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This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR RESOURCES, LUNAR ROCKS, LUNAR SURFACE, MOON, REGOLITH,...
This document contains papers presented at a workshop held to consider 'optical ultraviolet infrared' interferometric observations from the moon. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 is a description of current and planned ground-based interferometers. Part 3 is a description of potential space-based interferometers. Part 4 addresses the potential for interferometry on the moon. Part 5 is the report of the workshop's working groups. Concluding remarks, summary, and conclusions are presented in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES, INFRARED ASTRONOMY,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COST EFFECTIVENESS, DESIGN TO COST, MISSION PLANNING,...
Hydrogen abundances were determined for grain size separates of five lunar soils and one soil breccia. The hydrogen abundance studies have provided important baseline information for engineering models undergoing study at the present time. From the studies is appears that there is sufficient hydrogen present in selected lunar materials which could be recovered to support future space activities. It is well known that hydrogen can be extracted from lunar soils by heating between 400 and 800 C....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, LUNAR BASES, LUNAR SOIL, PRODUCTION...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MOON, MISSION PLANNING, SPACE HABITATS, LUNAR EXPLORATION,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
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The geological features of the Moon that may be advantageous for astronomical observations are listed and described. The Moon's geologic environment offers wondrous opportunities for astronomy and presents fascinating challenges for engineers designing telescope facilities on the lunar surface. The geologic nature of the stark lunar surface and the Moon's tenuous atmosphere are summarized. The Moon as a stable platform is described as is its atmosphere, surface temperatures, its magnetic field,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR ATMOSPHERE, LUNAR BASES, LUNAR GEOLOGY, LUNAR...
The application of superconductor technology to several key aspects of an advanced-stage Lunar Base is described. Applications in magnetic energy storage, electromagnetic launching, and radiation shielding are discussed.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTROMAGNETISM, ENERGY STORAGE, LAUNCHERS, LUNAR BASES,...
Simulations are essential for engineering design. These virtual realities provide characteristic data to scientists and engineers in order to understand the details and complications of the desired mission. A standard development simulation package known as Trick is used in developing a source code to model a component (federate in HLA terms). The runtime executive is integrated into an HLA based distributed simulation. TrickHLA is used to extend a Trick simulation for a federation execution,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, INTEROPERABILITY, SYSTEMS...
Highlights of the programs including the major planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets are presented. The operation of the 2.24 m telescope is discussed.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES, EUROPA, JUPITER (PLANET), NEPTUNE...
Conservation laws and preferred frames in relativistic gravity
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSERVATION LAWS, GRAVITATION THEORY, NEWTON THEORY,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Natural concentrations of industrially valuable minerals are far less likely to be found on the Moon than on the Earth. But that is all the more reason for devising beneficiation processes to concentrate and extract the useful mineral components in lunar rocks and soils. As an example of a useful mineral that can be beneficiated, it has been estimated that ilmenite abundance accounts for 15 and 20 percent of the volume of the Apollo 11 and 17 basalts and 2 and 5 percent by volume in the Apollo...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BENEFICIATION, EXTRACTION, ILMENITE, LUNAR RESOURCES, LUNAR...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Opaques (mostly ilmenite) make up 0 to 5 percent of highland rocks, 1 to 11 percent of low-Ti mare basalts, and 10 to 34 percent of high-Ti mare basalts (Carter 1988). Apollos 11 and 17 sampled high-Ti basalts. Apollos 12 and 14 sampled low-Ti basalts. Apollo 15 sampled a complex mixture of mare and highland material. Apollo 16 sampled mainly highland material (Taylor 1975).
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ILMENITE, LUNAR RESOURCES, BASALT, BENEFICIATION, LUNAR...
A primary scientific objective for solar flare research during the rapidly approaching maximum in solar activity is the imaging of gamma-ray and hard x ray sources of solar flare emissions. These goals will be pursued by the Gamma Ray Imaging Device (GRID) instrument, one of three instruments recently selected for NASA's Max '91 Solar Balloon Program. The GRID instrument is based on the technique of Fourier transform imaging and utilizes scanning modulation grid collimator optics to provide...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BALLOON-BORNE INSTRUMENTS, COSMIC X RAYS, GAMMA RAY...
The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT,...
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In response to growing concern over the posture and long-term direction of the U.S. civilian space program, a task group was formed to define potential U.S. space initiatives, and to evaluate them in light of the current space program and the nation's desire to regain and retain space leadership. The objectives were to energize a discussion of the long-term goals of the civilian space program and to begin to investigate overall strategies to direct that program to a position of leadership. Four...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GOALS, LEADERSHIP, LONG TERM EFFECTS, MISSION PLANNING, NASA...
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We revisit the Blandford-Znajek process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem: the inner "light surface" located inside...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BLACK HOLES (ASTRONOMY), FORCE-FREE MAGNETIC FIELDS, MAGNETIC...
The RESOLVE Project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR EXPLORATION, LUNAR ROVING VEHICLES, REGOLITH, LUNAR...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
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Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LANDFORMS, MAPPING, NATURAL SATELLITES, SOLAR SYSTEM,...
The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGHLANDS, LUNAR CRUST, METEORITES, MOON, LUNAR COMPOSITION,...
Forest and wildlife habitat analyses were conducted at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the Central Cascade Mountains of Oregon using remotely sensed data and a geographic information system (GIS). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to determine forest successional stages, and to analyze the structure of both old and young conifer forests. Two successional stage maps were developed. One was developed from six TM spectral bands alone, and the second was developed from six TM...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CASCADE RANGE (CA-OR-WA), ECOSYSTEMS, ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT,...
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Preliminary investigations show that obtaining He-3 from the moon is technically feasible and economically viable. With the exception of beneficiation, the proposed procedures are state of the art. Mass of equipment needed from earth is of some concern, but resupply will eventually be ameliorated by the use of titanium from indigenous ilmenite. A complete energy payback from a D/He-3 fusion reactor utilizing lunar He-3 is approx. 80, providing ample incentive for commercial investment is...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HELIUM ISOTOPES, LUNAR SOIL, MINING, REGOLITH, COST ANALYSIS,...
A revised version of the Microphysics of clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert and Aerosol-Cloud interaction (McRAS-AC), including, among others, the Barahona and Nenes ice nucleation parameterization, is implemented in the GEOS-5 AGCM. Various fields from a 10-year long integration of the AGCM with McRAS-AC were compared with their counterparts from an integration of the baseline GEOS-5 AGCM, and with satellite data as observations. Generally using McRAS-AC reduced biases in cloud fields and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, CLIMATE MODELS, CLOUD PHYSICS, CLOUDS...
Hard X-rays and gamma rays carry the most direct evidence available for the roles of accelerated particles in solar flares. An approach that employs a spatial Fourier-transform technique for imaging the sources of these emissions is described and plans for developing a balloon-borne gamma ray imaging device (GRID) based on this instrumental approach is presented. This instrument, GRID on a balloon, would enable observations with a 1.6 arcsecond angular resolution, 10 millisecond time...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BALLOON-BORNE INSTRUMENTS, FOURIER TRANSFORMATION, GAMMA...
Future human habitation of the Moon will likely require the use of locally derived materials because of the high cost of transportation from Earth. Oxygen, extracted from oxides and silicates, is a potentially abundant lunar resource vital for life support and spacecraft propulsion. The anticipated costs of supplying all oxygen needs for a lunar base from Earth are high enough to warrant serious study of oxygen production from local resources.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPOSITS, IGNEOUS ROCKS, LUNAR ROCKS, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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With the International Space Station Program transition from assembly to utilization, focus has been placed on the optimization of essential resources. This includes resources both resupplied from the ground and also resources produced by the ISS. In an effort to improve the use of two of these, the ISS Engineering teams, led by the ISS Program Systems Engineering and Integration Office, undertook an effort to modify the techniques use to perform several key on-orbit events. The primary...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING,...
The day will come when the United States will want to return to the Earth's Moon. When that occurs, NASA may look to the Apollo program for technical and inspirational guidance. The Apollo program, however, was designed to be an end to itself--the landing of a man on the Moon and his return safely within the decade of the 1960's. When that was accomplished, the program folded because it was not self-sustaining. The next time we return to the Moon, we should base our planning on a program that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSTRUCTION, LUNAR BASES, LUNAR LABORATORIES, SPACE...
Conceptual designs for three categories of lunar surface transportation were described. The level of understanding for the capabilities and design approach varies between the vehicles representing these categories. A summary of the vehicle categories and current state of conceptual design is provided. Finally, a brief evaluation and discussion is provided for a systematic comparison of transportation categories and effectiveness in supporting transportation objectives.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR SURFACE VEHICLES, REQUIREMENTS, STRUCTURAL DESIGN,...
A color lithographs of many of the celestial bodies within our solar system are contained in this educational set of materials. Printed on the back of each lithograph is information regarding the particular celestial body. A sheet with information listing NASA resources and electronic resources for education is included.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY, EARTH SCIENCES, EDUCATION, INFORMATION...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Information about the magnetosphere of Saturn is provided: the magnetic dipole moment is axisymmetric, the bow shock stand-off distance is about 22 R sub S. The satellites Titan, Dione, and Tethys are probably the primary sources of magnetospheric plasma. Outside of approx. 4 R sub S, energetic particles are energized by diffusing inward while conserving their first and second adiabatic invariants. Particles are lost by satellite sweep-out, absorption byt the E ring and probably also by plasma...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOW WAVES, PLANETARY MAGNETOSPHERES, SATURN (PLANET), DIONE,...
For several years, solar flares have been observed with a variety of instruments confirming that tremendous amounts of energy are locally stored in the solar magnetic field and then rapidly released during the life of the flare. In concert with observations, theorists have attempted to describe the means by which these energetic events occur and evolve. Two competing theories have emerged and have stood the test of time. One theory describes the flare in terms of nonthermal, electron beam...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRIGHTNESS DISTRIBUTION, COLLIMATORS, ELECTRON BEAMS, IMAGING...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A model magnetosphere of Mercury using Mariner 10 data is presented. Diagrams of the bow shock wave and magnetopause are shown. The analysis of Mariner 10 data indicates that the magnetic field of the planet is intrinsic. The magnetic tail and secondary magnetic fields, and the influence of the solar wind are also discussed.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GEOMAGNETISM, MERCURY (PLANET), PLANETARY MAGNETOSPHERES,...
Geographic information systems (GIS) deal with collecting, modeling, man- aging, analyzing, and integrating spatial (locational) and non-spatial (attribute) data required for geographic applications. Examples of spatial data are digital maps, administrative boundaries, road networks, and those of non-spatial data are census counts, land elevations and soil characteristics. GIS shares common areas with a number of other disciplines such as computer- aided design, computer cartography, database...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA MANAGEMENT, DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, GEOGRAPHIC...
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Microwave heating of nonmetallic inorganic material has been of interest for many years. Von Hippel in the late 1940's and early 1950's investigated how microwave radiation up to 10 GHz couples to various insulator materials. Perhaps the most work has been done by Wayne Tinga at the University of Edmonton. Most of the work to date has been done at the two frequency bands allowed in industrial use (0.915 GHz and 2.45 GHz). However some work has recently been carried out at 28 GHz and 60 GHz....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEATING, INSULATORS, LUNAR ROCKS, LUNAR SOIL, MICROWAVE...
In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HELIUM ISOTOPES, LUNAR BASES, LUNAR EXCAVATION EQUIPMENT,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAL MASS EJECTION, SPACE WEATHER, SOLAR WIND, RADIO...
The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MISSION PLANNING, IN SITU RESOURCE UTILIZATION, LUNAR...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONCRETE STRUCTURES, LUNAR BASES, LUNAR SHELTERS, COLUMNS...
When Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon, the first generation of lunar bases was established. They consisted essentially of a lunar module and related hardware capable of housing two astronauts for not more than several days. Second generation lunar bases are being developed, and further infrastructure, such as space station, orbital transfer, and reusable lander vehicles will be necessary, as prolonged stay on the Moon is required for exploration, research, and construction for the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARCHITECTURE, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, LIFE SUPPORT...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARGO, EARTH ORBITS, LASER PROPULSION, LUNAR ORBITS, POWER...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X RAY TELESCOPES, X RAY OPTICS, SOLAR INSTRUMENTS,...
NASA Network Resource and Training Site
by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Photographs of the planet Mars generated by the Viking Mars program are presented and discussed. The Martian surface and its volcanoes receive particular attention. In addition, the atmosphere, temperature, surface craters, polar regions, and composition of Mars are briefly reviewed. Planetary evolution is considered. The highlights of the Mariner program for Mars are given.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARS (PLANET), MARS SURFACE, MARS VOLCANOES, PLANETARY...
The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BASALT, BENEFICIATION, DIGITAL TECHNIQUES, ILMENITE, IMAGING...
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second CCMC activity is to support Space Weather forecasting at national Space Weather Forecasting Centers. This second activity involves model evaluations, model transitions to operations,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FORECASTING, SPACE WEATHER, MODELS, INTERPLANETARY SPACE,...
The principal question addressed in the workshop was the extent to which asteroidal and lunar regoliths have collected and preserved, in meteoritic regolith breccias and in lunar soils and regolith breccias, a record of the flux, energy, and compositional history of the solar wind and solar flares. Six central discussion topics were identified. They are: (1)Trapped solar wind and flare gases, tracks, and micrometeorite pits in regolith components; (2)Comparison between lunar regolith breccias,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRECCIA, GEOCHRONOLOGY, LUNAR SOIL, REGOLITH, SELENOLOGY,...
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We discuss the formation of an artificial atmosphere generated by vigorous lunar base activity in this paper. We developed an analytical, steady-state model for a lunar atmosphere based upon previous investigations of the Moon's atmosphere from Apollo. Constant gas-injection rates, ballistic trajectories, and a Maxwellian particle distribution for an oxygen-like gas are assumed. Even for the extreme case of continuous He-3 mining of the lunar regolith, we find that the lunar atmosphere would...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES, HELIUM...
The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, VOLATILITY, VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, CLOUD...
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Recent petrologic studies of pristine nonmare samples from the Apollo 14 site have demonstrated the unique character of the western highlands crust. Many of the lithologies which occur here are not found at other highland sites or represent unique variations of more common lithologies. Rare highland samples found at the Apollo 12 site have petrologic and geochemical affinities with the Apollo 14 highland suite and the two sites taken together constitute what can be called the Western Highland...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGHLANDS, LITHOLOGY, LUNAR CRUST, LUNAR GEOLOGY, LUNAR...
No abstract available
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV),...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS, MANNED MARS MISSIONS, MARS...
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The President's National Space Policy of 1988 reaffirms that space activities serve a variety of vital national goals and objectives, including the strengthening of U.S. scientific, technological, political, economic, and international leadership. The new policy stresses that civil space activities contribute significantly to enhancing America's world leadership. Goals and objectives must be defined and redefined, and each advance toward a given objective must be viewed as a potential building...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GOALS, MISSION PLANNING, NASA PROGRAMS, POLICIES, RESEARCH...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Development of Moon-Blink detector, and lunar telescopic color surveillance program
Topic: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
The purpose of this Mission Design Handbook is to provide trajectory designers and mission planners with graphical information about Earth to Mars ballistic trajectory opportunities for the years of 2026 through 2045. The plots, displayed on a departure date/arrival date mission space, show departure energy, right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, and target planet hyperbolic arrival excess speed, V(sub infinity), for each launch opportunity. Provided in this study are two sets...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TRAJECTORIES, LAUNCHING, MISSION PLANNING, ASYMPTOTES,...
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This presentation proposes the next steps for human exploration of Mars. The presentation reviews the reasons for human exploration of Mars. Two different trajectories are proposed: (1) for a long stay mission, and (2) for a short term mission, which could also include a swing by Venus. A reference mission scenario is investigated, which includes forward deployment of two cargo missions, followed by a human piloted mission. The power needs of such a mission include nuclear thermal propulsion,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC PROPULSION, HABITATS, MARS EXPLORATION, NUCLEAR...
This symposium on measurement and control in robotics included sessions on: (1) rendering, including tactile perception and applied virtual reality; (2) applications in simulated medical procedures and telerobotics; (3) tracking sensors in a virtual environment; (4) displays for virtual reality applications; (5) sensory feedback including a virtual environment application with partial gravity simulation; and (6) applications in education, entertainment, technical writing, and animation.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER GRAPHICS, CONFERENCES, FEEDBACK CONTROL, MOTION...
The main objective of this project is to provide test objects for simulated environments utilized by the recently established Army/NASA Virtual Innovations Lab (ANVIL) at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Al. The objective of the ANVIL lab is to provide virtual reality (VR) models and environments and to provide visualization and manipulation methods for the purpose of training and testing. Visualization equipment used in the ANVIL lab includes head-mounted and boom-mounted immersive...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, VIRTUAL REALITY, ENVIRONMENT...
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Evolved lunar igneous lithologies, often referred to as the alkali suite, are a minor but important component of the lunar crust. These evolved samples are incompatible-element rich samples, and are, not surprisingly, most common in the Apollo sites in (or near) the incompatible-element rich region of the Moon known as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). The most commonly occurring lithologies are granites (A12, A14, A15, A17), monzogabbro (A14, A15), alkali anorthosites (A12, A14), and KREEP...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LITHOLOGY, KREEP, LUNAR MARIA, LUNAR CRUST, BRECCIA,...
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The group discussed the advantages and disadvantages of five locations for an optical/infrared array: low-Earth orbit (LEO), Sun-synchronous Earth-orbit, geosynchronous orbit (GEO), Lagrangian points (L4 and L5), and the lunar surface. The factors affecting an array and our assessments of them are given and briefly discussed. In the discussions, two axioms are assumed: (1) Human expansion into space and to the Moon will occur; and (2) The Space Station will be constructed and operational. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES, EARTH...