AN OPPORTUNITY TO TEST THE VALUE OF PROGRAMED ORGANIZATIONAL PROCEDURES USING PROGRAM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT) UNDER ACTUAL OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS, NOT IN A SIMULATED THEORETICAL SITUATION. THROUGH THE AID OF THE PERT PLANNING SYSTEM, IT WAS DETERMINED THAT THERE WERE NINE MAJOR LINES OF ACTIVITIES AND ABOUT 300 EVENTS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED TO OPEN THE COLLEGE. THE ADMINISTRATION USED A TEAM APPROACH WHEREBY THE THREE MAIN...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Planning, Critical Path Method, Curriculum Development, Evaluation Methods,...
THE PRESENT STUDY IS THE FIRST PART OF A TWO-PART INTERVIEW STUDY OF NONPERSISTENT TEACHERS. ITS MAIN OBJECTIVE WAS TO PREPARE FOR DATA COLLECTION IN THE SECOND PART. THE MAJOR ASPECTS OF THIS PRESENT STUDY WERE--(1) THE CLASSIFICATION INTO SUBGROUPS OF A POPULATION OF NONPERSISTING TEACHERS PREVIOUSLY IDENTIFIED, (2) THE DEVELOPMENT AND REFINEMENT OF AN INTERVIEW SCHEDULE AND A METHOD OF ANALYSIS APPROPRIATE TO IT, AND (3) TRYOUT OF THE REVISED SCHEDULE ON A SUFFICIENT SCALE TO JUDGE ITS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Former Teachers, Persistence, Questionnaires, Teacher Shortage,...
RACIAL STRIFE, POPULATION MOBILITY, CHRONIC UNEMPLOYMENT, URBAN DECAY, AND OTHER CURRENT ISSUES WHICH AFFECT THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES OF LARGE CITIES WERE DELINEATED IN A SEMINAR TO PROVIDE WORKABLE PROPOSALS, GREATER COMMUNICATION, AND UNDERSTANDING AMONG SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS WHO MUST DEAL WITH THESE PROBLEMS IN THEIR DAY-BY-DAY OPERATIONS. AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE SEMINAR WERE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, REPRESENTATIVES FROM INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, AND MEMBERS FROM OTHER...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrator Role, College School Cooperation, Current Events, Educational Change,...
THE OBJECTIVE WAS TO INCREASE THE DEGREE OF ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN THE LEARNING OF CONTENT AND METHODS IN THE AREAS OF PERCEPTION AND JUDGMENT. TWO TYPES OF MATERIAL WERE DEVELOPED--(1) READING NOTES AND WRITTEN LECTURES, AND (2) DEMONSTRATIONAL APPARATUS. ELEVEN STUDENTS TOOK THE COURSE DURING A 2-YEAR PERIOD. THEIR HELP IN EVALUATING THE NEW CLASS FORMAT WAS SOLICITED AT SEVERAL POINTS DURING THE SEMESTER AND AT THE END. WITHOUT EXCEPTION, THE STUDENTS SAID THEY PREFERRED THE NEW ARRANGEMENT...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Demonstration Programs, Demonstrations (Educational), Developmental Programs,...
THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A STUDY TO DETERMINE WHETHER PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION COULD BE USED TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH GYNECOLOGIC NEOPLASMS TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS. TWO PROGRAMED TEXTS WERE PREPARED--(1) A "CONTENT" TEXT, AN 830-FRAME LINEARLY PROGRAMED TEXT DESIGNED TO REPLACE CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM TEACHING OF GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY, AND (2) AN "APPLICATION" TEXT, A 713-FRAME BRANCHING TEXT CONSISTING OF 35 CASE PRESENTATIONS OF PATIENTS WITH...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Control Groups, Conventional Instruction, Experimental Programs,...
TWO STUDIES CONCERNED WITH THE REPRESENTATIONAL ROLE OF DEMONSTRATIONS IN TEACHING CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF SCIENCE ARE REPORTED. THE TWO STUDIES WERE PERFORMED WITH DIMENSIONS OF VISUAL TV PRESENTATIONS VARIED IN THE CONTEXT OF PROGRAMED LESSONS. STUDY ONE COMPARES THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REALISTIC (LIVE) WITH NONREALISTIC (ANIMATED) DEMONSTRATIONS UNDER INTUITIVE AND NONINTUITIVE CONDITIONS. TIME-TO-COMPLETE SELF-PLACED VERBAL PROGRAMS, ERRORS ON PROGRAMS AND ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, AND INTEREST...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Concept Teaching, Demonstration Programs, Educational Television, Instructional...
SYSTEMATICALLY OBSERVED, RECORDED, AND CODED INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIORS OF CHILDREN, AGES 3 TO 11, WERE EXAMINED FOR THE EXISTENCE OF CROSS-CULTURALLY CONSISTENT RELATIONS BETWEEN THEIR BEHAVIORS. THE STUDY SAMPLE CONSISTED OF OVER 130 CHILDREN FROM DIVERSE CULTURES, AND WAS SELECTED FROM COMMUNITIES IN NEW ENGLAND, MEXICO, AFRICA, INDIA, OKINAWA, AND THE PHILIPPINES. TWELVE CATEGORIES OF ACTION, COLLECTED FROM BEHAVIORS OF THE CHILDREN AS THEY WERE OBSERVED IN NATURAL SETTINGS, WERE THE PRIMARY...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior, Childhood Attitudes, Cultural Differences, Culture, Interpersonal...
THIS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVE THINKING IN RETARDED AND NONRETARDED CHILDREN USED DATA FROM A SAMPLE OF 78 PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS--(1) MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN SPECIAL CLASSES, (2) RETARDED CHILDREN IN REGULAR CLASSES, AND (3) NONRETARDED CHILDREN IN REGULAR CLASSES. THE GROUPS WERE SELECTED SO THAT THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE WITHIN THE GROUP BETWEEN THEIR MENTAL AGES AS MEASURED BY THE CALIFORNIA TEST OF MENTAL MATURITY. FIRST A BATTERY OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Audiotape Recordings, Classroom Research, Cognitive Development, Cognitive Processes,...
THIS REPORT IS A STUDY OF THE PROCESSES BY WHICH MONEY IS ALLOCATED TO THE SUPPORT OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN LARGE CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES. IMPLICIT IN THE RATIONALE ARE THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR THE SUPPORT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ARE RARELY SUFFICIENT TO SATISFY ALL THE DEMANDS MADE UPON THEM, AND THAT DETERMINATIONS ABOUT THE LEVEL OF PUBLIC SCHOOL FINANCIAL SUPPORT ARE ALMOST ALWAYS MADE IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS. THE RATIONALE POSTULATES THREE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Board of Education Role, Budgeting, Decision Making Skills, Educational Finance,...
THIS CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT WAS CONDUCTED TO ADJUST ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS TO INCLUDE INFORMATION AND CONCEPTS ABOUT RACIAL-CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN AMERICA, INCLUDING THE LIFE ON THE AMERICAN NEGRO. ITS PRINCIPAL EMPHASIS WAS ON LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS AREA OF HUMAN RELATIONS. SPECIALISTS FROM BOTH THE SOCIAL SCIENCE AND EDUCATIONAL FIELDS WERE CALLED INTO THE STUDY TO REVIEW PATTERNS OF INSTRUCTION AND PROMISING CURRICULUM DESIGNS IN...
Topics: ERIC Archive, American Culture, Behavior, Black Influences, Cultural Differences, Curriculum...
THIS RESEARCH STUDY EVALUATED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS OF FIRST-GRADE READING INSTRUCTION EMPLOYING SIMILAR BASAL READER STORY CONTENT. THE THREE METHODS WERE--(A) THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES OUTLINED IN THE TEACHERS MANUAL ACCOMPANYING THE GINN BASIC READING SERIES, (B) A LEVELS-DESIGNED PROGRAM STRESSING EARLY INTENSIVE LETTER READINESS ACTIVITIES FOLLOWED BY EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING WORD RECOGNITION, PHASE READING, ORAL AND SILENT READING SKILLS, AND (C) READING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Grade 1, Reading Ability, Reading Achievement, Reading...
THIS STUDY EVALUATED THE EFFECTS OF A BASAL READER PROGRAM, A MODIFIED LINGUISTIC APPROACH, AND A LINGUISTIC READER PROGRAM AS MEASURED BY THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF 469 CHILDREN IN 21 CLASSES AT THE END OF FIRST GRADE. ACHIEVEMENT COMPARIONS WERE ALSO MADE ON THE BASES OF (1) SEX, (2) INTELLIGENCE, AND (3) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN READING READINESS TEST SCORES AT THE BEGINNING OF GRADE ONE AND SUBSEQUENT ACHIEVEMENT AT THE END OF THE SCHOOL YEAR. ANALYSIS OF THE PRE- AND POST-TEST SCORES AND...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Basal Reading, Basic Reading, Beginning Reading, Comparative Analysis, Grade 1,...
THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE EXPERIENCE APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ARTS AS COMPARED WITH THE TRADITIONAL METHOD. TO ACCOMPLISH THIS, FOUR AREAS OF LANGUAGE ARTS WERE SEPARATELY MEASURED--READING, WRITING, LISTENING, AND SPEAKING. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF DEVELOPMENT IN READING INTEREST WAS TAKEN AND PUPIL ATTITUDE TOWARD READING DETERMINED. THE EXPERIENCE APPROACH USED THE LANGUAGE AND THINKING OF INDIVIDUAL CHILDREN AS THE BASIS FOR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Experience, Grade 1, Inservice Teacher Education, Listening Habits,...
THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE WHETHER A LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED PROGRAM OF ENGLISH LESSONS DESIGNED FOR KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING BACKGROUNDS COULD SIGNIFICANTLY ACCELERATE PUPIL CONTROL OF ENGLISH. THE STUDY OBJECTIVES INCLUDED--(1) IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ADEQUATE TESTS MEASURING SUBJECT'S COMMAND OF ENGLISH SOUNDS, GRAMMAR, AND VOCABULARY,(2) DEVELOPMENT OF SUITABLE EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS TO PROVIDE INTENSIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE DRILL, AND (3) PROVISION OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, English Instruction, Kindergarten Children, Linguistics, Mexican Americans, Oral...
A SERIES OF EXPERIMENTS WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY THE VALUE OF TEACHING CHILDREN SUCH A COMPLEX PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY AS TO USE KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS AFTER A PERFORMANCE TRIAL TO REJECT MORE THAN ONE HYPOTHESIS AT A TIME (MULTIPLE HYPOTHESIS STRATEGY). APPROXIMATELY 150 THIRD-GRADE CHILDREN WERE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS--THOSE TAUGHT THE MULTIPLE HYPOTHESIS STRATEGY, THOSE TAUGHT TO SELECT A HYPOTHESIS AND STICK WITH IT UNTIL PROVEN WRONG (SINGLE HYPOTHESIS STRATEGY), AND THOSE GIVEN NO STRATEGY...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Ability, Child Development, Cognitive Processes, Creative Thinking, Educational...
THE PRIMARY INVESTIGATION CONCERNED THE EFFECT OF TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS, STYLE, AND INTERPRETATION OF READING METHOD ON PUPIL READING ACHIEVEMENT SCORES BOTH IN JANUARY AND JUNE IN THE FIRST-GRADE YEAR. AN ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE DESIGN WAS USED. FOURTEEN TEACHERS COMPLETED A QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNED TO DISTINGUISH TWO BASIC KINDS OF BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION EMPHASIS--(1) "DECODING" (ORAL READING AND SOUND-SYMBOL) OR (2) "MEANING" (SILENT READING AND INTERPRETATION). EQUAL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Background, Beginning Reading, Classroom Techniques, Grade 1, Reading Achievement,...
THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SKILLS-CENTERED APPROACH AND THE LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE APPROACH TO TEACHING READING TO DISADVANTAGED URBAN CHILDREN IN THE FIRST GRADE WAS EXAMINED, AND METHODS COMPARED. APPROXIMATELY 50 TEACHERS AND 1,150 STUDENTS MADE UP THE PROJECT SAMPLE. TYPES OF DATA GATHERED INCLUDED PRETEST AND POST-TEST SCORES OF THE PUPILS AND INSTRUCTIONAL TIME LOGS, CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS, AND PREFERRED READING APPROACHES FROM THEIR TEACHERS. PROJECT RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Audiovisual Aids, Beginning Reading, Comparative Analysis, Disadvantaged Youth, Grade...
THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIPS OF EDUCATIONAL, ECONOMIC, AND BIOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES TO FARM SUCCESS. UNDERSTANDING THESE RELATIONSHIPS WAS PREREQUISITE TO DEVISING A MEANS OF PREDICTING SUCCESS FOR A YOUNG MAN CONTEMPLATING PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE AS AN OCCUPATION. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED ON THE ROLE OF THE EDUCATIONAL COMPONENT IN THAT PREDICTION. IN ADDITION, A DETERMINATION WAS MADE OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF FARM FINANCIAL SUCCESS TO THE ACHIEVEMENT AND...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Trends, Agriculture, Economic Climate, Economic Factors, Educational...
VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL SEQUENCES FOR ORGANIZING MATHEMATICS CONTENT IN ELEMENTARY GRADES FOUR, FIVE, AND SIX WERE IDENTIFIED USING AN EMPIRICAL BASE. VERTICAL SEQUENCES FOR THIS PROJECT PERTAINED TO SUBTOPICS WITHIN SEVERAL MATHEMATICS TOPICS USING THE LEVEL OF SUBTOPIC COMPLEXITY FOR THE CRITERION. THE DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADJACENT TOPICS WAS THE CRITERION FOR HORIZONTAL SEQUENCES WITH BOTH THE ORTHOGONAL AND NON ORTHOGONAL APPROACHES. A TEST DESIGNED TO ASSESS ACHIEVEMENT OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Course Organization, Elementary Education, Horizontal Organization, Mathematics...
THE PROJECT PURPOSES WERE TO IDENTIFY THE ELEMENTS IN MUSIC USED BY EXPERT LISTENERS IN DETERMINING THE ARTISTIC VALUE OF MUSIC, TO DISCOVER WHAT MUSICAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGES ARE NECESSARY FOR THE LISTENER TO RECOGNIZE THESE ELEMENTS, AND TO USE THESE FINDINGS IN A COMPARISON WITH A SPECIFIC AESTHETIC THEORY. ATTEMPTS WERE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THESE VALUE ELEMENTS ARE TEACHABLE, IF SO, THE AGE LEVELS AT WHICH THEY ARE TEACHABLE, THE CREATION OF MEASUREMENTS TO EVALUATE RECOGNITION OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Grade 5, Listening, Listening Skills, Music Education, Music Techniques, Surveys,...
A 3-DAY CONFERENCE WAS HELD AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY TO DEFINE GOALS, IDENTIFY OBSTACLES, AND SUGGEST MEANS THROUGH WHICH SUPERIOR EDUCATION COULD BE MADE AVAILABLE TO ALL AMERICANS REGARDLESS OF TALENT OR POSITION IN THE STRATIFICATION SYSTEM. SEVEN SESSIONS EMPHASIZED A WIDE RANGE OF FACTORS IN THE SCHOOL AND SOCIETY THAT INFLUENCE QUALITY AND EQUALITY IN EDUCATION. THE TOPICS OF THE CONFERENCE SESSIONS AS LISTED ON THE AGENDA WERE--(1) "POLARITIES AND TENSIONS IN THE EDUCATIONAL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Compensatory Education, Conferences, Educational Planning, Educational Quality,...
THIS INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DESCRIBE THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE OF DEAF STUDENTS BETWEEN 10 AND 18 YEARS OF AGE IN TERMS OF SIX MEASURABLE VARIABLES, AND TO RELATE THESE VARIABLES TO TEACHER JUDGMENTS OF QUALITY OF LANGUAGE. TEN STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLES OF COMPOSITIONS BY DEAF STUDENTS WERE SELECTED FROM 14 RESIDENTIAL AND DAY EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE DEAF. COMPOSITIONS WERE WRITTEN UNDER STANDARDIZED CONDITIONS, IN RESPONSE TO THE PRESENTATION OF A FOUR-PICTURE SEQUENCE. THREE MASTER...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Deafness, Handicapped Children, Language Teachers, Remedial...
THE BROAD PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO SYSTEMATIZE INFORMATION ABOUT INDEPENDENT STUDY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY DEVELOPMENT OF A DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF THESE PRACTICES IN THE SCHOOLS STUDIED. THIS INFORMATION WAS COMPILED BY THE USE OF QUESTIONNAIRES AND VISITS TO EACH OF 317 SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY RESEARCH TEAMS. ONE OF THE FIRST CONCLUSIONS REACHED WAS THAT INDEPENDENT STUDY IS PROBABLY MORE COMMON IN EDUCATIONAL DISCUSSIONS AND LITERATURE THAN IN PRACTICE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academically Gifted, Independent Study, Observation, Questionnaires, Secondary...
THE BROAD PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO TEST EMPIRICALLY THE STRUCTURE OF THE HANDBOOK "TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1--COGNITIVE DOMAIN." IT WAS NECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT FOUR FORMS OF A TAXONOMY-TYPE TEST SINCE NONE WAS AVAILABLE. THE PHENOMENA WHICH ARE CLASSIFIED BY THE "TAXONOMY" ARE THE RESPONSES (BEHAVIORS) WHICH TEST ITEMS (IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN AS CONTRASTED WITH THE AFFECTIVE AND PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINS) ARE INTENDED TO EVOKE. AS AN AID TO THE READER, THE REPORT...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Classification, Cognitive Development, Evaluation, Responses, Test Validity, Testing,...
A PRELIMINARY, SYSTEMATIC PICTURE (CENSUS) WAS DEVELOPED OF THE STATUS OF SCHOOL INTEGRATION IN EIGHT NORTHERN CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE 1954 "BROWN" DECISION OF THE SUPREME COURT. THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT WAS TO CORRECT THE DISTORTED VIEWS OF SCHOOL INTEGRATION STATUS, RESULTING PRIMARILY FROM NEWS MEDIA REPORTS OVER A PERIOD OF YEARS. PRINCIPAL STUDY DATA WERE GATHERED THROUGH INTERVIEW RESPONSES AND THE PERSONAL FILES OF APPROXIMATELY 200 PERSONS,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Studies, Census Figures, Civil Rights, Comparative Analysis, Northern Schools,...
THE ISSUE OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION WAS STUDIED AS IT OCCURED IN SEVEN SOUTHERN CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES, RESULTING FROM THE 1954 "BROWN" DECISION OF THE SUPREME COURT. THESE CITIES WERE COLUMBUS, JACKSONVILLE, NEW ORLEANS, MONTGOMERY, ATLANTA, MIAMI, AND BATON ROUGE. CASE STUDY DATA WERE GATHERED THROUGH INTERVIEW RESPONSES AND PERSONAL FILES OF MANY INDIVIDUALS, INCLUDING SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, PUBLIC OFFICIALS, AND CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS. PRIMARY EMPHASIS WAS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Board of Education Role, Case Studies, Census Figures, City Government, City...
THE SEARCH FOR QUANTITATIVE MEASURES IN SENTENCE STRUCTURES THAT ARE SIGNIFICANT INDICATORS OF CHRONOLOGICAL AND MENTAL MATURITY IN SCHOOL CHILDREN WAS THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY. COMPARISONS WERE MADE OF COMPOSITIONS WRITTEN BY STUDENTS OF SUPERIOR IQ AT THE SAME GRADE LEVELS. THIS PART OF THE PROJECT HAD TWO OBJECTIVES--(1) TO SEE WHETHER SUPERIOR STUDENTS NEAR THE BEGINNING OF THEIR WRITING CAREERS ARE ALREADY MEASURABLY AHEAD OF THE AVERAGE STUDENTS IN SYNTACTIC MATURITY, AND IF SO IN WHAT...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academically Gifted, Adult Programs, Age Differences, Child Development, Cognitive...
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODS WERE COMPARED FOR DEVELOPING READING READINESS IN SPANISH-SPEAKING FIRST GRADE CHILDREN. THE METHODS USED WERE (1) ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION WITH AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES, (2) SPANISH LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION WITH AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES, AND (3) LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION USING THE SAME MATERIALS AS METHODS ONE AND TWO, BUT WITHOUT AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES. SAMPLE FIRST GRADE CLASSROOMS WERE ARBITRARILY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THE THREE TREATMENTS (A TOTAL OF 28 WAS USED)....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Audiolingual Methods, Beginning Reading, Disadvantaged Youth, English, Grade 1,...
THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO EVALUATE TWO APPROACHES FOR TRAINING STUDENTS WITH A PREVIOUSLY ACQUIRED FOREIGN LANGUAGE ABILITY. THE TWO APPROACHES STUDIED WERE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL. THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE MONOLINGUAL APPROACH SUGGESTS THAT IT IS MORE EFFICIENT TO TEACH IN THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE. THE BILINGUAL HYPOTHESIS SUGGESTS IT IS MORE EFFICIENT TO TEACH STUDENTS USING A PREVIOUSLY ACQUIRED LANGUAGE. THESE HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED ON AN INDIAN POPULATION IN THE CHIAPAS MOUNTAINS OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Research, Instruction, Language Instruction, Maya (People), Reading...
AN EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF 2-WORD ASSOCIATIONS IN LEARNING TO READ THE SECOND WORD OF A 2-WORD CHAIN. ABOUT 45 FIRST AND SECOND GRADE STUDENTS WERE CHOSEN AS SUBJECTS AFTER PRETESTING TO INSURE THEY WERE ABLE TO READ THE FIRST (STIMULUS) WORD BUT NOT THE SECOND (RESPONSE) WORD OF EACH WORD PAIR USED IN THE STUDY. EIGHT STIMULUS AND EIGHT RESPONSE WORDS WERE USED. EACH TRAINEE FIRST RECEIVED INSTRUCTION IN WORD ASSOCIATION BY RESPONDING ORALLY WITH THE RESPONSE WORD...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Associative Learning, Learning Experience, Primary Education, Reading Achievement,...
THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO APPROACHES FOR TEACHING READING TO FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN AT HIGH, AVERAGE, AND LOW ABILITY SCORE LEVELS WAS INVESTIGATED, AND THE VARIABLES THAT DIFFERENTIATED BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVERS UNDER BOTH APPROACHES WERE COMPARED. THE TWO APPROACHES WERE--(1) THE FRIES LINGUISTIC METHOD, AND (2) THE SCOTT, FORESMAN BASAL READER METHOD. TWELVE CLASSES IN EACH TREATMENT, 4 WITHIN EACH TREATMENT AT EACH OF THE 3 ABILITY SCORE LEVELS WERE INVOLVED IN THE STUDY (A TOTAL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Ability Grouping, Basic Reading, Child Development, Grade 1, Linguistics, Reading...
THIS REPORT WAS DESIGNED (1) TO PROVIDE A MORE DETAILED AND SOPHISTICATED KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SOCIAL DIFFERENCES IN ORAL COMMUNICATION AND (2) TO ASCERTAIN THE ACCURACY WITH WHICH SUBJECTS COULD IDENTIFY THE RACE AND EDUCATION OF SPEAKERS WHOM THEY COULD NOT SEE. TO DETERMINE REACTIONS TO PRONUNCIATIONS, THE INVESTIGATORS DEVISED AN INSTRUMENT COMPOSED OF PRONUNCIATIONS BY SPEAKERS OF SPECIFIC REGIONAL AND ETHNIC BACKGROUNDS. THIS INSTRUMENT WAS ADMINISTERED TO SOME THREE HUNDRED RESPONDENTS,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Black Dialects, Communication Problems, Disadvantaged, Middle Class, Nonstandard...
IN THIS INVESTIGATION, AGGRESSION WAS MEASURED FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES--(1) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE SUBJECT HAD OF HIS AGGRESSION, (2) HIS SATISFACTION, AS HE VIEWED IT, WITH HIS OWN AGGRESSION, (3) THE PERCEPTION THAT THE TEACHER HAD OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF THE SUBJECT'S AGGRESSIVENESS HELD BY HIS CLASSMATES. IN THIS RESEARCH, THE BUSS-DURKEE INVENTORY WAS ADMINISTERED TO 166 HUSBANDS AND WIVES WHOSE CHILDREN ATTENDED THE LABORATORY SCHOOL. TESTS WERE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Problems, Classroom Environment, Discipline, Hostility, Parent Attitudes,...
THE NUMBER AND TYPES OF ENTRY JOBS AVAILABLE TO HIGH SCHOOL LEAVERS AND THE SKILLS DEMANDED BY THE EMPLOYER AS A PREREQUISITE FOR HIRING WERE STUDIED. DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM EMPLOYERS AND SCHOOL LEAVERS. ALL DATA WERE COLLECTED THROUGH THE USE OF PROFESSIONAL INTERVIEWERS. THESE DATA WILL PROVIDE SCHOOL PERSONNEL WITH THE BASIS FOR MAKING CURRICULUM CHANGES IN BUSINESS AND DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION SUBJECTS. THERE IS A DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF THE COMPANY AND THE NUMBER OF ENTRY...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Curriculum Evaluation, Dropouts, Employment Opportunities, Employment Qualifications,...
THE TALENTED YOUTH PROJECT (TYP) MATHEMATICS STUDY WAS DESIGNED AS A STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CURRICULUM PATTERNS AND PRACTICES IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION CURRENTLY USED WITH ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 51 CLASSES AND 6 MATHEMATICS PROGRAMS. THE LORGE-THORNDIKE VERBAL INTELLIGENCE TEST, STEP READING TESTS, AND STEP MATHEMATICS TESTS WERE THE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS USED FOR THE SELECTION OF PUPILS IN THE SPECIAL PROGRESS PROGRAM....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Junior High Schools, Learning Processes, Mathematical...
THE APPENDIXES FOR THE TALENTED YOUTH PROJECT (TYP) MATHEMATICS STUDY INCLUDE THE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND TABLES COMPILED DURING THE INVESTIGATION. THE PROJECT COMPARED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CURRICULUM PATTERNS AND PRACTICES IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION CURRENTLY USED WITH ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS. THE FOUR APPENDIXES ARE (1) INSTRUMENTS, (2) SEVENTH-GRADE TABLES, (3) EIGHTH-GRADE TABLES, AND (4) NINTH-GRADE TABLES. (GC)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Junior High Schools, Mathematics Curriculum, Tables (Data),...
THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEGINNING THE TEACHING OF READING IN KINDERGARTEN. THE LONGITUDINAL EFFECTS AS WELL AS THE INITIAL RESULTS WERE EXAMINED. THE PROGRESS OF THE CHILDREN IN THE STUDY WAS FOLLOWED FROM THE KINDERGARTEN THROUGH THE FIFTH GRADE. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 4,000 KINDERGARTEN PUPILS RANDOMLY ASSIGNED BY THE SCHOOL TO COMPARABLE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS. INSTRUCTIONS WERE SIMILAR EXCEPT FOR ONE MAJOR DIFFERENCE. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP RECEIVED PLANNED,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Elementary Schools, Kindergarten Children, Reading Ability, Reading Achievement,...
SELECTED ASPECTS OF COMPOSITIONS, WRITTEN BY INTERMEDIATE GRADE CHILDREN (FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADES), WERE STUDIED TO REVEAL GROWTH GRADIENTS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE BY THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS (1) SEX, (2) CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, (3) GRADE LEVEL, (4) GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION, AND (5) RESIDENCE AREA. THE SUBJECTS WERE 14,400 CHILDREN IN FOUR GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. EACH REGION WAS REPRESENTED BY FOUR METROPOLITAN AREAS, FURTHER DIVIDED INTO RURAL, SUBURBAN, AND URBAN RESIDENCE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Age Differences, Child Development, Elementary School Students, Geographic Location,...
POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO BE DERIVED FROM PLANNED PURPOSEFUL READING INSTRUCTION WERE STUDIED. TWELVE PURPOSES WERE THEN SELECTED FOR PURPOSEFUL READING AT THE NINTH-GRADE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL. STUDENTS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP AND CONTROL GROUP WERE THEN SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF NEED FOR PURPOSEFUL READING INSTRUCTION. INDIVIDUALS IN THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS WERE MATCHED ON THE BASIS OF READING INVENTORY SCORES AND I.Q. PLANNED PURPOSEFUL READING INSTRUCTION WAS THEN GIVEN TO THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Instructional Materials, Program Evaluation, Reading, Reading Instruction, Reading...
REPORTED HERE ARE RESULTS OF A STUDY INITIATED TO EXAMINE PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE EXPERIMENTAL MODIFICATION OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR. SIXTEEN UNDERGRADUATE FEMALE VOLUNTEERS WERE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A VERBAL RESPONSE UNDER MANIPULATED LIGHTING CONDITIONS. BASE LINE SCORES WERE OBTAINED FOR EACH SUBJECT UNDER DIMLIGHT CONDITIONS. PUSHBUTTON SCORES WERE OBTAINED TO MEASURE SUBJECT AWARENESS LEVELS RELATED TO NOXIOUS LIGHTING. CESSATION OF PREESTABLISHED LEVELS OF NOXIOUS LIGHT WAS THEN MADE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conditioning, Psychological Studies, Research Methodology, Stimuli, Verbal Learning,...
THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE THE FOLLOWING APPROACHES TO TEACHING FIRST GRADE READING (1) A TRADITIONAL BASAL READER, (2) BASAL READER PLUS INTENSIVE PHONICS INSTRUCTION, AND (3) THE LATTER TWO METHODS PLUS SENSORY EXPERIENCES. THESE THREE APPROACHES WERE TRIED FOR 140 SCHOOL DAYS (1 YEAR), USING 28 FIRST-GRADE CLASSES. THEY WERE EXAMINED FROM THE STANDPOINTS OF PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT ON THE WHOLE AND ACHIEVEMENT WITHIN CERTAIN GROUPS OF CHILDREN. AMONG THE GROUPS CONSIDERED WERE BOYS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Basic Reading, Comparative Analysis, Grade 1, Phonics, Racial Differences, Reading...
A SPECIAL TRAINING PROGRAM IN SIZE DISCRIMINATION WAS STUDIED AS A MEANS FOR TEACHING REGULAR TRISOMIC MONGOLOIDS. BASED UPON THE SUCCESS OF THIS PROGRAM, A FURTHER ASSESSMENT WAS MADE AS TO ACQUIRED SIZE DISCRIMINATION ABILITY OF SUCH PERSONS WHEN TRANSFERRED TO OTHER LEARNING TASKS WITH PICTORIAL MATERIALS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS. THE SUBJECTS WERE 60 NON-INSTITUTIONALIZED MONGOLOID CHILDREN (CONFIRMED BY CHROMOSOMAL ANALYSIS) WITH A MEAN AGE OF 6 YEARS AND AVERAGE I.Q. OF 38. A...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Child Development, Concept Formation, Concept Teaching, Discriminant Analysis,...
A PLANNED, RIGOROUS SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED FOR A CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM BY MEANS OF WHICH THE CENTRAL PROBLEMS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND INSTRUCTIONAL INNOVATION ARE IDENTIFIED AND RELATED TO EACH OTHER. EACH SEGMENT OF THE RATIONALE FORMULATED WAS RELATED TO AND CONTINUALLY CHECKED AGAINST PERTINENT RESEARCH AND RELATED STUDIES DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROJECT. PRELIMINARY DISTINCTIONS WERE MADE AMONG THREE KINDS OF DECISION PHENOMENA--(1) VALUES, (2) EDUCATIONAL AIMS, AND (3) LEARNING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Concept Formation, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Research, Educational Needs,...
THIS IS THE FINAL REPORT OF THE SEMINAR TO STUDY THE PROBLEMS AFFECTING LIBRARY SERVICE IN METROPOLITAN AREAS. LIBRARIANS, SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, EDUCATORS, AND AUTHORITIES IN RELATED FIELDS, FROM THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, PARTICIPATED IN THE NINE 1-DAY SESSIONS. THE MUCH NEEDED AREAS OF RESEARCH WERE IDENTIFIED AS (1) INFORMATION NEED AND SUPPLY, (2) SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTORS, (3) EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR WORK IN LIBRARIES, (4) LIBRARY OPERATIONS, AND (5) HISTORICAL STUDIES. (GC)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Libraries, Library Instruction, Library Services, Public Libraries, Research...
THE SPECIFIC PROBLEM WAS WHETHER HUMANS, AFTER HAVING BEEN TRAINED ON A GIVEN REWARD SCHEDULE TO ACT IN A GIVEN WAY IN GIVEN CIRCUMSTANCES, WILL EXHIBIT FIXED EXTINCTION BEHAVIOR REGARDLESS OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TRAINING AND THE EXTINCTION PERIODS. SUBJECTS WERE 360 COLLEGE STUDENTS WHO HAD VOLUNTEERED FOR THE EXPERIMENT. AN APPARATUS WAS USED THAT FED BB'S WHEN A KNOB WAS PULLED AND THE BB'S ACTED AS THE REWARDS. A PROGRAMER FED THE BB'S ON A SET VARIABLE RATIO REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Patterns, College Students, Conditioning, Motivation, Rewards, Stimuli,...
THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION HAD A THREEFOLD OBJECTIVE--(1) TO DISCOVER THE EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF FAMILY MOVES ON PUPILS' HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES, (2) TO DISCOVER THE EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF FAMILY MOVES ON THE GRADES PUPILS EARNED IN HIGH SCHOOL, AND (3) TO DISCOVER THE EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF FAMILY MOVES ON PUPILS' PARTICIPATION IN EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES. HISTORICAL APPROACH WAS CHOSEN FOR THIS INVESTIGATION. STARTING WITH THE END-PRODUCT OF...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Emotional Adjustment, Family Life, Family...
THIS WAS AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF INTERPERSONAL INTERACTIONS THROUGH WHICH TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCEED IN INNER CITY SUBURBAN, AND RURAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOMS. A MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THE WORK WAS TO IDENTIFY SOME CRITICAL DIMENSIONS OF DIFFERENCE AMONG THESE THREE KINDS OF SETTINGS FOR MORE SYSTEMATIC ATTENTION LATER. TWO OBSERVERS VISITED EACH OF SIX CLASSROOMS ONCE WEEKLY FOR A 2-HOUR PERIOD. THEY OBSERVED SEPARATELY, AND AN EFFORT WAS MADE TO CONCLUDE EACH PART OF THE SCHOOL DAY AND...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Patterns, Classroom Environment, Elementary Schools, Inner City, Learning...
THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THE CONFERENCE WAS TO (1) INCREASE HOME ECONOMISTS' UNDERSTANDING OF THE CULTURE OF THE DISADVANTAGED, (2) OBSERVE HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMS IN ACTION, (3) CONSIDER THE NEED FOR INITIATING NEW HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMS TO HELP DISADVANTAGED, AND (4) EXPLORE COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS WITH COMMUNITY AGENCIES. THIS SIX-PART REPORT INCLUDED THE PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE, THE FIELD TRIPS TO POVERTY PROGRAM AREAS, NEW HOME ECONOMIC PROGRAMS, BIBLIOGRAPHY, CONFERENCE EVALUATION,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conferences, Disadvantaged, Disadvantaged Environment, Evaluation, Field Trips, Home...
THIS WAS A STUDY TO DEMONSTRATE A PROCESS FOR DETERMINING THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES ESSENTIAL FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF NINE FEED SALES ACTIVITIES AND THE LOCI AT WHICH THE COMPETENCIES COULD BE TAUGHT. AN INSTRUMENT WAS DEVELOPED WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE FEED INDUSTRY AND UNIVERSITY PERSONNEL. IT CONTAINED 40 COMPETENCIES WHICH APPEARED TO BE ESSENTIAL FOR FEED SALES PERFORMANCE. A 24-MEMBER JURY OF EXPERTS WERE INTERVIEWED AND THEIR RESPONSES TO THE IMPORTANCE OF THE 40 COMPETENCIES WERE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agriculture, Comparative Analysis, Salesmanship, Vocational Education, ALBRACHT,...
BOTH PROFESSIONAL AND PRACTITIONER ASSESSMENTS WERE OBTAINED TO DETERMINE THE TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE NEEDED BY MOTHERS AND EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN ACTIVITIES AND OCCUPATIONS RELATED TO CHILD CARE. IT WAS NECESSARY TO IDENTIFY THE SKILLS IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND GUIDANCE WHICH ARE UNIQUE TO THE MOTHER ROLE AND TO THE EMPLOYEE ROLES AND THOSE WHICH ARE COMMON TO BOTH. NINETY PERSONS WERE PERSONALLY INTERVIEWED, CONSISTING OF DAY-CARE CENTER DIRECTORS, DAY-CARE FOSTER MOTHERS, MOTHERS OF PRESCHOOL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Child Care, Child Development, Day Care, Employment Qualifications, Guidance,...
FOLLOWUP STUDY TECHNIQUES APPLICABLE TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS WHICH WERE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE OR LIKELY TO BECOME AVAILABLE IN THE NEAR FUTURE WERE IDENTIFIED AND DESCRIBED FOR PURPOSES OF PROGRAM EVALUATION. PROCEDURES CONSISTED ESSENTIALLY OF GATHERING AND ANALYZING SECONDARY SOURCE MATERIALS, INCLUDING PERTINENT PUBLICATIONS AND STUDIES. FOLLOWUP EFFORTS WERE FOUND TO BE COMMON IN THE EVALUATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN CERTAIN AREAS OF THE UNITED STATES. THE MOST SERIOUS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Community Problems, Employment Opportunities, Followup Studies, Measurement...
THIS DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY HAD AS ITS BASIC OBJECTIVES TO GATHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE "GREAT DECISIONS" PROGRAM WITHIN AND ACROSS COMMUNITIES AND TO DEVELOP INSTRUMENTS FOR FURTHER STUDY OF THE PROGRAM. "GREAT DECISIONS," SPONSORED BY THE FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION (FPA), IS AN 8-WEEK, ADULT STUDY-DISCUSSION PROGRAM IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS. BACKGROUND INFORMATION WAS COLLECTED FROM TWO PRINCIPAL SOURCES. APPROXIMATELY 40 PARTICIPANTS IN...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Adult Programs, Community Action, Current Events, Measurement...
A 2-WEEK SUMMER INSTITUTE WAS CONDUCTED TO SERVE AS INSERVICE TRAINING FOR A GROUP OF 29 COUNSELORS IN EMPLOYMENT, TRADE, TECHNICAL, AND SCHOOL SETTINGS AS TO HOW THEY MIGHT BETTER SERVE DISADVANTAGED YOUTH THROUGH INDIVIDUAL AND JOINT ACTION PROJECTS. OPEN DISCUSSIONS WERE HELD AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS TO STIMULATE WORTHWHILE IDEAS IN THIS AREA, AND FIELD VISITS AFFORDED EACH OF THE COUNSELORS OPPORTUNITIES TO MEET AND TALK WITH YOUNG PEOPLE AND THEIR FAMILIES. IN ADDITION, SOCIAL WORKERS,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Counseling, Cooperative Programs, Counselor Training, Disadvantaged Youth,...
A 3-DAY CONFERENCE WAS HELD TO DEFINE AND FIND SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF TECHNICAL SCHOOLS RELATIVE TO STUDENTS WHO LACK THE NECESSARY REQUISITES TO ENTER AND SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETE A TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM OF STUDY. REPRESENTATIVES FROM TECHNICAL SCHOOLS AND SECONDARY SCHOOL GUIDANCE COUNSELORS FROM THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES WERE INVITED TO PARTICIPATE. THE FIRST STEP WAS TO IDENTIFY THE KINDS OF STUDENTS WHO NEED A PREPARATORY TECHNICAL PROGRAM. THIS WAS FOLLOWED BY SYSTEMATIC...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Career Counseling, Conferences, Core Curriculum, Guidance...
THIS WAS A PILOT PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A MODIFIED VERSION OF THE "LIFE CAREER GAME" DEVELOPED FOR HIGH SCHOOL USE AND EXPLORE ITS POTENTIAL USE AT THE SIXTH-GRADE LEVEL. THE PROJECT WAS DIVIDED INTO A DEVELOPMENTAL PHASE AND A RESEARCH PHASE. IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL PHASE THE "LIFE CAREER GAME" DEVELOPED BY MRS. SARANE BOOCOCK OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY WAS MODIFIED AND SIMPLIFIED IN AN EFFORT TO MAKE IT APPROPRIATE TO THE INTELLECTUAL AND INTEREST LEVEL OF SIXTH-GRADE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Planning, Child Development, Class Activities, Educational Games, Games, Grade...
THIS REPORT PRESENTS A MODIFIED (SIXTH-GRADE) VERSION OF THE "LIFE CAREER GAME," DEVELOPED PREVIOUSLY FOR HIGH SCHOOL USE BY MRS. SARANE BOOCOCK OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. INCLUDED ARE MANUALS FOR TEACHER AND PUPIL (SHOWING HOW TO ORGANIZE, SUPERVISE, AND PLAY THE GAME) AS WELL AS THE GAME MATERIAL ITSELF. THE GAME IS AN ACTIVITY WHICH REQUIRES PUPILS TO SIMULATE MAKING SOME OF THE DECISIONS A PERSON WOULD MAKE AS HE PROGRESSES THROUGH SCHOOL, PREPARES FOR A JOB, AND ENTERS MARRIAGE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Planning, Child Development, Class Activities, Educational Games, Educational...
A 2-DAY CONFERENCE WAS HELD AT THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY SCIENCE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, TO ASSESS THE STATUS OF THE USE OF PRINTED AND AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS FOR INSTRUCTION, TO ANALYZE STUDIES AND PRACTICE, AND TO STIMULATE THE INTEREST AND PARTICIPATION OF SPECIALISTS IN THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AREA. THE FIRST STEP TAKEN WAS TO EXAMINE THE FUNDAMENTAL USES OF THESE MATERIALS AT THREE EDUCATIONAL LEVELS--(1) ELEMENTARY, (2) SECONDARY, AND (3) COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY. THEN THE NUMEROUS AVAILABLE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Audiovisual Aids, Books, Conferences, Data Processing, Educational Research,...
THE EFFECTS OF A CONTROLLED THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ON PUPIL LEARNING WERE ANALYZED. APPROXIMATELY 20 MATCHED PAIRS OF FIFTH-GRADE STUDENTS WERE SELECTED. TWO GROUPS WERE USED--ONE FOR AN IDEAL THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE OTHER FOR A DEVIATE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT. THE STUDENTS WERE MATCHED BY INTELLIGENCE TEST SCORES, ACHIEVEMENT TEST RESULTS, SEX, AGE, AND FAMILY BACKGROUND. THE CLASSROOMS WERE IDENTICAL IN ALL PHYSICAL ASPECTS. TEACHING INSTRUCTION FOR BOTH GROUPS WAS IDENTICAL, AND A WEEKLY...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Behavioral Sciences, Classroom Environment, Controlled...
A HISTORICAL SURVEY ON COOPERATIVE PROTESTANT ADULT EDUCATION IN AMERICA WAS CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATIZE THE MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN THIS FIELD AND TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION FOR THE BEGINNER IN THIS FIELD. THE SURVEY WAS FOCUSED UPON ACTIVITIES AND PROGRAMS DEVELOPED COOPERATIVELY BY DENOMINATIONS AND INTERDENOMINATIONAL AGENCIES AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL DURING THE PERIOD FROM 1936 THROUGH 1964. BASED UPON PRESELECTED CRITERIA, FOUR DENOMINATIONS WERE SELECTED FOR PROVIDING MUCH OF THE REQUIRED...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Church Programs, Cooperative Programs, Educational Trends, History,...
A NONPROGRAMED METHOD FOR TEACHING SEVENTH-GRADE GENERAL SCIENCE WAS STUDIED, USING A PROBLEM-SOLVING APPROACH THROUGH SELECTED, OPEN-ENDED, LABORATORY EXPERIENCES. PARTICULAR REFERENCE WAS GIVEN TO ANY STUDENT CHANGES IN (1) FACTUAL GAINS, (2) SUBJECT-MATTER COMPETENCY, (3) COMPREHENSION OF SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND GENERALIZATIONS, AND (4) SCIENTIFIC INTERESTS. THE STUDENT SAMPLE WAS ASSIGNED TO FOUR ACADEMIC TEAMS OF FOUR TEACHERS EACH IN THE RESPECTIVE AREAS OF ENGLISH,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Experience, Educational Technology, General Science, Grade 7, Problem...
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL WORKSHOP PROGRAM WERE (1) TO UPGRADE THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES AS OUTLINED IN "THE SOCIAL STUDIES FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN CALIFORNIA," (2) TO STRENGTHEN LOCAL DISTRICT LEADERSHIP IN THE AREA OF SOCIAL STUDIES, (3) TO FOCUS UPON ORGANIZING CENTERS FOR UNITS OF WORK TAUGHT IN SUMMER DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL, (4) TO ENCOURAGE TEACHERS TO USE THE INQUIRY APPROACH TO FOSTER THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE ABILITY IN CHILDREN, AND (5) TO FOCUS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Demonstrations (Educational), Inservice Teacher Education, Seminars, Social Studies,...
THIS IS THE TUTORIAL PROGRAM OF THE INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM TO IMPROVE THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) IMPROVE PUPILS' ATTITUDES TOWARD TEACHERS AND SCHOOLS, (2) IMPROVE PUPILS' SELF-CONCEPTS IN THE AREAS OF ACADEMIC ABILITY, AND (3) INCREASE PUPILS' GENERAL LEVEL OF PHYSICAL HEALTH. THE TUTORING POPULATION WERE EDUCATION MAJORS IN THE BEGINNING PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATION COURSES WHO PREPARED AND MAINTAINED COMPLETE DIARIES OF TUTORIAL SESSIONS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Black Students, College Students, Disadvantaged, Education Majors, Elementary...
THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO DEFINE SOME OF THE ISSUES THAT UNDERLINE CURRICULAR AND SPACE DECISION MAKING IN THE VISUAL ARTS AND TO MAKE CONSTRUCTIVE OBSERVATIONS THAT MAY SERVE AS GUIDELINES. VISITS OF A WEEK OR TWO TO EACH OF THE SIX INSTITUTIONS WERE MADE AND INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED WITH ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, AND STUDENTS. OF THE SIX INSTITUTIONS STUDIED, THE CLEVELAND INSTITUTE OF ART HAS ACHIEVED A PHYSICAL PLANT IT CONSIDERS ADEQUATE FOR ITS NEEDS NOW AND IN THE FORESEEABLE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Art Activities, Art Education, Educational Facilities, Facility Expansion, Planning,...
THE REPORT IS AN EXTENSION AND CONTINUATION OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM WHICH EXPLORED WAYS OF OBTAINING GREATER COOPERATION AND COMMUNICATION AMONG THE VARIOUS EDUCATORS WHO ARE CONCERNED WITH CREATIVE INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION. THE FOUR PARTS OF THIS REPORT CONTAIN (1) CONTENT FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION--A CONFERENCE REPORT ON CONCEPTS AND STRUCTURE IN THE NEW SOCIAL SCIENCE CURRICULA, (2) THE TEACHER--A SURVEY OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULA AND TEACHING, CLASSROOM...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conferences, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Research, Research Methodology,...
THE SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM EXPLORED WAYS OF OBTAINING GREATER COOPERATION AND COMMUNICATION AMONG THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PEOPLE WHO ARE CONCERNED WITH CREATIVE INNOVATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION--INCLUDING CLASSROOM TEACHERS, CURRICULUM DIRECTORS, SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, UNIVERSITY EDUCATORS, AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS. THE BASIC NEEDS FOR WHICH THE CONSORTIUM WAS FORMED ARE--(1) INCREASING DESIRE AND READINESS ON THE PART OF MANY SCHOOL SYSTEMS FOR MORE ACADEMICALLY OREINTED SOCIAL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Anthropology, Conferences, Curriculum Development, Curriculum Guides, Curriculum...
THE "PROJECT TALENT" FOLLOWUP STUDIES WERE CONCERNED WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN YOUTH, CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL PLANS AND DECISIONS WHICH ONE MAKES DURING HIGH SCHOOL AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING HIGH SCHOOL. RELATIONSHIPS WERE SOUGHT BETWEEN TRAITS EXHIBITED BY STUDENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR. IN 1960 A PROBABILITY SAMPLE WAS DRAWN FROM 400,000 STUDENTS IN GRADES 9 THROUGH 12, REPRESENTING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Choice, Career Planning, Educational Planning, Followup Studies, High School...
INFORMATION WAS DEVELOPED ON THE INDIVIDUAL TRAITS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS (SPECIFICALLY SUPERINTENDENTS AND PRINCIPALS), THE DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL SETTINGS SURROUNDING THEIR ACTIVITIES, AND CRITERIA OF ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS FOR THE PURPOSE OF COMBINING MEASURES OF THESE VARIABLES IN SUCH A WAY AS TO PREDICT ADMINISTRATIVE SUCCESS. THIS STUDY FOLLOWED AN EARLIER COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT (677) IDENTIFIED AS THE PILOT STUDY. BOTH STUDIES WERE CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP BETTER...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Ability Identification, Administrator Role, Administrators, Educational Environment,...
IT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH TO ASSESS THE CONTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN SCIENCE COURSES AND OTHER FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTISTS, THE AIMS AND METHODS OF SCIENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC ENTERPRISE. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 1,275 PHYSICS STUDENTS AND 1,009 CHEMISTRY STUDENTS FROM HIGH SCHOOLS IN IOWA, KANSAS, NEBRASKA, AND MISSOURI. TESTS USED FOR DATA WERE THE TEST ON UNDERSTANDING SCIENCE (TOURS), IOWA TEST OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT-SCIENCE TEST, AND OTIS QUICK...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Chemistry, Physics, Science Curriculum, Science Education, Science Instruction,...
NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS WERE SELECTED AS A SAMPLE TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP OF CERTAIN PREDICTION AND SELF-EVALUATION DISCREPANCIES TO ART PERFORMANCE AND ART JUDGMENT. STUDENTS WERE REQUIRED TO DEVELOP AN OIL CRAYON DRAWING, RESULTING FROM AN IMAGINARY SENTENCE SPOKEN TO AND SEEN BY ALL PARTICIPANTS. PREDICTIONS OF PERFORMANCE WERE ASKED PRIOR TO AND EVALUATIONS AFTER PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS AND THEIR PEERS. RESPONSES TO A PROFESSIONAL OIL PAINTING WERE ASKED ON EACH OF EIGHT DESCRIPTIVE CRITERIA...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Art, Art Appreciation, Art Education, Art Expression, Educational Research,...
RESEARCH REPORTED HERE WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF INDUCTIVE, DEDUCTIVE, AND INTUITIVE APPROACHES FOR TEACHING SELECTED GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. THE EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED IN A CULTURALLY ADVANTAGED PRIMARY SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND A CRITERION PRETEST AND POST-TEST. THE MATERIALS AND TESTS WERE DEVELOPED SPECIFICALLY FOR THIS STUDY TO TEACH THE SELECTED CONCEPTS AND TO EVALUATE UNDERSTANDING AS WELL AS THE ABILITY TO APPLY THE CONCEPTS. PREPARATIONS FOR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Concept Formation, Concept Teaching, Educational Research, Geography, Primary...
THE PARTICULAR FOCUS OF THIS STUDY WAS UPON THE EXTENT TO WHICH VALUES AND ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS INFLUENCE THEIR EVALUATION AND RATINGS OF STUDENTS OF VARYING CLASSES AND ETHNIC ORIGINS. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT TEACHERS WITH MIDDLE-CLASS BACKGROUNDS AND BIASES TEND TO EVALUATE MORE NEGATIVELY THOSE PUPILS IDENTIFIED AS BEING OF A LOW SOCIOECONOMIC CLASS OR AS NEGRO THAN THOSE IN THE MIDDLE CLASS OR WHITE RACE. INCLUDED IN THESE CONSIDERATIONS WERE TEACHER ATTITUDES ON NEUROSIS AND BEHAVIOR,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Patterns, Racial Differences, Racial Factors, Sex (Characteristics),...
THIS STUDY WAS CONCERNED WITH THE NATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE COGNITIVE FACTORS, ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS, AND THEIR PERSONALITY AND ACADEMIC CORRELATES. ENTERING FRESHMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN WERE TESTED WITH A BATTERY OF NINE TESTS TO OBTAIN THE DATA REQUIRED FOR ANALYSIS. SUSPECTED CONTAMINATION OF THE TEST RESULTS DUE TO COMMUNICATION AMONG SUBJECTS AND THE ORDER OF TESTING WAS INDICATED IN A TEST FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF OBSERVATIONS. ALTERNATE PROCEDURES INVOLVING FACTOR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cognitive Processes, Educational Research, Factor Analysis, Research Methodology,...
A STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WHO HAVE GAINED KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF CONCEPTS IN ANTHROPOLOGY WOULD--(1) ACHIEVE GREATER SELF-INSIGHT, (2) BECOME LESS ETHNOCENTRIC IN THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD OTHERS, AND (3) INCREASE THEIR ABILITY TO THINK CRITICALLY ABOUT SOCIAL PROBLEMS. A 1-YEAR EXPERIMENTAL COURSE ON WORLD CULTURES PRESENTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES USING INTELLECTUAL AND EMOTIONAL STIMULI FOR STUDENTS TO TAKE THE ROLES OR ATTITUDES OF OTHER ADOLESCENTS IN...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Anthropology, Cultural Awareness, High School Students, Self Concept, Social...
THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO EXPLORE THE POSSIBLE INFLUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND ITS ELEMENTS (AS DEPICTED BY THE CENTRAL OFFICE ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE TEAMS IN SELECTED SCHOOL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF OHIO) ON THE INNOVATIVENESS OF A SCHOOL DISTRICT. THE "ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE," WHICH SERVED AS THE MAIN DATA-GATHERING INSTRUMENT, HAD BEEN DETERMINED IN SEVERAL PREVIOUS STUDIES TO BE A USEFUL INSTRUMENT WHEN WORKING WITH INDIVIDUAL SCHOOL STAFFS....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrative Organization, Administrative Policy, Administrator Role, Central...
THE POTENTIAL DROPOUT WAS STUDIED IN THIS COUNSELING PROGRAM IN AN EFFORT TO LESSEN THE DROPOUT RATE. CRITERIA WERE ESTABLISHED AND SAMPLES WERE SELECTED FROM GRADES 8 THROUGH 11. AN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUP WERE FORMED, AND DATA WERE GATHERED ON A NUMBER OF VARIABLES. THE STATISTICAL TREATMENTS USED WERE CHI-SQUARE AND THE "T" TEST FOR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS. ANALYSIS INDICATED THE PROBABLE VALIDITY OF THE SELECTION PROCESS. THE FINDINGS SUGGEST THAT A SUMMER COUNSELING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior Development, Counseling Services, Dropout Prevention, Dropout Rate,...
THE JUNIOR COLLEGE ENVIRONMENT OF A RESIDENTIAL, 2-YEAR PRIVATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN WAS INVESTIGATED IN TERMS OF THE FIVE DIMENSIONS MEASURED BY THE COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENT SCALES (CUES)--PRACTICALITY, COMMUNITY, AWARENESS, PROPRIETY, AND SCHOLARSHIP. ALSO, THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO--(1) COMPARE THE PERCEPTION OF CHARACTERISTICS BY STUDENTS, ALUMNAE, AND FACULTY, (2) ASSESS CHANGES THAT MAY OCCUR IN STUDENT PERCEPTION DURING COLLEGE RESIDENCE, (3) DISCOVER IMPLICATIONS GOVERNING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Ability, Admission (School), Curriculum, Educational Environment,...
THE OBJECTIVES WERE THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN SPECIFIC CLASSES, AND DEMONSTRATING THE UTILITY OF THE TRADITIONAL CUMULATIVE GRADE POINT AVERAGE. TWO DIFFERENT STRATEGIES WERE EMPLOYED--(1) A MULTIVARIATE CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF GRADING PRACTICES, AND (2) THE USE OF AN OBSERVER IN A WIDE VARIETY OF ENGINEERING CLASSES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A VARIETY OF ASSESSMENT DEVICES. THE COURSES WERE DYNAMICS, DESIGN, AND INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Academic Aptitude, Curriculum Development, Engineering, Grade...
AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE OF THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLEGE DROPOUTS. PERSONALITY INVENTORIES AND RESPONSES TO QUESTIONNAIRES WERE USED TO DISTINGUISH PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS UNIQUE OR ESPECIALLY PREVALENT AMONG DROPOUTS. THE PERSONALITY SCALE DATA AND MOST OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA USED IN THE STUDY WERE MADE AVAILABLE FROM ANOTHER STUDY. THE POPULATION IN BOTH STUDIES WAS THE BODY OF STUDENTS WHO ENTERED THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, AS FRESHMEN IN THE FALL OF 1961....
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Dropout Attitudes, Dropout Characteristics, Dropout Research,...
THIS EFFORT INVOLVED AN EXAMINATION OF BASIC, GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN A VARIETY OF SPORTS ACTIVITIES THROUGH FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES. THREE ALTERNATE SETS OF MOVEMENT FACTOR PATTERNS WERE HYPOTHESIZED ON THE BASIS OF A LOGICAL "OPINION" ANALYSIS. PATTERN "A" REPRESENTED AN OBVIOUS "OPINION" CLASSIFICATION OF THE VARIABLE BY EXTREMITIES USED IN PROJECTION. PATTERN "B" INVOLVED A MORE COMPLICATED CLASSIFICATION OF SKILLS, INCLUDING OVERARM, SIDEARM,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Athletics, Females, High School Students, Performance, Physical Activities, Physical...
A UNIQUE DEVICE ("THE COLLEGE SUGGESTOR") WAS DEVELOPED FOR CLASSIFYING FOR INSTANT RETRIEVAL CHARACTERISTIC INFORMATION ON SOME 1,930 JUNIOR COLLEGES, COLLEGES, AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND ITS TERRITORIES. IN USING IT AN INDIVIDUAL WOULD IDENTIFY THOSE INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, CLOSELY RELATED TO HIS PERSONAL ABILITIES, INTERESTS, AND NEEDS. HE COULD ACCOMPLISH THIS UNDER COUNSELOR GUIDANCE OR AS AN INDEPENDENT ACTIVITY. THE INDIVIDUAL WOULD THEN FOLLOW THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Planning, College Programs, Colleges, Guides, Higher Education, Individual...
A COMPREHENSIVE, SEVEN-VOLUME, CODE LISTING IS PROVIDED OF SOME 1,930 COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, AND JUNIOR COLLEGES, REPRESENTED BY "THE COLLEGE SUGGESTOR" SYSTEM. INCLUDED UNDER EACH MAJOR COLLEGE HEADING IS A REPRESENTATIVE CODED LISTING OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THAT COLLEGE, INCLUDING SUCH FACTORS AS LOCATION, SIZE, CONTROL, PREREQUISITES, ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS, COSTS, FINANCIAL AID, PROGRAM, STUDY BODY CHARACTERISTICS, FACULTY CHARACTERISTICS, AVAILABLE DEGREE MAJORS, AND...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Planning, Colleges, Data Processing, Guides, Individual Characteristics,...