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Spacecraft bipropellant thrusters impact spacecraft surfaces with high speed droplets of unburned and partially burned propellant. These impacts can produce erosion damage to optically sensitive hardware and systems (e.g., windows, camera lenses, solar cells and protective coatings). On the International Space Station (ISS), operational constraints are levied on the position and orientation of the solar arrays to mitigate erosion effects during thruster operations. In 2007, the ISS Program...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS, EROSION, DAMAGE, PLUMES,...
Before cryogenic fuel depots can be fully realized, efficient methods with which to chill down the spacecraft transfer line and receiver tank are required. This paper presents numerical modeling of the chilldown of a liquid hydrogen tank-to-tank propellant transfer line using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). To compare with data from recently concluded turbulent LH2 chill down experiments, seven different cases were run across a range of inlet liquid temperatures and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUMERICAL FLOW VISUALIZATION, NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, COOLING,...
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The role of humans in aviation and other domains continues to shift from manual control to automation monitoring. Studies have found that humans are often poorly suited for monitoring roles, and workload can easily spike in off-nominal situations. Current workload measurement tools, like NASA TLX, use human operators to assess their own workload after using a prototype system. Such measures are used late in the design process and can result in ex- pensive alterations when problems are...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND BASED CONTROL, OPERATORS (PERSONNEL), IN-FLIGHT...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TRIBOLOGY, WEIGHTLESSNESS, LUBRICATING OILS, WETTING,...
On 17 March 2013 at 03:50:54 UTC, NASA detected a bright impact flash on the Moon caused by a meteoroid impacting the lunar surface. There was meteor activity in Earth's atmosphere the same night from the Virginid Meteor Complex. The impact crater associated with the impact flash was found and imaged by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Goal: Monitor the Moon for impact flashes produced by meteoroids striking the lunar surface. Determine meteoroid flux in the 10's gram to kilogram size range.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LUNAR CRATERS, METEORITE CRATERS, LUNAR SURFACE, METEOROID...
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We describe dynamic safety cases, a novel operationalization of the concept of through-life safety assurance, whose goal is to enable proactive safety management. Using an example from the aviation systems domain, we motivate our approach, its underlying principles, and a lifecycle. We then identify the key elements required to move towards a formalization of the associated framework.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, SAFETY MANAGEMENT, AUTONOMY, AVIONICS,...
The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS, EARTH SCIENCES, PROJECTS, RISK,...
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A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FORCE DISTRIBUTION, LOADS (FORCES), LOAD DISTRIBUTION...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DATA TRANSFER (COMPUTERS), RANGEFINDING, DETECTION, DATA...
The SpaceCubeTM v2.0 system is a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. This paper provides an overview of the design architecture, flexibility, and the advantages of the modular SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The current state of the proven SpaceCube technology is based on nine years of...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRBORNE/SPACEBORNE COMPUTERS, DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT,...
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An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIGHT (VISIBLE RADIATION), FIBER OPTICS, FIBER LASERS,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IMPACT MELTS, LUNAR MARIA, STRATIGRAPHY, SAMPLES, STRUCTURAL...
This paper discusses the design of an automated imaging system for size characterization of debris produced by the DebriSat hypervelocity impact test. The goal of the DebriSat project is to update satellite breakup models. A representative LEO satellite, DebriSat, was constructed and subjected to a hypervelocity impact test. The impact produced an estimated 85,000 debris fragments. The size distribution of these fragments is required to update the current satellite breakup models. An automated...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT, SPACECRAFT BREAKUP, DEBRIS, FRAGMENTS,...
NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AUTONOMY, TELESCOPES, SPACE DEBRIS, LOW EARTH ORBITS,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOGENIC TANKS, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, PROPELLANT TANKS,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SMALL SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES, FLIGHT TESTS, SYSTEMS...
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Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROPULSION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS, UPPER STAGE ROCKET ENGINES,...
Considerable interest lies in the ability to characterize the onset of spontaneous instabilities within liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) combustion devices. Linear techniques, such as fast Fourier transforms, various correlation parameters, and critical damping parameters, have been used at great length for over fifty years. Recently, nonlinear time series methods have been applied to deduce information pertaining to instability incipiency hidden in seemingly stochastic combustion noise....
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), TIME SERIES ANALYSIS, NONLINEARITY, COMBUSTION STABILITY,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPOSITE STRUCTURES, COMPOSITE MATERIALS, LOADS (FORCES),...
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Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANOMALIES, METEOROID CONCENTRATION, METEOROID SHOWERS, RISK,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMMERCIALIZATION, NASA PROGRAMS, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A method and device for imaging or detecting electromagnetic radiation is provided. A device structure includes a first chip interconnected with a second chip. The first chip includes a detector array, wherein the detector array comprises a plurality of light sensors and one or more transistors. The second chip includes a Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) that reads out, via the transistors, a signal produced by the light sensors. A number of interconnects between the ROIC and the detector...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), IMAGING TECHNIQUES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, CMOS,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARS SURFACE, MARS MISSIONS, LANDING SITES, HABITATS,...
The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for observation of the Earth's land surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted active and passive remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EARTH OBSERVATIONS (FROM SPACE), INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION,...
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALUMINUM ALLOYS, SODIUM CHLORIDES, STRESS CORROSION CRACKING,...
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This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a millimeter-wave noise source for the 160- 210 GHz frequency range. The noise source has been implemented in an E-split-block waveguide package and the internal circuitry was developed on a quartz substrate. The measured excess noise ratio at 200 GHz is 9.6 dB.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NOISE GENERATORS, WAVEGUIDES, CIRCUITS, MILLIMETER WAVES,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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The Terra Constellation Exit power point presentation will discuss the baseline and proposed constellation exit plan and debris concerns.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSTELLATIONS, MISSION PLANNING, COLLISIONS, DEBRIS, RISK...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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This document is a handout guide to the standard thermal insulation systems testing capabilities of the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CRYOGENICS, LIQUID NITROGEN, THERMAL INSULATION, HEAT FLUX,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WEATHER FORECASTING, MICROWAVES, MODIS (RADIOMETRY), GOES...
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This presentation will discuss the operational status update of the Constellation Coordination System (CCS) Release 7.0 and the development status of CCS Release 7.1.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STANDARDIZATION, PROJECTS, REVIEWING, LESSONS LEARNED,...
In one aspect, the present invention relates to a layered structure usable in a strain sensor. In one embodiment, the layered structure has a substrate with a first surface and an opposite, second surface defining a body portion therebetween; and a film of carbon nanotubes deposited on the first surface of the substrate, wherein the film of carbon nanotubes is conductive and characterized with an electrical resistance. In one embodiment, the carbon nanotubes are aligned in a preferential...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CARBON NANOTUBES, YARNS, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, ELECTRICAL...
This document describes the need and justification for the development of a design guide for safety-relevant computer-based systems. This document also makes a contribution toward the design guide by presenting an overview of computer-based systems design, lifecycle, and safety.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER TECHNIQUES, DESIGN ANALYSIS, SAFETY, SYSTEMS...
A goal of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is to develop a combustor that will reduce the NOx emissions and that can burn both standard and alternative fuels. To meet this goal, NASA partnered with General Electric Aviation to develop a 5-cup combustor sector; this sector was tested in NASA Glenn's Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR). To verify that the combustor sector was fuel-flexible, it was tested with a 50-50 blend of JP-8 and a biofuel made from the camelina...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NITROGEN OXIDES, JP-8 JET FUEL, SYNTHETIC FUELS, BIOMASS...
Physical parameters measured from an observation of a coronal loop from Gupta et al. (2015) using Hinode/EIS and SDO/AIA were used as input for the hydrodynamic, impulsively heating NRLSOFM 1-­d loop model. The model was run at eight different energy inputs and used the measured quantities of temperature (0.73 MK), density (10(sup 8.5)cm(sup -3) and minimum loop lifetime to evaluate the success of the model at recreating the observations. The loop was measured by us to have an unprojected...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CORONAL LOOPS, SIMULATION, HEATING, SOLAR OBSERVATORIES,...
This work concerns the development of smart coating technologies based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of corrosion inhibitors into coating which provides protection through corrosion-controlled release of these inhibitors.One critical aspect of a corrosion protective smart coating is the selection of corrosion inhibitor for encapsulation and comparison of the inhibitor function before and after encapsulation. For this...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENCAPSULATING, CORROSION, PROTECTIVE COATINGS, INHIBITORS,...
Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) 2015, Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15. This paper addresses the lessons learned during the refurbishment and testing of the thermal control system for a spacecraft which was placed into long-term storage. The DSCOVR (Deep Space Climate Observatory) Observatory (formerly known as Triana) was originally scheduled to launch on the Space Shuttle in 2002. With the Triana spacecraft nearly complete, the mission was canceled and the satellite was abruptly put...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE WEATHER, OBSERVATORIES, STORAGE, SPACECRAFT...
This study presents an assay for the detection and quantification of soil metal superoxides and peroxides in regolith and soil. The O2 release (OR) assay is based on the enzymatic conversion of the hydrolysis products of metal oxides to O2, and their quantification by an O2 electrode based on the stoichiometry of the involved reactions: The intermediate product O2 from the hydrolysis of metal superoxides is converted by cytochrome c to O2, and also by superoxide dismutase (SOD) to 1/2 mol O2...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOILS, METAL OXIDES, INORGANIC PEROXIDES, DETECTION,...
The reliability of an MLCC device is the product of a time-dependent part and a time-independent part: 1) Time-dependent part is a statistical distribution; 2) Time-independent part is the reliability at t=0, the initial reliability. Initial reliability depends only on how a BME MLCC is designed and processed. Similar to the way the minimum dielectric thickness ensured the long-term reliability of a PME MLCC, the initial reliability also ensures the long term-reliability of a BME MLCC. This...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RELIABILITY, CERAMICS, CAPACITORS, ELECTRONIC PACKAGING,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CREW WORKSTATIONS, LANDING SITES, IN-FLIGHT MONITORING,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROSTRUCTURE, HETEROGENEITY, DUCTILITY, STRUCTURAL FAILURE,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SCINTILLATION, POINTING CONTROL SYSTEMS, PLASMAS (PHYSICS),...
Pulse-combustor configurations developed in recent studies have demonstrated performance levels at high-pressure operating conditions comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. However, problems related to the way fuel was being distributed within the pulse combustor were still limiting performance. In the first part of this study, new configurations are investigated computationally aimed at improving the fuel distribution and performance of the pulse-combustor. Subsequent sections...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, EJECTORS, HIGH PRESSURE, GAS TURBINE...
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At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LATERAL CONTROL, FLIGHT CONDITIONS, HIGH ASPECT RATIO,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CLIMATOLOGY, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, DROUGHT, FORECASTING,...
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It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AMINO ACIDS, BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, OCEANS, MARINE BIOLOGY,...
Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PROTONS, HEAVY IONS, SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES, ION ACCELERATORS,...
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This talk gives a rundown of a career in servicing and looks to the future of servicing and scientific missions working together. The talk attempts to reinvigorate the old NASA entrepreneurial spirit.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACEBORNE TELESCOPES, SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE,...
The now ubiquitous nature of touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers makes them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Accurate measurement of parameters such as contrast sensitivity, however, requires precise control of absolute and relative screen luminances. The nonlinearity of the display response (gamma) can be measured or checked using a minimum motion technique similar to that developed by Anstis and Cavanagh (1983) for the...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, CALIBRATING, HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACE,...
Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ORGANISMS, GENE EXPRESSION, GENOME, SAMPLING, REAL TIME...
Throughout the spacecraft design and development process, detailed instrument thermal models are created to simulate their on-orbit behavior and to ensure that they do not exceed any thermal limits. These detailed models, while generating highly accurate predictions, can sometimes lead to long simulation run times, especially when integrated with a spacecraft observatory model. Therefore, reduced models containing less detail are typically produced in tandem with the detailed models so that...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), THERMAL ANALYSIS, TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION, SPACECRAFT...
A central issue for understanding the formation and evolution of matter in the early Solar System is the relationship between the chemical composition of star-forming interstellar clouds and that of primitive Solar System materials. The pristinemolecular content of comets, interplanetary dust particles and carbonaceous chondrites show significant bulk nitrogen isotopic fractionation relative to the solar value, 14N15N 440. In addition, high spatial resolution measurements in primitive materials...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NITROGEN 15, FRACTIONATION, SOLAR SYSTEM, INTERSTELLAR...
This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting in the talk Improved Water Vapor and Ozone Profiles in SRT AIRS Version-6.X and the AIRS February 11, 2015 NetMeeting Further improvements in water vapor and ozone profiles compared to Version-6.AIRS Version-6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version-6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version-5. However, Version-6 retrieval methodology...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE, WATER VAPOR, OZONE, CLIMATOLOGY,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EOS DATA AND INFORMATION SYSTEM, NASA PROGRAMS, EARTH...
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An external occulter is a spacecraft own along the line-of-sight of a space telescope to suppress starlight and enable high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets. The shape of an external occulter must be specially designed to optimally suppress starlight and deviations from the ideal shape due to manufacturing errors can result loss of suppression in the shadow. Due to the long separation distances and large dimensions involved for a space occulter, laboratory testing is conducted with scaled...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SCALARS, SCALE MODELS, OCCULTATION, MANUFACTURING, ERRORS,...
To improve existing ice accretion simulation codes, more data regarding ice roughness and its effects on convective heat transfer are required. To build on existing research on this topic, this study used the Vertical Icing Studies Tunnel (VIST) at NASA Glenn Research to model realistic ice roughness in the stagnation region of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Using the VIST, a test plate representing the leading 2% chord of the airfoil was subjected to flows of 7.62 m/s (25 ft/s), 12.19 m/s (40 ft/s), and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER, ICE FORMATION, STAGNATION POINT,...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HISTOGRAMS, ERRORS, SAMPLING, KURTOSIS, SKEWNESS, NORMAL...
Mineralogical and geochemical data returned by orbiters and landers over the past 15 years have substantially enhanced our understanding of the history of aqueous alteration on Mars. Here, we summarize aqueous processes that have been implied from data collected by landed missions. Mars is a basaltic planet. The geochemistry of most materials has not been “extensively” altered by open-system aqueous processes and have average Mars crustal compositions. There are few examples of open-system...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WATER, GEOCHEMISTRY, MARS SURFACE, PH, ACIDITY, ROCKS,...
Mission proposals that land on asteroids are becoming popular. However, in order to have a successful mission the spacecraft must reliably and softly land at the intended landing site. The problem under investigation is how to design a fuel-optimal powered descent trajectory that can be quickly computed on-board the spacecraft, without interaction from ground control. An optimal trajectory designed immediately prior to the descent burn has many advantages. These advantages include the ability...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTEROIDS, DESCENT TRAJECTORIES, CONVEXITY, OPTIMIZATION,...
NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology has recently been extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize a vertical pointing cloud radar, a multifrequency...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AIRCRAFT ICING, FLIGHT HAZARDS, REMOTE SENSING, ATMOSPHERIC...
This paper presents a modeling and control of aerostructure developed by lattice-based cellular materials/components. The proposed aerostructure concept leverages a building block strategy for lattice-based components which provide great adaptability to varying ight scenarios, the needs of which are essential for in- ight wing shaping control. A decentralized structural control design is proposed that utilizes discrete-time lumped mass transfer matrix method (DT-LM-TMM). The objective is to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATRIX METHODS, AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES, STRUCTURAL DESIGN,...
The modern turbine engine operates in a harsh environment at high speeds and is repeatedly exposed to combined high mechanical and thermal loads. The cumulative effects of these external forces lead to high stresses and strains on the engine components, such as the rotating turbine disks, which may eventually lead to a catastrophic failure if left undetected. The operating environment makes it difficult to use conventional strain gauges, therefore, non-contact strain measurement techniques is...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CROSS CORRELATION, OPTICAL MEASUREMENT, STRAIN MEASUREMENT,...
Aquarius is a combined active/passive microwave (L-band) instrument designed to map the salinity of global oceans from space. The specific goal of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) field of the open ocean (i.e. away from land). The instrumentation has been designed to provide monthly maps with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SALINITY, OCEAN SURFACE, CLIMATE CHANGE, ACCURACY, REMOTE...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLIGHT TESTS, DOCUMENTATION, UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS, DATA,...
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by NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
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A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GAS TURBINE ENGINES, TURBOFANS, PROPELLER BLADES, DIRT,...
Plants are ideal for long term space travel: provide essential resources - oxygen, water, food; Water-soaked plants expel soluble nutrients in a leachate solution - toxins and wastes are also expelled and inhibit growth; biological, thermal, photocatalytic coupled with an acid digestion treatment will hopefully maximize recovery and remove wastes
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUTRIENTS, ION EXTRACTION, PLANTS (BOTANY), LEACHING,...
Interplanetary missions are often subject to difficult constraints, like solar phase angle upon arrival at the destination, velocity at arrival, and altitudes for flybys. Preliminary design of such missions is often conducted by solving the unconstrained problem and then filtering away solutions which do not naturally satisfy the constraints. However this can bias the search into non-advantageous regions of the solution space, so it can be better to conduct preliminary design with the full set...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES, TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION, PHASE...
The Aquarius L-band microwave radiometer is a three-beam pushbroom instrument designed to measure sea surface salinity. Results are analyzed for performance and systematic effects over three years of operation. The thermal control system maintains tight temperature stability promoting good gain stability. The gain spectrum exhibits expected orbital variations with 1f noise appearing at longer time periods. The on-board detection and integration scheme coupled with the calibration algorithm...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS, LOW TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS, OCEAN...
The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory satellite was launched in February, 2014. The GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is a conically scanning radiometer measuring 13 channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz and sampling between 65 S 65 N. This instrument is a successor to the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), which has observed 9 channels at frequencies ranging 10 to 85 GHz between 40 S 40 N since 1997. This presentation outlines the base procedures...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT, PRECIPITATION (METEOROLOGY),...
A simulation to examine the potential of a network of CubeSats for detecting Near Earth Objects is discussed, in terms of goals, methods used and initial results obtained. By designing a basic optical system and the orbital parameters of the satellites in this network, their effectiveness for detecting asteroids is examined, with a small sample of cataloged asteroids considered.The conditions to be satisfied for detection cover both the geometrical aspects of astronomy such as field of view and...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SATELLITE NETWORKS, ASTEROID DETECTION, ASTEROIDS, NEAR EARTH...
This presentation is a summary of new content contained in the 2015 update of Technology Area-13, Ground and Launch Systems technology roadmap beyond the content contained in the 2010 version. Also included are brief assessments of benefits, alignments, challenges, technical risk and reasonableness, sequencing and timing, and time and effort to achieve goals. This presentation is part of overall presentations of new content only for the 2015 update of the 15 NASA Technology Roadmaps that will...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), GROUND OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, LAUNCHING, DECISION...
The goal of the project titled Asteroid Threat Assessment at NASA Ames Research Center is to develop risk assessment tools. The expertise in atmospheric entry in the Entry Systems and Technology Division is being used to describe the complex physics of meteor breakup in the atmosphere. The breakup of a meteor is dependent on its structural properties, including homogeneity of the material. The present work describes an 11-week effort in which a literature survey was carried for structural...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), METEOROIDS, METEORITIC COMPOSITION, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD,...
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Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent)...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FAILURE, RELIABILITY, REDUNDANCY, LAUNCH VEHICLES, SPACECRAFT...
NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for two near-term missions and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space and interstellar precursor missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high (Delta)V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SOLAR SAILS, INTERSTELLAR TRAVEL, ASTEROID MISSIONS, DEEP...
The exploration of the presumably life harboring subsurface ocean of Europa will provide scientists with extensive new knowledge in the search for extraterrestrial life. A highly miniaturized payload is required to penetrate a narrow passage through the thick ice crust covering Europa's surface. Underwater wireless communications may be the most viable means of communication for such exploratory missions, accounting for size and weight restrictions. This presents a challenge to achieve...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SPACE EXPLORATION, EUROPA, EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE,...
ADEPT is an atmospheric entry architecture for missions to most planetary bodies with atmospheres: Current Technology development project funded under STMD Game Changing Development Program (FY12 start); stowed inside the launch vehicle shroud and deployed in space prior to entry; low ballistic coefficient (less than 50 kilograms per square meter) provides a benign deceleration and thermal environment to the payload; High-temperature ribs support three dimensional woven carbon fabric to...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY, DEPLOYMENT, AERODYNAMIC HEATING, RIBS...
Every year in the Midwest and Great Plains, widespread greenness forms in conjunction with the latter part of the spring-summer growing season. This prevalent greenness forms as a result of the high concentration of agricultural areas having their crops reach their maturity before the fall harvest. This time of year also coincides with an enhanced hail frequency for the Great Plains (Cintineo et al. 2012). These severe thunderstorms can bring damaging winds and large hail that can result in...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FARM CROPS, STORM DAMAGE, HAIL, REAL TIME OPERATION,...
An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS, THERMODYNAMICS, ACTUATORS, CRYOGENIC...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC NOISE, BROADBAND, FAN BLADES, NOISE GENERATORS,...
A study was performed to determine and model the effect of high temperature dwells on notched low cycle fatigue (NLCF) and notch stress rupture behavior of a fine grain LSHR powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy. It was shown that a 90 second dwell applied at the minimum stress (min dwell) was considerably more detrimental to the NLCF lives than similar dwell applied at the maximum stress (max dwell). The short min dwell NLCF lives were shown to be caused by growth of small oxide...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, HYDROSTATICS, BRIDGMAN...
Future NASA space telescopes and exploration missions require cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks. One device that can potentially be used to provide closed-loop cryocooling is the cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP). A CLHP has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A helium CLHP has been tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryocooler as the heat sink...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HELIUM, HEAT PIPES, CRYOGENIC COOLING, FEEDBACK CONTROL,...
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During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HYDROGEN, GAS DETECTORS, LEAKAGE, DETECTION, SAFETY, COLOR,...
The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS, ASTEROIDS, ASTEROID COLLISIONS, COMETS,...
The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRINES, EVAPORATION, MICROGRAVITY, WATER RECLAMATION, DRYING,...
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Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LIGHTNING, SNOW, CLOUD-TO-GROUND DISCHARGES, LEADERS...
This paper presents detailed description of a novel CFD procedure and comparison of its solution results to that obtained by other available CFD codes as well as actual flight and wind tunnel test data pertaining to the GIII aircraft, currently undergoing flight testing at AFRC.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, FLIGHT TESTS, WIND TUNNEL...
Modern mobile devices provide a convenient platform for collecting research data in the field. But,because the working of these devices is often cloaked behind multiple layers of proprietary system software, it can bedifficult to assess the accuracy of the data they produce, particularly in the case of timing. We have been collecting datain a simple visual reaction time experiment, as part of a fatigue testing protocol known as the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). In this protocol, subjects...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VISUAL STIMULI, REACTION TIME, PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE,...
In support of the mission-specific challenges of aeronautics and space exploration, NASA Ames produces a wealth of research and technology advancements with significant relevance to larger issues of planetary sustainability. NASA research on NexGen airspace solutions and its development of autonomous and intelligent technologies will revolutionize both the nation's air transporation systems and have applicability to the low altitude flight economy and to both air and ground transporation, more...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SUSTAINING, CLIMATE, MISSION PLANNING, ENERGY POLICY, CLOSED...
United States Astronauts have a very unique occupational exposure profile. In order to understand these risks and properly address them, the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, originally created the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, LSAH. The first LSAH was designed to address a variety of needs regarding astronaut health and included a 3 to 1 terrestrial control population in order to compare United States "earth normal" disease and aging to that of a...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ASTRONAUTS, EXPOSURE, HEALTH, RISK, SPACECRAFT ENVIRONMENTS,...
This report describes the work conducted under NASA funding for the Boeing N+2 Supersonic Experimental Validation project to experimentally validate the conceptual design of a supersonic airliner feasible for entry into service in the 2018 -to 2020 timeframe (NASA N+2 generation). The primary goal of the project was to develop a low-boom configuration optimized for minimum sonic boom signature (65 to 70 PLdB). This was a very aggressive goal that could be achieved only through integrated...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT, TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, SUPERSONIC...
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are actively involved in improving the predictive capabilities of transient finite element computational methods for application to safety issues involving unintended impacts on aircraft and aircraft engine structures. One aspect of this work involves the development of an improved deformation and failure model for metallic materials, known as the Tabulated Johnson-Cook model, or MAT224,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALUMINUM, PENETRATION, THICKNESS, CYLINDRICAL BODIES, FINITE...
No abstract available
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NOAA SATELLITES, ASSIMILATION, NOWCASTING, WEATHER...
Recent numerical result (arXiv:1512.02206) from Google suggested that the D-Wave quantum annealer may have an asymptotic speed-up than simulated annealing, however, the asymptotic advantage disappears when it is compared to quantum Monte Carlo (a classical algorithm despite its name). We show analytically that the asymptotic scaling of quantum tunneling is exactly the same as the escape rate in quantum Monte Carlo for a class of problems. Thus, the Google result might be explained in our...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INSTANTONS, QUANTUM THEORY, ANNEALING, THERMAL ANALYSIS,...
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Analysis completed since the test suggests that all test objectives were met– This claim will be verified in the coming weeks as the data is examined further– Final disposition of test objective success will be documented in a final reportsubmitted to NASA stakeholders (early August 2015)– Expect conference paper in early 2016• Data products and observations made during testing will be used to refinecomputational models of Nano-ADEPT• Carbon fabric relaxed from its pre-test state...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), WIND TUNNEL TESTS, BLUNT BODIES, SPACECRAFT CONTROL,...
Results from Landsat satellite image times series analysis since 1983 of this study area showed gradual, statistically significant increases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in more than 90% of the (predominantly second-growth) evergreen forest locations sampled.
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), LANDSAT SATELLITES, SATELLITE IMAGERY, COASTS, FORESTS,...
Results from Landsat satellite image analysis since 1987 in all unburned areas (since the 1880s) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) showed that consistent decreases in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been strongly dependent on periodic variations in peak annual snow water equivalents (SWE).
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VEGETATION, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK (ID-MT-WY), CLIMATE...
Since the first photographs of “Earth Rise” taken by the Apollo astronauts in the 1960s galvanized the environmental movement, imaging of our planet from low Earth orbit has grown more sophisticated and diverse. Satellite and astronaut observations and imagery of the changing ocean still have the power to galvanize oceanographers and society. So what are some of the key ideas for oceanography and society that come out of out recent decades of ocean observation from space? Satellite...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), OCEANS, OCEANOGRAPHY, OCEANOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS, SATELLITE...
Drosophila melanogaster, or the fruit fly, has long been an important organism for Earth-based research, and is now increasingly utilized as a model system to understand the biological effects of spaceflight. Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have shown altered immune responses in 3rd instar larvae and adult males following spaceflight, changes similar to those observed in astronauts. In addition, spaceflight has also been shown to affect bacterial physiology, as evidenced by studies...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), VIRULENCE, SPACE FLIGHT, DROSOPHILA, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS,...
Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), HIGH GRAVITY ENVIRONMENTS, ANTIOXIDANTS, STRESS (PHYSIOLOGY),...
Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass,...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION, GALERKIN METHOD, ROBUSTNESS...
We will discuss the results of a planned observation campaign of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), 1999 CU3, 2002 GM2, 2002 FG7, and 3691 Bede with instruments on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) from 15-Mar-2015 to 28-April 2015 UT. We will study the phase-angle dependence of the reflectance and thermal emission spectra. Recent publications reveal that the assignment of the asteroid class from visible and near-IR spectroscopy can change with phase angle for NEAs with silicate-bearing...
Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), PHASE SHIFT, THERMAL EMISSION, SPECTROSCOPY, NEAR INFRARED...