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This paper reviews the theoretical foundation and computational mechanics aspects of the recently developed shear-deformation theory, called the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT). The theory is based on a multi-scale formalism in which an equivalent single-layer plate theory is refined with a robust set of zigzag local layer displacements that are free of the usual deficiencies found in common plate theories with zigzag kinematics. In the RZT, first-order shear-deformation plate theory is used as the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LAMINATES, COMPOSITE STRUCTURES, BEAMS (SUPPORTS), SANDWICH...
The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LATITUDE, STRATOSPHERE, WINTER, INFRARED SPECTROMETERS,...
In the gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) data assimilation algorithm, only thermal infrared measurements determined to be uncontaminated by clouds are assimilated. Using this approach, typically only 19-29% of footprints are deemed to have no cloud affects through the measured spectra. This study will discuss the efforts underway at the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in conjunction with the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INFRARED RADIATION, INTERPOLATION, RADIATIVE TRANSFER, CLOUDS...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE DEBRIS, AEROSPACE ENVIRONMENTS, LOW EARTH ORBITS,...
In a recent publication, LeBlanc and McDermid proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CALIBRATING, OPTICAL RADAR, LUMINAIRES, RADIOSONDES, WATER...
The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE, APERTURES, DEFORMABLE MIRRORS,...
Recently the issue on glacier retreats comes up and many factors should be relevant to the issue. The absorbing aerosols such as dust and black carbon (BC) are considered to be one of the factors. After they deposited onto the snow surface, it will reduce snow albedo (called snow darkening effect) and probably contribute to further melting of glacier. The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) has developed at NASAlGSFC. However, the original snowpack model used in the land surface...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROSOLS, CLIMATE, EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM (EOS), IMAGING...
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The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXTRASOLAR PLANETS, MAIN SEQUENCE STARS, PLANET DETECTION,...
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A particle detector is provided, the particle detector including a spherical Cherenkov detector, and at least one pair of detector stacks. In an embodiment of the invention, the Cherenkov detector includes a sphere of ultraviolet transparent material, coated by an ultraviolet reflecting material that has at least one open port. The Cherenkov detector further includes at least one photodetector configured to detect ultraviolet light emitted from a particle within the sphere. In an embodiment of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIATION DETECTORS, SPHERES, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IMAGE ANALYSIS, SAMPLING, OPTICAL EQUIPMENT, ALGORITHMS,...
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A non-actuated tool has been developed for preparing regolith for in situ measurement by smoothing uneven surfaces and excavating fresher subsurface material for planetary exploration. The STAMP tool contains two tools to prepare regolith for in situ measurement: a tamper to smooth uneven surfaces, and a blade to excavate fresher subsurface material.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IN SITU MEASUREMENT, REGOLITH, SMOOTHING, EXCAVATION,...
The end of the Shuttle Program provides an opportunity to evaluate and possibly refurbish launch support infrastructure at the Kennedy Space Center in support of future launch vehicles. One major infrastructure element needing attention is the cryogenic fuel and oxidizer system and specifically the cryogenic fuel ground storage tanks located at Launch Complex 39. These tanks were constructed in 1965 and served both the Apollo and Shuttle Programs and will be used to support future launch...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOGENICS, INSPECTION, THERMAL MAPPING, STORAGE TANKS, FUEL...
We present a 0.5-2.2micron scattered light spectrum of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya from a combination of spatially resolved HST STIS spectroscopy and NICMOS coronagraphic images of the disk. \Ve investigate the morphology at the disk at distances> 40 AU over this wide range of wavelengths. We measure the surface brightness, azimuthal symmetry, and spectral character of the disk as a function of radius. We find that the scattering efficiency of the dust is largely neutral to blue...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAGRAPHS, SCATTERING, PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, STELLAR...
Current sequencing-based and DNA microarray techniques to study microbial diversity are based on an initial PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification step. However, a number of factors are known to bias PCR amplification and jeopardize the true representation of bacterial diversity. PCR amplification of the minor template appears to be suppressed by the exponential amplification of the more abundant template. It is widely acknowledged among environmental molecular microbiologists that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID, MICROORGANISMS, POLYMERASE CHAIN...
Membrane dominated space structures are lightweight and package efficiently for launch; however, they must be expanded (deployed) in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry. These expandable structural systems include solar sails, solar power arrays, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices that are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. In this work, an integrated approach to development of thin-film damage tolerant membranes is explored using advanced...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXPANDABLE STRUCTURES, LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES, MEMBRANE...
The design-point and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion of a variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) was assessed using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analyses with mixing-planes and sector-periodic, unsteady RANS analyses. The VSPT provides one means by which to effect the nearly 50 percent main-rotor speed change required for the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) application. The change in VSPT shaft-speed during the LCTR mission results in blade-row incidence angle...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, TURBINES, TILT ROTOR AIRCRAFT,...
This paper identifies data transport needs for current and future science payloads deployed on the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicle (UAV). The NASA Global Hawk communication system and operational constrains are presented. The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission is used to provide the baseline communication requirements as a variety of payloads were utilized in this mission. User needs and desires are addressed. Protocols are matched to the payload needs and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PILOTLESS AIRCRAFT, PAYLOADS, DEPLOYMENT, AMPLIFICATION,...
We show that a simple modification of Formulation 1 of Farassat results in a new analytic expression that is highly suitable for broadband noise prediction when extensive turbulence simulation is available. This result satisfies all the stringent requirements, such as permitting the use of the exact geometry and kinematics of the moving body, that we have set as our goal in the derivation of useful acoustic formulas for the prediction of rotating blade and airframe noise. We also derive a...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC NOISE, BROADBAND, SIMULATION, STATISTICAL...
The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC FIELDS, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC STABILITY, PLASMA...
The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GEODESY, GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS, LUNAR ORBITER, LUNAR...
Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AMINO ACIDS, METEORITES, CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES, ORGANIC...
We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, This dataset provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 A. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra (approx.2000-3500 A) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERNOVAE, BRIGHTNESS, ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA, ULTRAVIOLET...
Primitive materials provide important clues on the processes that occurred during the formation and early evolution of the Solar System. Space-based and ground-based observations of cometary comae show that comets appear to contain a mixture of the products of both interstellar and nebular chemistries. Significant 15-nitrogen enrichments have been measured in CN and HCN towards a number of comets and may suggest an origin of interstellar chemical fractionation. Additionally, large N-15...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION, COMETS, INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY,...
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Due to distances and relative motions among the transmitter, target object, and receiver, the time-base between any transmitted and received signal will undergo distortion. Pre-distortion of the transmitted signal to compensate for this time-base distortion allows reception of an undistorted signal. In most radar applications, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) would be used to store the pre-calculated waveform and then play back this waveform during transmission. The Goldstone Solar System...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TRANSMITTER RECEIVERS, RADAR TRANSMISSION, TIME FUNCTIONS,...
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NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL COMMUNICATION, SPACE COMMUNICATION, COMMUNICATION...
This software provides an automated capability to measure and qualify the frequency stability performance of the Deep Space Network (DSN) ground system, using daily spacecraft tracking data. The results help to verify if the DSN performance is meeting its specification, therefore ensuring commitments to flight missions; in particular, the radio science investigations. The rich set of data also helps the DSN Operations and Maintenance team to identify the trends and patterns, allowing them to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEEP SPACE NETWORK, SPACECRAFT TRACKING, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING,...
The International X-ray Project seeks to build an x-ray telescope using thousands of pieces of thin and flexible glass mirror segments. Each mirror segment must be bonded into a housing in nearly perfect optical alignment without distortion. Forces greater than 0.001 Newton, or displacements greater than 0.5 m of the glass, cause unacceptable optical distortion. All known epoxies shrink as they cure. Even the epoxies with the least amount of shrinkage (<0.01%) cause unacceptable optical...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BONDING, X RAY TELESCOPES, DISPLACEMENT, ACTUATORS, EPOXY...
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Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water lost to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. ET is a shared component in the energy and water budget, therefore, a critical variable for global energy and water cycle and climate change studies. However, direct ET measurements and data acquisition are difficult and expensive, especially at the global level. Therefore, modeling is one common alternative for estimating ET. With the goal to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLIMATOLOGY, EARTH SURFACE, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, INFORMATION...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MANUALS, SPACECRAFT DESIGN, SPACE DEBRIS, TECHNOLOGY...
This research is based on the exploration of tectonic patterns on Titan from a global perspective. Several moons in the outer solar system display patterns of surface tectonic features that imply global stress fields driven or modified by global forces. Patterns such as these are seen in Europa's tidally induced fracture patterns, Enceladus's tiger stripes, and Ganymede's global expansion induced normal fault bands. Given its proximity to Saturn, as well as its eccentric orbit, tectonic...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MOUNTAINS, SOLAR SYSTEM, TECTONICS, TITAN, GEOLOGICAL FAULTS,...
An apparatus and associated method are provided. A first silicon layer having at least one of an associated passivation layer and barrier is included. Also included is a composite anti-reflection layer including a stack of layers each with a different thickness and refractive index. Such composite anti-reflection layer is disposed adjacent to the first silicon layer.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEPOSITION, REFRACTIVITY, SILICON, COMPOSITE MATERIALS,...
We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, COOLING, GALAXIES, HIGH TEMPERATURE...
A method for preparing a metal-doped ruthenium oxide material by heating a mixture of a doping metal and a source of ruthenium under an inert atmosphere. In some embodiments, the doping metal is in the form of iridium black or lead powder, and the source of ruthenium is a powdered ruthenium oxide. An iridium-doped or lead-doped ruthenium oxide material can perform as an oxygen evolution catalyst and can be fabricated into electrodes for electrolysis cells.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DOPED CRYSTALS, HEATING, RUTHENIUM, INERT ATMOSPHERE, OXYGEN,...
An important factor controlling galaxy evolution is feedback from massive stars. It is believed that the nature and intensity of stellar feedback changes as a function of galaxy mass and metallicity. At low mass and metallicity, feedback from massive stars is mainly in the form of photoionizing radiation. At higher mass and metallicity, it is in stellar winds. IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MASSIVE STARS, DWARF GALAXIES, METALLICITY, PHOTOIONIZATION,...
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In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978 - December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17,100 +/- 2,300 square km/yr. Much of the increase, at 13,700 +/- 1,500 square km/yr, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANTARCTIC REGIONS, SEA ICE, TRENDS, VARIABILITY, CLIMATOLOGY,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The Crustal Dynamics Data Inforn1ation System (CoorS) supports data archiving and distribution activities for the space geodesy and geodynamics community. The main objectives of the system are to store space geodesy and geodynamics related data products in a central data bank, to maintain infom1ation about the archival of these data, and to disseminate these data and information in a timely mam1er to a global scientific research community. The archive consists of GNSS, laser ranging, VLBI, and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GEODESY, GEODYNAMICS, EARTH CRUST, DATA BASES, DATA SYSTEMS,...
The origin of sinuous channels on the flanks of the Tharsis volcanoes on Mars is debated among planetary scientists. Some argue a volcanic genesis [1] while others have suggested a fluvial basis [2-4]. The majority of the studies thus far have focused on channels on the rift apron of Ascraeus Mons. Here, however, we broadly examine the channels on the rift apron of Pavonis Mons and compare them with those studied channels around Ascraeus. We compare the morphologies of features from both of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PLANETARY GEOLOGY, MARS VOLCANOES, MARS SURFACE, VOLCANOES,...
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Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AMINO ACIDS, CARBONACEOUS CHONDRITES, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, LIFE...
Space lidars provides a unique and powerful tool in earth environment monitoring and planetary exploration. Lidars operate at a much shorter wavelength than radars and can have a much narrower beam and much smaller transmitter and receiver. Lidars carry their own light sources and can continue measurement day and night, and over polar regions, where the passive instruments cannot observe. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed several space lidars, three of them on planetary...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OPTICAL RADAR, LIGHT SOURCES, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING,...
Block size distributions of impact deposits on the Moon are diagnostic of the impact process and environmental effects, such as target lithology and weathering. Block size distributions are also important factors in trafficability, habitability, and possibly the identification of indigenous resources. Lunar block sizes have been investigated for many years for many purposes [e.g., 1-3]. An unresolved issue is the extent to which lunar block size distributions can be extrapolated to scales...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SIZE DISTRIBUTION, RADIO FREQUENCIES, CIRCULAR POLARIZATION,...
Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida s open-jet acoustic facility known as UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver, FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FFOWCS WILLIAMS-HAWKINGS EQUATION, LANDING GEAR, LARGE EDDY...
Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes. In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provides a feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), POWER SPECTRA, ENERGY SPECTRA, BLACK HOLES (ASTRONOMY),...
A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ETHERNET, FABRICATION, NANOTECHNOLOGY, RADIATION TOLERANCE,...
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A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROGRAVITY, SEPARATORS, LIQUIDS, PHASE SEPARATION...
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This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, SIMULATED ANNEALING, COMBINATORIAL ANALYSIS,...
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The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA ACQUISITION, DISPLAY DEVICES, LOCAL AREA NETWORKS,...
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An algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials effects lossy compression of time-series data or other one-dimensional data streams (e.g., spectral data) that are arranged in blocks for sequential transmission. The algorithm was developed for use in transmitting data from spacecraft scientific instruments to Earth stations. In spite of its lossy nature, the algorithm preserves the information needed for scientific analysis. The algorithm is computationally simple, yet compresses data streams by...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA COMPRESSION, ALGORITHMS, PRESSURE REDUCTION, IMAGE...
Microcellular nanocomposite foams and sandwich structures have been created to have excellent electrical conductivity and radiation-resistant properties using a new method that does not involve or release any toxicity. The nanocomposite structures have been scaled up in size to 12 X 12 in. (30 X 30 cm) for components fabrication. These sandwich materials were fabricated mainly from PE, CNF, and carbon fibers. Test results indicate that they have very good compression and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NANOCOMPOSITES, FOAMS, SANDWICH STRUCTURES, SPACECRAFT...
The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic changeout, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. Over the past two years, two ORU 02 analyzer assemblies have operated nominally while two others have experienced premature on-orbit failures. These failures as well as nominal performances demonstrate that ORU...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, MASS SPECTROMETERS,...
An important feature that determines the energy resolution of any type of thin film microcalorimeter is the fraction of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the device coming into thermal equilibrium.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CALORIMETERS, ENERGY DISSIPATION, SUBSTRATES, SUPERCONDUCTING...
The purpose of this investigation is to develop the fundamental materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics that are essential for industry, NASA, and DOD applications such as: membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras, flat-panel displays, etc. ScN and AlN thin films were fabricated on c-axis Sapphire (0001) or quartz substrate with the RF and DC magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure of AlN in fcc...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SMART MATERIALS, OPTICS, RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS, DOPED...
This special issue features the best papers that were selected from the 18th SPIE Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA 2011). This annual conference is a major international forum for researchers and practitioners interested in data visualization and analytics research, development, and applications. VDA 2011 received 42 high-quality submissions from around the world. Twenty-four papers were selected for full conference papers. The top five papers have been expanded and reviewed...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, DATA...
This research presents more efficient computational methods by which to perform multi-block structured Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbomachinery, thus facilitating higher-fidelity solutions of complicated geometries and their associated flows. This computational framework offers flexibility in allocating resources to balance process count and wall-clock computation time, while facilitating research interests of simulating axial compressor stall inception with more...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, CLEARANCES, ROTATING STALLS,...
This paper summarizes procedures of generating the arbitrary polyhedral mesh as well as presents sample results from its application to the numerical solution of a single-element LDI combustor using a preliminary version of the new OpenNCC.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TURBULENT MIXING, REYNOLDS AVERAGING, TURBULENT FLOW,...
Toxic chemical release into the cabin atmosphere is one of the three major emergency scenarios identified on the International Space Station (ISS). The release of anhydrous ammonia, the coolant used in the U.S. On-orbit Segment (USOS) External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS), into the ISS cabin atmosphere is one of the most serious toxic chemical release cases identified on board ISS. The USOS Thermal Control System (TCS) includes an Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (ITCS) water loop...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TOXICITY, INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, AMMONIA, TEMPERATURE...
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We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents ami charge densities of pulsar magnetospberes which do not obey the ideal condition, E(raised dot) B = O. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation requires the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E(sub ll) the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DENSITY (NUMBER/VOLUME), ELECTRIC CHARGE, ELECTRIC FIELDS,...
\Ve report the probable identification of the X-ray counterpart to the ~(-ray pulsar PSR J2021 +4026 using imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), X RAY ASTROPHYSICS FACILITY, PULSARS, IMAGING TECHNIQUES, X...
A well known behavior of EUV light curves of discrete coronal loops is that the peak intensities of cooler channels or spectral lines are reached at progressively later times. This time lag is understood to be the result of hot coronal loop plasma cooling through these lower respective temperatures. However, loops typically comprise only a minority of the total emission in active regions. Is this cooling pattern a common property of active region coronal plasma, or does it only occur in unique...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAL LOOPS, EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, HIGH...
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We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.3 "), high-cadence (approx = 2 min) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite over 12 - 13 December 2006. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AUTOCORRELATION, FLOW DISTRIBUTION, MAGNETIC FIELD...
We present a survey of Kelvi\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau~...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MAGNETOPAUSE, MERCURY (PLANET), ENERGY DISSIPATION,...
NASA s initiative for Lunar and Martian exploration will require long lived, robust drive systems for manned vehicles that must operate in hostile environments. The operation of these mechanical drives will pose a problem because of the existing extreme operating conditions. Some of these extreme conditions include operating at a very high or very cold temperature, operating over a wide range of temperatures, operating in very dusty environments, operating in a very high radiation environment,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MECHANICAL DRIVES, TRACTION, GEARS, HARMONIC GENERATORS,...
The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura Satellite detects the presence of desert dust and smoke particles (also known as aerosols) in terms of a parameter known as the UV Aerosol Index (UV AI). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission measures the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds. Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the atmosphere and climate system. Accurately detecting their presence, altitude, and properties using...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CALIPSO (PATHFINDER SATELLITE), AEROSOLS, OZONE, OPTICAL...
For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the reference frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATELLITE ORBITS, DOPPLER RADAR, GEOPHYSICS, MULTISPECTRAL...
More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BERMUDA, BIOPHYSICS, ECOLOGY, EDUCATION, OCEANOGRAPHY,...
Calibrating ocean color satellite instruments and validating their data products requires temporal and spatial abundances of high quality in situ oceanographic data. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership Ocean Observing Initiative (OOl) is currently implementing a distributed array of in-water sensors that could provide a significant contribution to future ocean color activities. This workshop will scope the optimal way to use and possibly supplement the planned OOl infrastructure to maximize its...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS, CALIBRATING, DATA ACQUISITION,...
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, this phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009, completed on September 15,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE MISSIONS, LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER, MISSION...
Version 6 (V6) AIRS cloud-clear radiances (CCR) are used to derive cloud-induced radiance (Tcir=Tb-CCR) at the infrared frequencies of weighting functions peaked in the middle troposphere. The significantly improved V 6 CCR product allows a more accurate estimation of the expected clear-sky radiance as if clouds are absent. In the case where strong cloud scattering is present, the CCR becomes unreliable, which is reflected by its estimated uncertainty, and interpolation is employed to replace...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RADIANCE, CIRRUS CLOUDS, MORPHOLOGY, TROPOSPHERE, INFRARED...
New measurements of the topography of the Moon from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)[1] provide an excellent base-map for analyzing the large crater population (D.20 km)of the lunar surface [2, 3]. We have recently used this data to calculate crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) for 30 lunar impact basins, which have implications for their stratigraphy and sequence. These data provide an avenue for assessing the timing of the transitions between distinct crater populations...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, TOPOGRAPHY, STRUCTURAL BASINS, SIZE...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TESTS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, PROGRAM...
In preparation for upcoming wind tunnel acoustic experiments of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) vehicle with two jet engine simulator units, a series of twin jet aeroacoustic investigations were conducted leading to increased understanding and risk mitigation. A previously existing twin jet nozzle system and a fabricated HWB aft deck fuselage are combined for a 1.9% model scale study of jet nozzle spacing and jet cant angle effects, elevon deflection into the jet plume, and acoustic shielding by the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AEROACOUSTICS, JET ENGINES, NOISE INTENSITY, WIND TUNNEL...
A tradition of leveraging the re-use of components to help manage costs has evolved in the development of complex system. This tradition continues on in the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program with the cloning of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite for the JPSS-1 mission, including the instrument complement. One benefit of re-use on a mission is the availability of existing simulation assets from the systems that were previously built. An issue arises in the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPLEX SYSTEMS, SIMULATION, SOFTWARE REUSE, SOFTWARE...
During June 16-21, 2010, an Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) event was observed by instruments onboard STEREO, SOHO, MESSENGER and Wind. This event was the first direct detection of a rotating CME in the middle and outer corona. Here, we carry out a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium comparing in-situ and remote observations, with analytical models and three-dimensional reconstructions. In particular, we investigate the parallel and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAL MASS EJECTION, REMOTE SENSING, HELIOSPHERE, TIME...
This paper outlines a methodology to identify the measurement uncertainty of NASA Langley s Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT) over its operating range, and to identify the parameters that most significantly contribute to the acoustic impedance prediction. Two acoustic liners are used for this study. The first is a single-layer, perforate-over-honeycomb liner that is nonlinear with respect to sound pressure level. The second consists of a wire-mesh facesheet and a honeycomb core, and is linear...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE, GRAZING FLOW, HONEYCOMB STRUCTURES,...
We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approx 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUPERNOVA REMNANTS, X RAYS, INTERSTELLAR MATTER, PULSARS,...
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Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DI) is a laser metrology technique employing pseudo-random noise (PRN) codes phase-modulated onto an optical carrier. Combined with heterodyne interferometry, the PRN code is used to select individual signals, returning the inherent interferometric sensitivity determined by the optical wavelength. The signal isolation arises from the autocorrelation properties of the PRN code, enabling both rejection of spurious signals (e.g., from scattered light)...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HETERODYNING, INTERFEROMETRY, DIGITAL TECHNIQUES, DECODING,...
The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARES 1 UPPER STAGE, LESSONS LEARNED, THRUST CONTROL,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROPULSION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS, AERONAUTICS, SUPERSONIC...
The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY, PLANETARY LANDING, LANDING AIDS,...
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The inspiration for this Contract Report (CR) originated in discussions with the director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering who asked that we investigate the question: "How do you achieve excellence in aerospace engineering?" Engineering a space system is a complex activity. Avoiding its inherent potential pitfalls and achieving a successful product is a challenge. This CR presents one approach to answering the question of how to achieve Engineering Excellence. We...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING, LAUNCH VEHICLES, AEROSPACE...
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We introduce hierarchical safety cases (or hicases) as a technique to overcome some of the difficulties that arise creating and maintaining industrial-size safety cases. Our approach extends the existing Goal Structuring Notation with abstraction structures, which allow the safety case to be viewed at different levels of detail. We motivate hicases and give a mathematical account of them as well as an intuition, relating them to other related concepts. We give a second definition which...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, HIERARCHIES, ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION,...
We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of Swift X-ray light-curves of Gamma- Ray Bursts (GRBs) collecting data from more than 650 GRBs discovered by Swift and other facilities. The unprecedented sample size allows us to constrain the rest-frame X-ray properties of GRBs from a statistical perspective, with particular reference to intrinsic time scales and the energetics of the different light-curve phases in a common rest-frame 0.3-30 keV energy band. Temporal variability episodes are...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AFTERGLOWS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, LIGHT CURVE, X RAYS, GAMMA...
Vertical profiles of 0.532 ┬Ám aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOUTHEAST ASIA, AEROSOLS, EXTINCTION, FADING, OPTICAL...
The paper will present experimental results from two recent icing tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The first test, conducted in February 2009, was to evaluate the current recommended scaling methods for fixed wing on representative rotor airfoils at fixed angle of attack. For this test, scaling was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity determined by constant Weber number and water film Weber number. Models were un-swept NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT, ICE FORMATION, SCALE MODELS, SWEPT...
The National Research Council's (NRC) Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. NASA Langley Research Center, working with its partners, is developing fiber laser architecture based intensity modulated CW laser absorption spectrometer for measuring XCO2 in the 1571 nm spectral band. In support of this measurement, remote sensing of O2 in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON DIOXIDE, EARTH SCIENCES, MODULES, SEMICONDUCTOR...
Second mode disturbances dominate the primary instability stage of transition in a number of hypersonic flow configurations. The highest amplification rates of second mode disturbances are usually associated with 2D (or axisymmetric) perturbations and, therefore, a likely scenario for the onset of the three-dimensionality required for laminar-turbulent transition corresponds to the parametric amplification of 3D secondary instabilities in the presence of 2D, finite amplitude second mode...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BOUNDARY LAYER TRANSITION, HYPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER,...
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As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS, CATALYSIS, TRANSITION METALS,...
The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA SYSTEMS, RESTORATION, DIGITAL SYSTEMS, DIGITAL...
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We are developing tools needed to enable the validation of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). In order to develop and test these tools, we have need of a robust, high-fidelity set of GLM proxy data. Many steps have been taken to ensure that the proxy data are high quality. LIS is the closest analog that exists for GLM, so it has been used extensively in developing the GLM proxy. We have verified the proxy data both statistically and algorithmically. The proxy data are pixel (event) data,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, LIGHTNING, METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS, DATA...
Observations of Enceladus have revealed active jets of material erupting from cracks on its south polar surface. It has previously been proposed that diurnal tidal stress, driven by Enceladus' orbital eccentricity, may actively produce surface movement along these cracks daily and thus may regulate when eruptions occur. Our analysis of the stress on jet source regions identified in Cassini ISS images reveals tidal stress as a plausible controlling mechanism of jet activity. However, the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENCELADUS, INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, CASSINI MISSION,...
Near the Bering Glacier Global Fiducial site in southern Alaska large cryospheric fluctuations occur in a region of upper crustal faulting and folding associated with collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane. In this study we report constraints on seasonal, annual and decadal cryospheric changes estimated over the last decade from field, aircraft and satellite measurements, and we evaluate the influence of cryospheric changes on the background seismic rate. Multi-year images from the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOSPHERES, CRUSTS, ANNUAL VARIATIONS, PERIODIC VARIATIONS,...
Articles in this issue inlude: (1) Foundation of Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) Technology Evaluation is Testing and Qualification, (2) Materials Management and Substitution Efforts, (3 Recycling and Pollution Control Efforts, and (4) Remediation Efforts
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), POLLUTION CONTROL, ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION, ENVIRONMENTAL...
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Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ESTIMATING, PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION,...
Characterization of the Earth's surface is crucial to remote sensing, both to map geomorphological features and because subtracting this signal is essential during retrievals of the atmospheric constituents located between the surface and the sensor. Current operational algorithms model the surface total reflectance through a weighted linear combination of a few geometry-dependent kernels, each devised to describe a particular scattering mechanism. The information content of these measurements...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), REMOTE SENSING, ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION, SNOW, POLARIZATION...
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Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTERS, COMMERCE, MARKET RESEARCH, COMPUTER SYSTEMS...
One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ROTOR AERODYNAMICS, FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, VELOCITY...
This innovation will replace a beam combiner, a phase shifter, and a mode conditioner, thus simplifying the system design and alignment, and saving weight and space in future missions. This nuller is a dielectric-waveguide-based, four-port asymmetric coupler. Its nulling performance is based on the mode-sorting property of adiabatic asymmetric couplers that are intrinsically achromatic. This nuller has been designed, and its performance modeled, in the 6.5-micrometer to 9.25-micrometer spectral...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTEGRATED OPTICS, INTERFEROMETERS, INTERFEROMETRY,...
UQTools is the short name for the Uncertainty Quantification Toolbox, a software package designed to efficiently quantify the impact of parametric uncertainty on engineering systems. UQTools is a MATLAB-based software package and was designed to be discipline independent, employing very generic representations of the system models and uncertainty. Specifically, UQTools accepts linear and nonlinear system models and permits arbitrary functional dependencies between the system s measures of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DEFORMATION, PROBABILITY THEORY, LINEAR SYSTEMS, BOUNDARIES,...
The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND TRUTH, INFRARED RADIATION, LUNAR ENVIRONMENT, MOON,...
A principal objective of the Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiance Energy (OSPREy) activity is to establish an above-water radiometer system as a lower-cost alternative to existing in-water systems for the collection of ground-truth observations. The goal is to be able to make high-quality measurements satisfying the accuracy requirements for the vicarious calibration and algorithm validation of next-generation satellites that make ocean color and atmospheric measurements. This means the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CALIBRATING, OPTICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS,...
An understanding of how an initially Gaussian error volume becomes non-Gaussian over time is an important consideration for space-vehicle conjunction assessment. Traditional assumptions applied to the error volume artificially suppress the true non-Gaussian nature of the space-vehicle position uncertainties. For typical conjunction assessment objects, representation of the error volume by a state error covariance matrix in a Cartesian reference frame is a more significant limitation than is the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COLLISIONS, ERROR ANALYSIS, ERRORS, MONTE CARLO METHOD,...