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Developed as a result of the project, Strategies for Linking Vocational Education Programs to Tribal Economic Plans, the guide contains information obtained from 20 tribes who are currently providing vocational education programs under the One Percent Set-Aside Federal Vocational Education funding, a program that provides the opportunity for Indians to tailor their vocational training programs to the human resource needs of the economic development of their tribes. The guide identifies tribally...
Topics: ERIC Archive, American Indians, Community Development, Economic Development, Employment...
A two-part report, sponsored by the Northwest Regional Exchange, focuses on the role of technical assistance in educational settings. This document, part II of the report, examines selected change models for establishing technical assistance systems and implications for action. After a brief introduction, the following critical components of technical assistance are discussed: (1) needs assessment (including the problem solving cycle), (2) talent banks (which match clients' skills with those of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Change Agents, Consultants, Consultation Programs, Educational Change, Educational...
The conference summarized here brought together participants from 12 public school districts and 34 observers from government agencies, foundations and community organizations. The attendees addressed the concern that the reform agenda of American public schooling is insufficiently sensitive to needy children who have dropped out of school or who may be at risk of doing so. The chairman's personal observations of the conferencees' conclusions are provided on the following subjects: (1) the need...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrator Role, Conferences, Disadvantaged Youth, Dropout Characteristics,...
In the last 10 years community college enrollments have leveled off, bringing a new urgency to institutional efforts to retain current students. Obstacles to academic persistence include external factors such as insufficient funds, work demands, social demands, family obligations, housing or transportation problems; and internal problems such as procrastination, fear of failure, inability to ask for help, loneliness, self-doubt, value conflicts, and career indecision. To deal with these...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Persistence, Community Colleges, Dropout Prevention, Dropouts, School...
This study examined the work force attainments of three groups of deaf adults: persons with no college degrees, persons with sub-Baccalaureate degrees, and persons with Bachelor degrees. Data were derived from the "Alumni Feedback Questionnaire" of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf and from the "Secondary School Graduate Follow-up Program for the Deaf." They were compared on the following variables: unemployment rate, socioeconomic status, and vertical mobility....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Associate Degrees, Bachelors Degrees, Career Ladders, College Graduates, Comparative...
This study investigated how Teachers Teaching Teachers, a staff development project, influenced the attitudes and beliefs of public school teachers and administrators. Fifty-two educators participated in the project, which lasted from November, 1987 to May, 1988. Participants were administered pre- and post-measures of Likert Bipolar Attitude Inventories and Osgood's Semantic Differential Scales, which were designated to measure attitudes and values which the project hoped to improve. Pre- and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrator Attitudes, Attitude Measures, Collegiality, Elementary Secondary...
After briefly tracing the development of modern bibliographic instruction since the 1870s, this report concentrates on the characteristics of bibliographic instruction in the past decade. It points out that the 1980s, dubbed the "second generation" of library instruction, saw an increased emphasis on preparing students to deal critically with the information they find, rather than simply helping them to find the information. Librarians are encouraged to help students to begin thinking...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Libraries, Course Descriptions, Higher Education, Library Instruction,...
Prepared in response to requests from librarians and other members of the public for information about the types of projects that have been funded by the Higher Education Act (HEA) Title II-B program, this report offers information about projects funded in fiscal year 1990. For 1990, grants totalling $564,557 were conferred upon 24 universities to support 21 master's fellowships, 2 post-master's fellowships; 10 doctoral fellowships, and 4 institutes. Abstracts for funded fellowship and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Abstracts, Federal Aid, Fellowships, Graduate Study, Grants, Higher Education,...
The course of school finance reform in Washington since the 1977 "Seattle School District v. State" decision is traced in this document. While the majority of nationwide court decisions have centered on the inequitable distribution of financial resources among school districts within 10 states, the Washington decision focused on the failure of the state legislature "to make ample provision" for K-12 education. Analysis of changes instituted in response to the decision shows...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Equity (Finance), Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education,...
Research examining how consumption of alcohol is expected to affect the sexuality of young men and women has found that subjects who rated the female drinker expected alcohol to facilitate a greater increase in sexuality for the target than did subjects who rated the male drinker. This research, however, did not employ a nonalcohol drinking control condition. This study was conducted to examine subjects' expectations of men's and women's sexuality (or more specifically, their level of interest...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Dating (Social), Drinking, Expectation, Higher Education,...
Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for electrical trades. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the skills needed to enter these occupations. The occupational, academic, and employability skills for this occupation or occupational area are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Building Trades, Competence, Competency Based Education, Electric Circuits,...
For communication programs one means of developing a strong working relationship with the business and professional communities, improving program curriculum planning, and encouraging input on other departmental issues is to establish a professional advisory council. Advisory boards serve several practical purposes for a communication department. They aid in meeting the changing demands in the preparation of communication practitioners, provide contacts for internships for students, help assess...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Advisory Committees, Departments, Higher Education, Mass Media, School Business...
This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in "Fiction as Curricular Text," studied six professors who utilize fiction as text while teaching education...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cognitive Style, Concept Formation, Course Content, Educational Change, Educational...
The Student Assistance to Further Education (SAFE) Alternative School was designed to provide academic and support services to eligible Houston Independent School District (HISD) (Texas) elementary school students at risk of expulsion. Students are referred to the school by school staff at participating schools or their parents. The program, which began in February 1997, was evaluated in its initial year of operation. Twelve students from 9 elementary schools participated. All were African...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attendance, Black Students, Disadvantaged Youth, Elementary Education, Elementary...
This report profiles 19 public two-year colleges in the state of New Jersey. Each profile includes the number of students, faculty and trustees, and the ratio of full-time to part-time faculty at each college. Student characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, full-time or part-time status, financial assistance received, graduation and transfer rates, and need for remediation are examined. The measure of need for remediation considers the subject areas of reading, writing, computation and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Faculty, Community Colleges, Enrollment, Institutional Characteristics,...
The General Accounting Office (GAO) surveyed officials in nine federal agencies regarding the following aspects of the employment and training programs they administered: funding levels; types and numbers of participants; services provided; and outcome measures. The 9 agencies were administering 44 programs providing a range of employment and training services. Although many programs were the same as those included in a similar study conducted in 2000, 10 programs were newly identified and 6...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Accountability, Adult Education, American Indians, Budgets, Economically...
Congress has raised concerns about difficulties rural school districts face implementing the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA). This report describes: key challenges rural states and districts face; strategies rural districts have developed; expenditures and resources related to rural districts? compliance; and guidance and assistance from the Department of Education (Education). Researchers conducted a nationally representative survey of rural and nonrural school districts and interviewed...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Federal Legislation, Educational Legislation, Rural Schools, School Districts,...
This brief uses data from the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) to estimate the number of homeschooled students in the United States in 2003 and to discuss the reasons parents decide to homeschool their children. Overall, from 1999 to 2003, the number of homeschooled students in the United States increased, as did the homeschooling rate. The increase in the homeschooling rate (from 1.7 percent to 2.2 percent) represents about 0.5 percent of the 2002-2003 school-age...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Home Schooling, Parent Attitudes, Educational Methods, Parents as Teachers,...
This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of most rates in 2004, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last three decades (1972-2004), and examines the characteristics of high school dropouts and high school completers in 2004. Four rates are presented to provide a broad picture of high school dropouts and completers in the United...
Topics: ERIC Archive, High Schools, Dropouts, Dropout Rate, Graduation Rate, Student Characteristics,...
Climate change is an area of science that has been studied for many years. The fossil record has taught humankind much about conditions on Earth long prior to our arrival. We now live in a unique time in that our scientific abilities have not only given us a precise age of the planet, but of the universe itself. Yet there are many things we do not understand, and some of the questions that remain before us may have a significant impact on the quality of our lives in the future. As our current...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Research Skills, Climate, Secondary School Students, Educational Resources, Secondary...
THE MAJOR DILEMMA AND CHALLENGE FACING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IS THE FACT THAT SOCIAL CHANGES LAG FAR BEHIND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES. BASIC ISSUES RELATING TO THIS DILEMMA INCLUDE--(1) DROPOUTS LEAVE SCHOOL BEFORE THEY ACQUIRE VOCATIONAL SKILLS, (2) ADOLESCENTS IN OUR CULTURE LACK A CLEARCUT WAY TO MOVE FROM CHILDHOOD TO A CONTRIBUTING ROLE AS AN ADULT IN SOCIETY, (3) RAPID CHANGE, INCREASING EDUCATIONAL LEVELS, AND GREATER NEEDS TEND TO ISOLATE PEOPLE FROM SOCIETY FOR ECONOMIC REASONS, WHILE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Problems, Federal Legislation, Speeches, Vocational Education, VENN, GRANT
The three papers in this publication discuss American Indians in Montana. "Indian Poverty in Montana: Findings of the 1960 Census" examines data pertaining to the Indians' economic background. Income data, derived from 25 percent of the population, reports income received in 1959 from: (1) wages, salaries, commissions, and tips; (2) "own business, professional practice, partnership or farm"; and (3) social security, pensions, veterans' payments, rent (minus expenses),...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Acculturation, American Indian Reservations, American Indians,...
This report describes on a first-hand basis the role played by the "coach" in the Vermont Experimental and Demonstration Manpower Pilot Project. The paraprofessional coach, or "employment service aide," acts as a client advocate who helps the client adjust to a work environment. As one part of a three member employability team, the coach's duties begin after the client has been accepted for placement in a Special Work training situation. Constant communication is maintained...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adjustment (to Environment), Career Counseling, Career Guidance, Case Studies,...
To improve speech patterns of deaf children, a visual aid was developed which assists in the training of velar control. A small accelerometer is attached to the nose, and its output presented on a computer-controlled visual display. The display then may be used as a training aid, or for analyzing recorded or live speech. Properties of accelerometer output in speech of people with normal hearing and children with severely impaired hearing are compared. The data show inadequate velar control,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Audio Equipment, Computers, Deafness, Electromechanical Aids, Handicap...
Persons of Spanish Origin are the second largest minority group in the United States. In 1970, they numbered 9.1 million people; 2.4 million of whom were in poverty. These 9.1 million persons are a diverse group of people, from divergent areas of the world, and of different national backgrounds. The separate Spanish groups were designated by the 1970 Census as the: Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Central and South Americans, and Other Spanish (those persons whose families...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Age, Census Figures, Cubans, Demography, Employment Patterns,...
As rural communities strive to meet the demands of both their citizens and of higher levels of government for increased local services, they must rely more and more on outside assistance. The maze and complexity of federal and state mandates forces officials to seek technical assistance from a network of public and private agencies. The dynamics of this dependence was the focus of a study of eight rural localities in Virginia where local officials were questioned as to the decision making and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrative Problems, Bureaucracy, Community Control, Community Leaders, Decision...
A study surveyed the religion news reporters at daily newspapers in all circulation classes to assess the current state of the religion beat. Mail surveys were completed by 141 newspapers. Information concerning the following areas was solicited: (1) demographic characteristics (respondent's age, sex, religious preference), (2) staffing arrangements (respondent's title, supervisor's title, amount of time devoted to religion news coverage), (3) allocation of space, and (4) news-gathering...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Media Research, News Media, News Reporting, Newspapers, Occupational Surveys, Religion
In March of 1985, the Massachusetts Department of Correction opened Longwood Treatment Center, the state's first minimum security prison designed exclusively to detain and provide alcoholism education and treatment to multiple drunken driving offenders. A process evaluation of the program revealed that the program was implemented as planned and served the intended target population. Preliminary outcome measures revealed that 6% of program participants were returned to prison within one year of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alcohol Education, Alcoholism, Correctional Education, Correctional Rehabilitation,...
In an attempt to understand what expressive writing means to themselves and to their students, teachers should explore and reflect on various questions regarding expressive writing theories and practices. For many, self-expression is the basis of all serious writing and an important stage in any act of learning, so it is essential to uncover the assumptions that different schools of expressive writing pedagogy make about the self. The psychological theories of Abraham Maslow, Sigmund Freud, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cognitive Processes, Creative Writing, Higher Education, Psychology, Self Expression,...
This paper explores what service-learning is and how it is intended to benefit both the community and the student participants. Service-learning is a combination of community service and experiential education. The primary goal is providing for a community need, even as the experiential education aspect advances student learning and academic goals. Scholars involved in service-learning emphasize that reflection is at the heart of the service-learning experience, transforming the experience so...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Community Needs, Higher Education, Instructional Effectiveness,...
A goal of this double issue of English Teaching: Practice and Critique is to collectively consider what we mean when we talk about knowledge about language. How have our understandings changed over time? What are the implications of these new understandings for pedagogy in the field of language teaching? These are necessary and important questions. This article, however, does not attempt to address them. Rather, it focuses on the power of standardized assessment in language education and on its...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Writing Evaluation, Writing Tests, High School Students, Standardized Tests, Foreign...
Traumatic events remain common in human experiences. Some studies have found that over 60% will experience a traumatic experience severe enough to qualify for a diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)(Breaslau, 1998). More current tragedies such as the attacks on the world trade centers in 2001 and the devastation of the Deep South by hurricane Katrina may increase the number of traumatized individuals counselors work with. Recent research has shed light on the many different aspects...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Terrorism, Emotional Response, Stress Variables,...
This paper describes lessons learned from the first-year education efforts of Rising Star Outreach of India, a U.S.-based nongovernmental charitable organization (NGO) working with leprosy colonies in Tamil Nadu, India. In 2008, Rising Star Outreach established a residential school to provide English-medium schooling for 180 colony children in Standards K through 8. Using lived experience methods of phenomenological research described by Manen (1990), the author describes six themes derived...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Language of Instruction, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning,...
This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in Saudi Arabia, including its development, objectives, enrollment and challenges.
Topics: ERIC Archive, Foreign Countries, Early Childhood Education, Educational History, Geography, Social...
Trauma, bereavement, and loss are universal human experiences. Much has been written about the process that the bereaved go through following the loss of a loved one. Recent events such as 9/11, earthquakes in Turkey, genocides in Rwanda, community conflict in Northern Ireland, and the Asian Tsunami Disaster have drawn unprecedented public attention to the subject of traumatic bereavement. Increasingly, it is recognised that while most people are able to cope with loss generally by eventually...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Grief, Foreign Countries, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Terrorism, Natural...
Parental involvement is an important indicator of students' success in school. When schools engage families in a manner connected to improving learning, students do make greater gains. Creating and implementing an effective parental involvement model is an essential component in increasing student achievement in school. This article addresses the role of the principal in developing a multi-dimensional parental involvement model. To clarify this role, first parental involvement is defined and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Parent Participation, Parent School Relationship, School Personnel, Principals,...
Procedures for establishing standards and determining the number of items needed in criterion-referenced measures are reviewed. The discussion of setting a passing score is organized around five factors: performance of others, item content, educational consequences, psychological and financial costs, and measurement error. Classical test theory, binomial, and sequential models for determining test length are considered. An illustrative table relating test length, proficiency standard, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Criterion Referenced Tests, Error of Measurement, Models,...
Despite the fact that the television industry has made some progress away from its totally white orientation, the industry as a whole still has a long way to go before it can be said to afford fair treatment to blacks. More blacks must gain access to the centers of power--such as the Federal Communications Commission--from which change emanates, and the networks must provide greatly improved opportunities for minority employment in responsible positions. Secondly, television, through its...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Television
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) Archive
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There are a number of apparent similarities between dropouts and academic achievers: both groups have been described as alienated and impulsive, and both can be difficult counselees because they reject some traditional values. This investigation focused on the behaviors and attitudes of a group of 23 male college sophomores who were academic underachievers, and a matched group of overachievers. Longitudinal interview data and test data were collected. The results supported the hypotheses that...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Achievement, Anxiety, Behavior, College Students, Overachievement, Self Control,...
This paper is an abstract of a longer paper which was read at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting in 1974. It begins with a brief background discussion on microteaching and goes on to list the teaching skills which microteaching develops. A brief summary of the research on microteaching is then given. The abstract concludes with a history of the Hampton Institute, including an evaluation of its use of microteaching techniques. The evaluation shows that a) video...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Microteaching, Preservice Teacher Education, Protocol Materials, Teacher Education,...
A House of Representatives bill (H.R. 12471) seeks to overcome certain major deficienceis in the administration of the Freedom of Information Act, as disclosed by investigative hearings held in 1972, in order to contribute to the fuller and faster release of information which is the basic objective of the act. The amendments provided in H.R. 12471 deal with the inadequacy of agency indexes of pertinent information, difficulties in procedures required for the requisite identification of records,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agencies, Court Role, Federal Government, Federal Legislation, Government...
A cost analysis of day care in Denmark was initiated to determine what day care services cost, who pays for them, and how these costs relate to the quality of day care services. Some of the findings are: (1) group day care is considerably more expensive for children 0-3 years of age than for children 3-7 years of age; (2) group day care centers under municipal management are more expensive than group day care centers under private, nonprofit management; (3) staff salaries amount to 70 percent...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Studies, Cost Effectiveness, Cross Cultural Studies, Day Care, Educational...
The first task of the study was to develop valid, short-cut methods of indexing the narrative content of evaluation reports that would extract the differentiating information contained in evaluative comments simply, reliably, and with as good classification accuracy as the longer initial procedure. In the second task, the original inter-indexer reliability study was extended to clarify the issue of reliability of the complex, lengthy indexing procedure. Section 2 of the report reexamines the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Analysis of Variance, Classification, Content Analysis, Evaluation Methods, Indexing,...
The utility of the Rasch logistic measurement model in longitudinal analyses of children's self-concept was investigated. Calibration of an 80-item self-concept measure from the responses of 1,000 elementary school children resulted in the identification of 25 items that fit the model. Repeated measures analyses of variance used to assess the effects of an experimental intervention program on changes in individuals' self-concept tended to support the usefulness of the measure in reducing the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Affective Behavior, Analysis of Variance, Behavior Change, Elementary Education,...
Existing programs and needs for adult basic education (ABE) in British Columbia were assessed. A research committee examined adults' educational opportunities up to and beyond literacy levels. ABE was found, in general, to be an area of neglect and low priority. Adult needs remain high; for instance, census data reveals that nearly half a million adults have not gone beyond grade 8. Many family and psychological problems are associated with illiteracy. Nevertheless, present educational...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Basic Education, Adult Education, Adult Educators, Adult Literacy, Adult...
This learning package presents 15 lessons on principles of economics for use by junior high school social studies classroom teachers as they develop economic education programs. The activities are keyed to the economic education color television/film program "Trade-Offs," (developed jointly in 1978 by the Agency for Instructional Television, the Canadian Foundation for Economic Education, and the Joint Council on Economic Education). Major objectives of the lessons are to give...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Consumer Education, Economics, Economics Education, Educational Objectives,...
The critical and central role of school library media programs in equipping individuals with the skills and knowledge necessary to compete successfully in a learning society and an information world was explored. An analysis of patterns of information seekers' behavior provided the basis for a discussion of the importance of considering the proximity or availability of information sources, the time and energy required to find and use information, and perceptions of how much information is...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Media, Elementary Secondary Education, Information Needs, Information...
Old Order Amish in modern society have retained definite customs and traditions. At the heart of their thinking is the belief that resolving conflicts peacefully within their own cultural group is a necessity. In times of conscription of young men, alternative service in governmental-approved civilian work is performed instead of military service. Types of work approved for the Amish emphasize the national health and safety of humankind in society. Working in hospitals has been an important...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cultural Differences, Cultural Traits, Culture Conflict, Minority Groups, National...
This summary report examines ability grouping and its possible use for in-school segregation in the North Carolina public schools. The report describes the development of concerns among minority parents about the placement of minority children in special education and low-ability classes and the investigation into the issue by a forum of six panelists. An overview of the question of whether minority students are overidentified for low-ability groups and passed over for high ability groups shows...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Ability Grouping, Advisory Committees, Black Students, Civil Rights, Elementary...
The practicum reported here was designed to increase middle school students' participation in and use of the school library programs and resources. BookTalks, Read Alouds, a special service project, and three all-school programs were accomplished in this independent school setting during a three-month period. Middle school students were encouraged to read more and the habit of reading was promoted. BookTalk and Read Aloud strategies combining a wide array of books and curious correlating...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Junior High School Students, Junior High Schools, Library Role, Library Services,...
As instructional philosophies proliferate, elementary teachers are increasingly active as curriculum makers. Interconnecting the elements of unit planning is essential to dynamic teaching and meaningful learning. To be effective, unit planning must: (1) focus on substance and identify major concepts and generalizations; and (2) design activities to promote meaningful learning so that identified concepts become part of the learner's knowledge base. This annotated bibliography of 22 books and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Annotated Bibliographies, Cultural Differences, Curriculum Development, Educational...
A recent study proposed a rational for investigating the effects of mediating tasks upon a summary writing activity for tertiary-level students using English as an educational medium. The tasks in this study involved a group discussion or a reading comprehension exercise, with a third condition providing for immediate access to the text and summary instruction with no mediating activity. A subsequent comparative analysis of the content of summaries written by students under these three...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Comparative Analysis, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Economics,...
This report describes activities and accomplishments of the 3-year project, "Expanding the Circle of Services for Children and Youth Who Are Deaf Blind," a South Dakota project to improve services to this population through improved interagency cooperation and technical assistance. A highlight of the third year was the formation of the Great Plains Regional Alliance which addresses the needs of children who are deaf blind and their families who reside on American Indian reservation...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agency Cooperation, American Indian Education, Deaf Blind, Disability Identification,...
A study compared the progress of children encouraged to use inventive spelling with those encouraged to use traditional spelling in their creative writing. It was hypothesized that there would not be a significant difference in the writing samples produced in terms of their length or degree of elaboration. Participants were two second-grade classes from a suburban school district. The classroom teachers had different styles of teaching but taught the same weekly spelling list from a spelling...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Creative Writing, Invented Spelling, Primary Education,...
The relationship between training and the growth in wage inequality was examined through an analysis of data from the January 1983 and January 1991 supplements to the Current Population Survey. The analysis focused on whether the distribution of training has changed in ways that may explain changes in the wage structure during the period studied and whether the changes in training, combined with the effects of training on wages, are sufficiently large to have induced the changes in wage...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Education Work Relationship, Educational Opportunities, Job Training, On the Job...
At the University of Miami, the Bilingual Study Group has been evaluating linguistic and academic performance of children from a broad spectrum of socioeconomic status who appear to be well-matched across bilingual and monolingual groups. Because the studies vary in the degree of exposure to English and Spanish among bilingual subjects who are compared with monolinguals, the outcomes are complex. On the whole, research results emphasize advantages of bilingualism because they show that in most...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Age Differences, Bilingualism, Elementary Education, English...
Science educators often assume and expect that students who are actively engaged in scientific inquiry should develop more accurate understandings of science and the construction of scientific knowledge. However, this assumption, while intuitive, has not been validated. This paper reports on a study that sought to determine the impact of an 8-week science apprenticeship program on a group of high ability students' understandings of the nature of science and scientific inquiry. The results of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Concept Formation, Hands on Science, High School Students, High Schools, Laboratory...
EVALUATION OF HEADSTART HAS AS ITS GENERAL CRITERION OF EFFECTIVENESS THE RATIO BETWEEN COST AND BENEFIT. IF THE LATTER CAN BE DEMONSTRATED TO JUSTIFY THE FORMER, THE INTERVENTION PROJECT IS A GOOD INVESTMENT IN TERMS OF IMMEDIATE HELP FOR THE DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOLER AND IN LONG RANGE BENEFITS FOR HIS FAMILY, COMMUNITY, AND SOCIETY. IN TERMS OF A MODEL, INPUT (POPULATION) PLUS OPERATIONS (PROGRAM ATTRIBUTES) MUST YIELD OUTPUT (CHANGES IN POPULATION ATTRIBUTES). IT IS DIFFICULT TO ASSESS AN...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Action Research, Child Development, Conceptual Schemes, Cost Effectiveness,...
POOR RURAL WHITES ARE A MAJOR AND PERSISTENT POVERTY PROBLEM, AND HAVE RECEIVED INSUFFICIENT ATTENTION. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT--(1) WHITES IN POVERTY TEND TO BE SEPARATED FROM MAJOR NATIONAL MARKETS AND THE GENERALLY ACCEPTED AMERICAN WAYS OF LIFE, (2) EMERGENCE OF MANY SPECIAL PROGRAMS TO CATER TO "TARGET GROUPS" ON THE BASIS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL NEED TEND TO ACCENTUATE THIS SEPARATION, (3) SUCH SEPARATION MAY WORK TO THE DETRIMENT OF POOR RURAL WHITES, (4) MAJOR NEW PROGRAMS OR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Anglo Americans, Attitudes, Behavior, Communication Problems, Disadvantaged, Economic...
TRUSTEES OF FOUR APPROPRIATE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS DETERMINED THE RELATIVE VALUE OF SIGNIFICANT CAREER-DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS FROM A PRE-SELECTED LIST. COMPARISONS AMONG THE TRUSTEE GROUPS ARE MADE, COMPOSITE DATA ARE REPORTED, SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THE RANK-ORDERED CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH AS AN EXTERNAL CRITERION ARE PROVIDED, AND IDEAS FOR INCORPORATING THE CONCEPTS AS TOPICS FOR GROUP GUIDANCE CLASSES ARE GIVEN. (AUTHOR)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Development, Career Guidance, Conceptual Schemes, Group Guidance, Rating...
DESIGNED FOR USE BY HIGH SCHOOL OR ADULT STUDENTS AS TEXT OR REFERENCE MATERIAL, THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS TECHNICAL INFORMATION NEEDED IN SELECTING TREES FOR HOME PLANTING. IT WAS PREPARED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF TEACHERS. MAJOR SECTIONS ARE (1) WHAT FACTORS SHOULD I CONSIDER WHEN BUYING TREES, (2) WHAT FACTORS SHOULD I CONSIDER BEFORE BUYING TREES, AND (3) WHAT TREES SHOULD I CONSIDER. THE SUGGESTED TIME ALLOTMENT IS 2-8 HOURS....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Education, High Schools, Ornamental Horticulture, Postsecondary...
A study was conducted to determine whether a significant relationship exists between the teacher's judgment of her pupils' social status and the pupils'"actual social rank" in the class. Six teachers (one for each grade from one through six) in a selected northern Indiana elementary school were given forms listing their pupils' names accompanied by three columns designated "work companion,""play companion," and "seat companion." On these forms, teachers...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Experiments, Elementary School Students, Elementary School Teachers,...
A 6-week summer program provided 51 gifted 4th and 5th graders with nonstructured experience in problem solving in science and language arts and in satisfying of operant needs. Fifty one matched children served as controls. Divided into four groups, the children worked with four teachers acting primarily as resource consultants. Testing demonstrated no significant differences between subjects and controls in problem solving in either science or language arts; however, children in the program...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Adjustment (to Environment), Enrichment Activities, Exceptional...
As in most developing countries, education in Kenya is reported to have developed through three broad, overlapping phases: traditional, missionary, and governmental as influenced by the country's geography, climate, population growth, economy, and striving for independence. In the process, long-range educational goals have evolved: 1) to provide universal primary education; 2) to ensure enough places at the secondary and higher levels for educating those with recognized abilities; and, 3) to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Community Schools, Comparative Education, Developing Nations, Developmental Programs,...
An evaluation is made of the efficacy of various approaches to early childhood education when tested in the natural laboratories of operating schools, and the Follow Through program's impact on achieving social changes and ameliorating effects of poverty through education. Judged primarily from data collected during the 1969-70 school year, Follow Through is achieving its intended objectives. Some of the major findings of the program evaluation are: (1) Effects of Follow Through participation...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Data Collection, Disadvantaged Youth, Early Childhood...
The federal mission in educational research from 1868, when the Department of Education was established, to 1954, was to collect statistics. In 1954 the Cooperative Research Act authorized the Commissioner of Education to finance research and demonstrations in education. Outside the Office of Education (OE), the National Science Foundation provided most of the funds in the development of new curricula in science and mathematics. OE extended its research program to include the development...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrative Agencies, Educational Legislation, Educational Research, Educational...
An effective model for analyzing revision processes in writing needs to synthesize what research has shown about the process, the strategies involved, and what is known about students' revision strategies. Development of such a model also requires recognizing that (1) a relationship exists between reading and writing in the revision process, (2) strategies are based on a set of heuristics in the revision process, (3) revision is part of the recursive nature of the composing process, and (4) a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cognitive Processes, Educational Theories, Higher Education, Models, Prewriting,...
This handbook provides 25 hours of training in human relations skills for transitional black women (the population of women who are underemployed, unemployed, undereducated, poor, or unaware of educational or occupational opportunities available to them). The purpose of the training is to emphasize image building and human relations skills as well as technical knowledge, in order to combat the double discrimination of sexism and racism under which transitional women labor in their search for...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Blacks, Career Development, Disadvantaged, Employment, Employment Interviews, Equal...
The publication provides information about approximately 75 materials and publications developed by government agencies and voluntary and professional organizations on the topic of ethnocultural diversity and maternal and child health. For each item included, the following information is provided: bibliographic data, contact information, and a brief abstract. Materials are dated from 1983 to 1991 and are grouped in the following categories: materials from state and local agencies; materials...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Children, Community Resources, Continuing Education, Cultural Differences, Ethnic...
This document contains 12 units of study and student activities that incorporate American Indian culture into various aspects of the elementary school curriculum. These teaching units are the outcome of a teacher summer workshop held at Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, Montana. Sections describe: (1) research and presentations on the Indian tribes of Montana; (2) exploration of family history, genealogy, and cultural background; (3) Grade 1 activities that integrate American Indian culture and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, American Indian Culture, American Indian Education, Class Activities, Cultural...
The condition of literacy programming for Metis and Non-Status Indian Peoples in Canada is reported. Metis peoples are defined as Aboriginal People distinct from Indian and Inuit, descendants of the historic Metis, and descendants of Aboriginal Peoples who have been absorbed by the historic Metis, all of whom share a common cultural identity and political will. The Non-Status Indian Peoples are those of Aboriginal ancestry who are not defined as Indian within the criteria of the Indian Act and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Canada Natives, Educationally Disadvantaged, Federal Legislation, Foreign Countries,...
This paper presents findings of a study that asked administrators to identify the skills that administrative candidates should possess in the year 2000 and the administrator-preparation courses that universities should offer. Data were collected through telephone interviews that were conducted with a total of 80 Long Island, New York, administrators--15 superintendents, 12 assistant superintendents, 8 high school principals, 12 middle/junior high school principals, 10 elementary school...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrator Education, Administrator Qualifications, Curriculum Design, Degree...
This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about health care resources in order to know how to keep themselves healthy, when they need to see a health professional, and where to go if they do need to see someone. It contains information sheets, student worksheets, and answers to the worksheets. The information sheets are coordinated with an available audiotape. Some of the topics covered in the workbook are the following: entering the health care system; understanding...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Basic Education, Adult Literacy, Adult Students, Consumer Economics,...
Multimedia educational software is often a glitzy version of old technology. Some educational software has become better as developers began to ask, "In what ways can the computer facilitate learning, that were not possible before?" One answer to this question is: provide a simulated environment for the learner to interact with. For multimedia to have an impact on learning, a similar question must be asked: "In what ways can multimedia facilitate learning, that were not possible...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Case Method (Teaching Technique), Computer Simulation, Computer Software, Courseware,...
First disseminated in 1980, this newly revised Justice Education Teaching Strategies (JETS) curriculum guide is an effort to provide citizenship lessons for students in grades kindergarten through six. The new booklet provides up-to-date materials in both law and educational theory, and is more user friendly. The purpose of the literature-based JETS program is both to create an arena in which students can interact with literature and to make students conscious of the ways in which they are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Childrens Literature, Citizenship Education, Conflict Resolution, Curriculum...
This paper argues that verbal language plays a mediating role in the development of musical thinking. Two excerpts from the transcripts of conducting students' practica are interpreted. The verbal language that student conductors use during their rehearsals is a path to their musical thinking. Lev Vygotsky's social psychological theory of language offers a research-based theoretical framework to show the links between speaking and thinking. The study uses the two excerpts from the students'...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education, Language Role, Language Usage,...
This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random equating error (standard errors of equating), and total equating error (RMSE) using empirical data. The results show that the midi...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Equated Scores, Test Items, Difficulty Level, Error of Measurement, Bias, Raw Scores,...
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as a whole, the question becomes whether students with ADD/ADHD tendencies display these characteristics more often than students in the general...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Aggression, Antisocial Behavior, Child...
This paper provides answers to questions about minimum legal drinking age. The questions include: (1) Youth in other countries are exposed to alcohol at earlier ages and engage in less alcohol abuse and have healthier attitudes toward alcohol. Don't those countries have fewer alcohol-related problems than we do?; (2) Does educating teens about safe alcohol use starting at age 18 encourage responsible drinking?; (3) Has the minimum legal drinking age been lowered before? What were the results of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Drinking, Age, Laws, Foreign Countries, Alcohol Education, Traffic Safety, Civil...
As a group, English Language Learners (ELLs) are diverse and come from a variety of home languages, cultures, educational backgrounds, and educational needs. This brief focuses on descriptive characteristics of the ELL students served by the School District of Philadelphia in 2014-2015. Specifically, this brief highlights the diversity of the ELL population in three key characteristics that impact schools' resource needs and program decisions: ELL population concentration, linguistic diversity,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, English Language Learners, Student Characteristics, School Districts, Demography,...
Modeling of a natural phenomenon is of value in science learning and increasingly emphasized as an important component of science education. However, previous research has shown that secondary school students encounter difficulties when engaging in modeling activities and need substantial support in order to create meaningful scientific models. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present the design of a technology-based modeling tool (Air Pollution Modeling Tool, APoMT) that supports...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Pollution, Science Instruction, Secondary School Science, Secondary School Students,...
In high school, the author was bullied constantly. The bullying centered on the fact that he could not easily articulate new multi-syllable words or participate in casual conversations with other boys. The bullying had several effects: (1) he became more isolated in society and far less confident in his abilities; (2) he became afraid to ask questions of teachers, colleagues, authoritarian figures, or relatives; and (3) he did not challenge assumptions or the status quo. It has only been...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Role Models, Bullying, Partial Hearing, Deafness, Reflection, Transformative...
Educators must prepare today's youth not only for jobs requiring a four-year college experience, but also for careers that demand more than a high school diploma but something other than a traditional university degree. This is why technical schools can be a viable option for training students with skills needed for a particular type of employment, such as automotive technology. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) "Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-2011 Edition,"...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Labor Market, Career Counseling, Career Education, Career Guidance, Demand...
Professional school counselors must clearly establish and articulate the purpose and goals of their school counseling program and its relationship to student achievement in order to become integral participants in the school reform movement. By aligning Georgia's Performance Standards and the ASCA National Standards, counselors can realize measurable gains in student achievement as well as demonstrate program effectiveness. Designed to assist Georgia's school counselors in developing...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Counseling Services, National Standards, Teacher Collaboration, Academic Standards,...
As schools and school districts find their funds being cut or eliminated, they are turning to various organizations for assistance to help in the teaching/learning process. One such organization is the university. Quite often these schools or districts not only lack the funds, but also lack the technical and resource capacities to implement the kinds of educational practices outlined in their mission statements. The No Child Left Behind Act has exacerbated this crisis and many schools are now...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Practices, School Districts, Educational Change, Partnerships in...
ORIENTALISTS HAVE OBSERVED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL "STANDARD" LANGUAGES OF CHINA AND JAPAN AS A GRADUAL REPLACEMENT OF THE OLD "WRITTEN-LITERARY" LANGUAGE BY THE "COLLOQUIAL" SPOKEN LANGUAGE. THE AUTHOR DEFINES "WRITTEN-LITERARY" LANGUAGE, CORRESPONDING TO "WEN-YEN" IN CHINESE AND "BUNGO" IN JAPANESE, AS BEING ANALOGOUS TO THE LATIN "LITTERAE" WHICH MEANS BOTH "LITERATURE" AND "LETTERS." THIS IS IN...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Chinese, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Influences, Japanese, Language Research,...
CO-SPONSORED BY THE STATE LIBRARIES OF ILLINOIS, INDIANA, AND MISSOURI, THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL OF STATE LIBRARIES IN THE EXPANSION OF THEIR ROLE AS COLLECTORS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF LIBRARY STATISTICS ON A REGIONAL AND NATIONAL SCALE, AND TO OBTAIN SOME IDEA OF THE USES AND USERS OF CURRENTLY PUBLISHED STATISTICS AS INDICATORS OF THE FUTURE ROLE AND SCOPE OF STATE GENERATED STATISTICAL COMPILATIONS. DATA COLLECTED FROM PUBLISHED SOURCES, CORRESPONDENCE AND INTERVIEWS...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Public Libraries, State Agencies, State Libraries, Statistical Data, KRIKELAS, JAMES
Attention is focused on the increased emphasis which must be given to the study of oral communication in Florida schools. The program of speech instruction in Florida schools is outlined. It shall be directed toward training students to: (1) identify and develop relevant and useful oral language skills, (2) become efficient and critical consumers of oral discourse, and (3) recognize areas for continued oral language study. Each school system will provide, at the 9th or 10th grade level, and for...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Communication (Thought Transfer), Educational Facilities, Language Acquisition,...
Data relating to population and family planning in Colombia are presented in this situation report. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background covers ethnic groups, language, religion, economy, communication/education, medical/social welfare, and statistics on population, birth and death rates. Family planning situation considers family planning associations and personnel, government attitudes,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Contraception, Demography, Family Planning, Foreign Countries, Population Trends,...
A review of kindergarten programs (state, private, parochial and federally assisted) is set forth in four sections: (1) kindergarten programs in Kentucky public graded schools, (2) non-district public, private and parochial graded schools, (3) kindergarten and nursery school enrollment in private pre-school centers, and (4) federally-supported Project Head Start programs for the disadvantaged. The purpose of this report is (1) to provide a comprehensive survey of the existing programs of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Compensatory Education, Educational Finance, Enrollment, Kindergarten, Personnel...
This paper discusses the effect of the Mexican American's bilingualism on his English language development. It cites recent research reports which state that bilingualism does not have a negative effect upon language development when socio-environmental factors are controlled or considered. Investigations of the syntactic development of Chicano youngsters show that bilingualism does not affect the Chicano's English language development in terms of syntactic patterning. The paper concludes that...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Cultural Pluralism, English, Language Ability,...
This essay critically views the prescriptions of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg concerning moral education within the public schools. Piaget's paradigm of the moral life is elaborated, and his prescriptive theories for the schools are presented. In contrast to Durkheim, Piaget argues that schools should resist adult-imposed moral rules whenever possible, and must not assume the responsibility for representing the values of the larger society. The author contends that the arguments of Piaget...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cultural Pluralism, Culture Conflict, Developmental Psychology, Educational Theories,...
Twenty-eight articles and ten appendices contractually agreed to by Oakland Community College (Michigan) and the Oakland Community College Faculty Association constitute this collective bargaining agreement. Areas covered by the contract include: recognition, conditions of work, conditions of employment, staff reduction, evaluation, discharge and demotion, sabbatical leave, vacations, holidays, sick leave, leaves of absence without pay during individual contract period, bereavement leave,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Collective Bargaining, Community Colleges, Employer Employee Relationship,...
Although the practice of agriculture is a universal component of all human societies, the purposes and goals that a society hopes to achieve through agriculture have varied. If the crisis facing agriculture today is to be resolved, a clear sense of agriculture's purpose and goals within American society must be achieved. It must be recognized that the goals for agriculture that have been taken for granted may not always be mutually compatible or mutually shared by all Americans. Although...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Trends, Agriculture, Attitude Change, Ethics, Farmers, Futures (of...
Several aspects of the history of religious broadcasting are examined in this paper. First, the paper provides an informative review of scholarly treatments of the history of religious broadcasting in the United States, tracing the evolution from early broadcasts of simple church services to today's evangelical paid-time programming. The paper then traces recent developments in the structure of religious television, and identifies three major trends: (1) the growth of high-energy, entertaining...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Broadcast Television, Cable Television, Church Role, Programing (Broadcast),...
This study was commissioned by the State of Iowa to identify the current status and applicability of performance-based teacher compensation plans. After a review of the literature to establish the current status of merit pay and to identify districts throughout the United States that are presently using performance-based compensation plans, a documentation instrument was developed to analyze types of plans, methods of financing the plans, evaluation systems, purposes of merit pay, and planning...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Compensation (Remuneration), Elementary Secondary Education,...
Expanding student knowledge of basic geographic concepts through fictional literature is the goal of this instructional guide. During a 2-week Global Studies Institute, held at Sturbridge, Massachusetts, teachers and librarians selected motivational books of contemporary and historical literature appropriate to middle school students and developed instructional activities to teach basic geographic concepts. The following criteria were used to select 10 books: (1) the geographic or historic...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adolescent Literature, Contemporary Literature, Cross Cultural Studies, Geographic...
This paper describes how the Chinese educational system promotes ethnic studies programming. The Chinese approach differs from approaches in the United States as the Chinese promote ethnic studies primarily through English teacher education programs. Since the opening of China, the teaching of English has been a priority in Chinese education. Students not only learn the English language, but also study the cultures and ethnic groups who are native speakers of English. Thus, the English language...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cross Cultural Training, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language),...
A brief overview of item response theory is provided, and a 186-item bibliography of books and articles on the subject dating from 1953 to June 1989 is presented. The overview includes a definition of the theory, a discussion of its development and application, and comparisons with classical test theory. All publications in the bibliography were issued in the United States. The bibliography is organized into 13 categories, as follows: general articles/texts, models, parameter estimation, model...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adaptive Testing, Computer Assisted Testing, Computer Software, Equated Scores,...
This bibliography describes 38 materials available for computer-assisted instruction in agribusiness and natural resources education. The materials are suitable for use by regular, disadvantaged, and handicapped students and by students whose facility in English is limited. Materials are useful for developing tests, testing, reviewing, and vocabulary. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located through the Florida Educational Information Service (FEIS), which conducted searches of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agribusiness, Agricultural Education, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural...