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Written to be acted by individuals with disabilities, the theme of this play is the world of work and unemployment. The play is intended to bring more public attention to the human problems caused by unemployment and underemployment as well as to provide the unemployed with guidance. Major characters include a developmentally disabled young man, a bankrupt businessman, and various unemployed individuals including a university professor, grocery store worker, and a wood worker. (DB)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Developmental Disabilities, Drama, Unemployment, Work Attitudes, Work Experience
Navy personnel assignment is a large, complex operation. Under the current manual system, it is not possible to simultaneously consider all feasible person/job combinations and the multiple, conflicting policies that guide the assignment process. An automated assignment model is needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the personnel assignment system. However, the complexity of eligibility and policy criteria combined with the necessity of including aggregate numerical allocation...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Liang,Timothy T, NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CA,...
People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public Health, formed a national policy panel in the spring of 2002 to address this discrimination. The panelists developed the two principles and ten...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, Employment, Health Needs, Health Programs, Policy...
With its growing influence and power, the women's movement is directing pressure on the Air Force to permit women to attend the Air Force Academy. This study traces the history of the women's movement in America and examines the specific avenues by which the present Air Force policy against admitting women to the academy could be abrogated. Consideration is given to the sociological basis of "female inequality" and the associated complexities of transitioning to a coeducational...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Admission Criteria, Educational Planning, Females, Higher Education, Military...
This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of antigay violence. In his opening statement, Representative John Conyers, Jr. presents statistics which attest to a rise in antigay violence since the murders of San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk in 1979. He notes that there are currently no federal statutes which specifically prohibit antigay violence and stresses the need for this...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Federal Legislation, Government Role, Hearings, Homosexuality, Law Enforcement,...
Training is one of the many means that an organization may use to help its employees in their adaption to organizational change. F. Olsen Ltd. is a major Norwegian International Shipping organization. This study was concerned with the Olsen Berths based at Mill Docks in the Port of London. The major problems, as defined by senior management at that time, were as follows: (1) the supervisors were not prepared to work in different ways to suit the new methods of work; (2) the supervisors would...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employer Employee Relationship, Organizational Change, Supervisory Training,...
This report contains comparative statistics for salary payments to men and women in the Arts and Sciences College of the University of Colorado in Boulder. There are overall discrepancies between salaries of men and women of comparable rank, with the size of the discrepancy increasing with rank. Ten percent of the associate professors are women, but only 5 percent of the full professors, indicating that women are "frozen" at the associate level. The argument that women's salaries are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Faculty Promotion, Females, Higher Education, Promotion (Occupational), Salaries,...
Since married women typically curtail their employment behavior to accommodate the needs of their family, it is often assumed that women have a relatively weak and unstable work commitment. However, it is erroneous to infer work commitment from behavior, since work behavior is motivated and constrained by a myriad of personal and social conditions. The relationship of familial and work characteristics in women's expression of work commitment was examined in 420 employed wives interviewed in...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employed Women, Employee Attitudes, Family Influence, Females, Part Time Employment,...
States across the country have always established their own academic standards, curricula, and achievement goals. What students are expected to know and be able to do often differs from state to state. Additionally, states with low standards may leave students unprepared for higher standards in other states. This inconsistency creates problems for children from military families, who must move and change schools frequently as their parents are reassigned. This brief report explains how moving...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Military Personnel, Student Mobility, Common Core State Standards, Educational...
In seminar dialogues, the relationship of youth to the world of work, values related to work, the economic realities, definitions of work, and planning for youth and work were discussed among faculty and students of the University of Minnesota and several members of the general citizenry of the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It was concluded that the idea of what can be construed as work needs to be expanded, and that we are going to have to be more creative and more accepting of a broad spectrum...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Political Socialization, Seminars, Values, Work Attitudes, Youth, Youth Problems,...
This report is the result of the first investigation by an independent body of a problem that has plagued the U.S. Air Force Academy for at least a decade, and possibly since the admission of women in 1976. At the direction of Congress, the Secretary of Defense appointed seven U.S. citizens with expertise in the military academies, behavioral and psychological sciences, and standards and practices related to proper treatment of sexual assault victims. It is clear from the review of nearly a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Higher Education, Military Schools, Military Training, Sex...
This report reviews eleven departments, accounting for 90% of the faculty women, in the Yale College and Graduate School. The most significant finding is the absence of women from the faculty, significantly less than other prestigious institutions. Many departments have no women on the professorial ladder. Women are concentrated in the lower ranks--23% of the lecturers and 30% of the instructors, while only 4% of the laddered faculty. There is also a preponderance of women in research...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employment Patterns, Faculty, Feminism, Higher Education, Social Discrimination,...
This paper discusses discrimination against women in our society. Statements and sayings from all over the world which reflect historical discriminatory attitudes towards women are quoted and it is evident that such attitudes are still prevalent in contemporary times. Despite federal legislation and state laws banning sex discrimination, the need to improve women's relative position in the economy is still urgent. It is claimed that occupationally women are more disadvantaged today in...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employed Women, Employment, Females, Feminism, Poverty, Social Bias, Social...
A study explored the question of whether there is an adversary press, by examining the recent trends in adversarial attitudes among newspaper journalists in the United States. Using a differentiation model for delineating the nature and boundaries of American adversarial journalism, the study re-analyzed the data from two national surveys. The first (by Weaver and Wilhoit) involved telephone interviews of 1,001 print and broad-cast journalists. The other (by Stinnett et al.) involved...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attitude Change, Cohort Analysis, Journalism, National Surveys, Newspapers, Political...
Both film and ancient religious writing have much in common, especially in regard to their ability to convey powerful messages to modern audiences. A study analyzed the timeless meta-narratives in the ancient Hindu poem, the "Bhagavad Gita," and in the 1998 American film, "The Thin Red Line." It used the methodology of narrative criticism to make a cross-cultural contribution to philosophical and rhetorical studies that focus on the construction of evil and other...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Comparative Analysis, Film Criticism, Films, Literary Criticism, Mass Media Role,...
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were approximately 1.2 million women veterans (5 percent of all veterans) in the United States in 1996. Female veterans were 84 percent white, 12 percent black, and 4 percent Hispanic. Between 1987 and 1991, women accounted for 11 percent of persons separating from the military, a number that is likely to increase. Women veterans are usually younger and more educated than male veterans, and more than half of them served during peacetime....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adults, Employed Women, Employment Patterns, Employment Qualifications, Females,...
This report covers 5 regional seminars designed to increase the Veterans Administration understanding of Vietnam Era veterans. The process used was one of involvement and interaction of Veterans Administration officials with returning Vietnam Era veterans and other young people. After the traditional introductions and keynote remarks, there was a series of three consecutive panels: (1) veterans who had served in Vietnam; (2) young VA employees who had also served in Vietnam; and (3) the three...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adjustment (to Environment), Enlisted Personnel, Higher Education, Military...
Counselors often deal with the meaning of work and love as they help clients to manage or modify their lives. This is especially true for counselors involved in career interventions such as career education programs, vocational guidance and counseling, work adjustment counseling, occupational health counseling, and retirement planning workshops. All of these interventions address the meaning of work and love, although they vary in emphasis. Explicit attention to the meaning of work and love can...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Development, Career Counseling, Careers, Counselor Role, Family Relationship,...
This study explored the consequences of perceived job security and insecurity on the psychological and physical health of employees. Data were gathered from employees of a large midwestern manufacturing organization that produced products for material removal applications. Surveys were sent through company mail to a stratified random sample of 442 employees resulting in 230 usable surveys. Subjects completed measures of job security, psychological and physical health, organizational commitment,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employee Attitudes, Job Layoff, Job Security, Physical Health, Security (Psychology),...
Presentation scripts for two sound filmstrips are contained in this document, which accompanies a career development unit on coping in the world of work designed to assist students in developing coping strategies to deal with work entry and job adjustment problems. (Other components of the unit--instructor's handbook, student guide, and handout/transparency masters, and the filmstrips with cassette tapes--are available separately.) (TA)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Audiovisual Aids, Career Development, Career Education, Filmstrips, Instructional...
The emphasis in this course is placed upon employer/employee relationships. It is based on the idea that information about and experience with Transactional Analysis can help adolescents and adults to understand some of the powerful dynamics that can happen among people. Once those dynamics are understood, the student can access experience to make choices about how they respond and can begin to take responsibility for their choices. This can lead to maturity. The sessions include: (1)...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adolescents, Employer Employee Relationship, Employment Interviews, Transactional...
This study was conducted to investigate job satisfaction among human services employees (N=114) who worked for a rehabilitation facility in Kansas with divisions in three different geographical locations. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire and an agency personnel instrument which measured job satisfaction. Independent variables were the division in which the employee worked, employment status, job description, and wages. Dependent variables were the scores from the agency personnel...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employee Attitudes, Human Services, Interpersonal Communication, Job Satisfaction,...
The symposium: Women on Campus, 1970, held at Michigan University on October 14, 1970, centered on 3 major topics: "Toward a New Psychology of Women"; "The Case of the Woman Graduate Student"; and "The University and Women." The papers that were presented concerning the first topic included: "Internal Barriers to Achievement in Women--An Introduction," by Elizabeth Douvan; "Psychological and Psychosomatic Responses to Oral Contraceptive Use," by...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Aspiration, College Students, Females, Graduate Students, Higher Education,...
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) Archive
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The present study sought to provide data that will contribute to an understanding of how a select group of graduating college seniors perceive and feel about work. The sample was composed of 1,860 male and female members of the class of 1972 at 5 colleges in Pennsylvania. The vast majority of the seniors expressed favorable attitudes toward work and see it as a critical and necessary part of adult life. The data suggest the work ethic is neither dead nor dying; rather a work ethic is emerging...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Graduates, Employment, Higher Education, Student Attitudes, Surveys, Work...
Traditional Japanese values discourage women from working outside the home. This research describes and compares Japanese men's and women's beliefs regarding employment of women. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women, and t-tests were used to test for differences between the men's and women's groups. Results showed that, despite traditional Japanese ideals discouraging women's employment, both groups tended to be uncertain regarding whether women's...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Beliefs, Cultural Influences, Employed Parents, Employed Women, Foreign Countries,...
Data were collected from the Air Training Command personnel processing files on non-prior-service accessions for male and female basic trainees entering the Air Force during the years 1970 through 1973. Data included age, Airman Qualifying Examination (AQE) aptitude indexes, years of education, race, and geographic area of enlistment. Tables show AQE aptitude index means and standard deviations by sex and year of enlistment; percentage by sex in score range on AQE composites and at each index;...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Aptitude, Comparative Analysis, Females, Males, Military Personnel, Racial...
This study explored relationships between certain social values and the attitudinal and behavioral dimensions of physical activity. Data were supplied by 1,895 students enrolled in SUNY-Binghamton physical education classes through the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Social values were measured with the use of the Value Profile as devised by Bales and Couch, and attitudes toward physical activity were assessed with Kenyon's ATPA Scale. Participation in the various dimensions of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Athletics, College Students, Higher Education, Physical Activities, Physical...
This teaching manual, designed to accompany a Wisconsin State television series, focuses on that State's rural black families and their lives in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The manual begins with notes on its organization and use, as well as major objectives for students who study the material presented. Four units follow. Unit 1 explores the origins of Wisconsin blacks and discusses their history before migration to the State. Unit 2 considers why these families chose to settle in...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Black History, Blacks, Elementary Education, Rural Population, State History,...
The product of two summer institutes to prepare teachers and administrators for school integration, this report contains a resource manual on "Common Prejudices of Negroes and Whites." For full abstract of institute proceedings, see UD 009 479. For other resource manuals, see UD 009 481, UD 009 482, UD 009 483, and UD 009 484. (KG)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Black Attitudes, Inservice Education, Resource Materials, School Desegregation,...
PREVENTION AS FUNCTION, VALUE ISSUE, CONCEPTUAL SHORTCOMING, AND PRACTICE IS DISCUSSED AND RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL TASK. PREVENTION AS FUNCTION IS GENERATED BY OUR VALUE PREMISES. IN SEEKING TO PREVENT SOME FORMS OF SOCIAL DYSFUNCTION, WE MAY BE PERPETUATING OTHERS. THE CONCEPT OF PREVENTION IS AMBIGUOUS. CRUCIAL CONCEPTUAL ISSUES INCLUDE THE APPLICABILITY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH MODEL, THE QUESTION OF SOCIAL PROBLEM CAUSATION, THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHOD, AND QUESTIONS OF APPROPRIATE TARGETS FOR...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Philosophy, Prevention, Professional Training, Social Values, Social...
Research into career success has usually dealt with objective aspects of career paths such as income and job title. Cognitive variables can also be used to assess career success, career mobility, and career satisfaction. This study examined demographics, job properties, and personal attributes as well as the relationship between career strategies and career success. The sample was obtained from 14 major corporation located in metropolitan Los Angeles, California and employing more than 1,000...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrators, Career Development, Demography, Employee Attitudes, Job Satisfaction,...
Four areas were chosen for extensive examination after polling women faculty members--hiring, promotion, salary, and power position. When the expected number of women (taking into account possible labor force dropouts) and the actual number of women was compared to the expected and actual number of men, the difference favoring men was statistically significant at the .001 level. A questionnaire asking chairmen and deans if they approved, disapproved, or had reservations about hiring women,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employment Patterns, Faculty, Females, Higher Education, Social Bias, Social...
JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB DISSATISFACTION FACTORS FOUND IN THE WORK SITUATIONS OF TEACHERS WERE INVESTIGATED. TWO QUESTIONS WERE PROPOSED FOR INVESTIGATION--(1) IS THERE A SET OF FACTORS WHICH TENDS TO SATISFY TEACHERS AND ANOTHER SET OF FACTORS WHICH TENDS TO DISSATISFY TEACHERS, OR, ARE THE FACTORS ARRANGED ON A CONCEPTUAL CONTINUUM WITH EACH BEING A POTENTIAL SATISFIER AND DISSATISFIER, AND (2) WILL THE DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORS VARY FOR SUBGROUPS OF TEACHERS. THE FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employment, Factor Analysis, Interviews, Teachers, Work Attitudes, Work Experience,...
THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO LOCATE MIGRANT CHILDREN IN DONA ANA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO, IDENTIFY THEIR NEEDS, CATALOG THEIR MOVEMENTS AND CHARACTERISTICS, AND DEFINE THEIR EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS. A MIGRANT CHILD WAS DEFINED AS A PERSON BETWEEN THE AGES OF 5 AND 17, WHOSE PARENTS OR GUARDIANS EARNED THEIR LIVELIHOOD IN SOME TYPE OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY, BUT DID NOT OWN THE AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY OR PARTICIPATE IN THE EARNINGS OF THE ACTIVITY. THE MIGRANT CHILDREN WERE IDENTIFIED BY SEARCHING...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Agricultural Laborers, Educational Needs, Migrant Children, Migrant Education,...
This document presents the proceedings of the conference on Women and Education: A Feminist Perspective. The papers presented at the conference were: Why Women's Studies and How Sexism and Social Change; Research in Psychology Relevant to the Situation of Women; Women and the Visual Arts; The Woman in the Moon: Toward an Integration of Women's Studies; The Sexist Image of Women in Literature; Why Women's History?; A Feminist in Every Classroom; Women, Education, and Social Power; What Women's...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employed Women, Females, Feminism, Higher Education, Social Values, Womens Education
At one time, higher education was seen as a public good that brought value to society, but today it is perceived as a personal investment in which the public has limited interest. This essay makes the point that while many people tout the benefits of education in dollar terms, it is imperative that the more important benefits be recognized, the improvements in social opportunities, civic participation, and economic and educational potential for youth. Education should not be perceived only as a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economic Factors, Higher Education, Relevance (Education), Role of Education, Social...
This study measured the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational climate on a heterogeneous sample, and the reported incidence of stress-related illnesses as a moderator of the climate-job satisfaction relationship. Subjects were 70 full-time employees who completed a four-part questionnaire consisting of the Litwin and Stringer Organizational Climate Questionnaire, the Job Descriptive Index, a 20-item stress symptom measure, and demographic information. The results showed that...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Students, Diseases, Employee Attitudes, Higher Education, Job Satisfaction,...
On October 7-8, 1996, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund joined with the World Bank to host a gathering of foundation executives, leaders of major humanitarian and environmental nongovernmental organizations, and officers of large multilateral institutions. The meeting was entitled "Building a Constituency for Global Interdependence," and its agenda reflected a sense of shared concern about the apparent waning of public and political support for the policies, programs, and agencies of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economic Development, Foreign Countries, Global Approach, International Cooperation,...
Preintegration attitudes and expectations of 1,936 men and 346 women assigned to six Navy ships were measured before the women reported aboard, through the administration of gender-specific versions of the "Navy in Transition" questionnaire. An additional 483 men assigned to a ship not scheduled for integration completed the questionnaire for control purposes. Results showed that the majority of men believed integration would improve crew morale, but would have a negative impact on...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adults, Attitudes, Employed Women, Females, Males, Military Personnel, Seafarers, Sex...
Research on the attitudes of heterosexual churchgoers is extensive. However, very little empirical information is available about the attitudes held by gay and lesbian Christians. In the current study, it was hypothesized that gay and lesbian Christians, unlike their heterosexual peers, would demonstrate desire for and acceptance of social closeness with other gay and lesbian people, whether or not the person was sexually active, and would desire social distance from homophobic persons and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attitude Measures, Beliefs, Christianity, Homophobia, Homosexuality, Interpersonal...
The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to alert educators to current, readily available documents announced in Research in Education (RIE) which pertain to attitudes toward work. Of the 197 documents retrieved from a computer search based on the inclusion of Employee Attitudes, Job Satisfaction, or Work Attitudes as one of the major terms from the documents's descriptor-list, 45 were selected as being most relevant to the designated topic. The bibliography is arranged with the most recent...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Annotated Bibliographies, Bibliographies, Employee Attitudes, Job Satisfaction,...
This report documents the activities of the University Committee for Women's Rights (UCWR) at Pittsburgh University over a 1-year period. The chapters cover UCWR's negotiations with the University, summarize the data compiled, and present proposals for improving the condition of women. Data on faculty include: men and women faculty in 8 selected departments by rank, new faculty appointments for 14 schools by rank, participation rates in the standing committees of the University Senate for 2...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Administrators, College Students, Employment Patterns, Faculty, Females, Higher...
Conference papers examining recent trends affecting the development of urban life in America are presented. "How People Look at Cities Where They Live and Work," by Anselm L. Strauss, presents sample work and life styles and their effects on perceptions of cities. "Los Angeles as a Changing Community," by Fred E. Chase, discusses problems and characteristics of Los Angeles. "Los Angeles: the Enigma, the Paradox, the Challenge," by Peter A. Orleans, compares the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Conference Reports, Disadvantaged, Employment, Job Applicants, Perception, Social...
The purpose of this report is to point out some of the discriminatory policies and attitudes which "tend to make the Cornell environment a difficult place for young women to achieve the personal and intellectual maturity necessary for lifelong active participation in today's society." The report opens with an excerpt from a paper by a Junior describing her campus experiences, which include strong criticisms of student, faculty, and institutional attitudes toward women. The report then...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Admission (School), Females, Financial Support, Higher Education, Social Bias, Social...
THIS DOCUMENT PROVIDES READING MATERIAL AT A LOW LEVEL OF READING ABILITY BUT ON SUBJECTS OF INTEREST TO A SERVICEMAN, SUCH AS ARMY LIFE, THE HOME FOLKS, AND A TRIP TO WASHINGTON. EXERCISES BASED ON EVERY FEW PAGES OF THIS READER ARE PROVIDED IN "SERVICEMEN LEARN TO READ." (SM)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Enlisted Personnel, Instructional Materials, Literacy Education, Military Training,...
This paper examines some of the relationships among honor, race and Southern culture from the perspective of the late Richard M. Weaver. His work is noted for its breadth and unity of focus, but its breadth invites fragmentation, a tendency reinforced by Weaver's style of writing self-contained essays. Weaver's foundational analysis, "The Southern Tradition at Bay," a revised version of his doctoral dissertation, was published in 1968, 5 years after his death. The work is a study of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Codes of Ethics, Cultural Background, Cultural Pluralism, Desegregation Effects, Folk...
THE "COLLEGE EXPERIENCE" OF 15 NEGRO MEN MATRICULATING AT HARVARD DURING 1963-64 WAS REPORTED. THE RESEARCHER INTERVIEWED THE MEN, ELICITING EXPRESSIONS OF WHAT IT MEANT, SOCIALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY, TO BE A NEGRO AT AN IVY LEAGUE COLLEGE. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN SUCH AREAS AS FAMILY BACKGROUND, SELF-CONCEPT, REFERENCE GROUPS, ASPIRATIONS, AND PERSONALITY WERE FOUND TO YIELD DIFFERING WAYS OF ORIENTATION IN THE CULTURE OF HARVARD COLLEGE. THIS ARTICLE IS A REPRINT FROM THE...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Black Stereotypes, Black Students, College Desegregation, Personality Assessment,...
Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that has occurred within the military since World War II has been the change from a single-man's Army to a married-man's Army, Navy, or Air Force. A more...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Armed Forces, Attitude Change, Family Role, Females, Interpersonal Relationship,...
This monograph recounts the events that brought about the change from women as Marine Reservists only to the integration of women into the Marine Corps. Chapters 1-8 trace the status of women in the Marines beginning with demobilization plans for the Women's Reserve following World War II. They discuss the Women's Armed Forces Legislation; integration of women into the regular Marine Corps; the Reserve and regular corps women in the Korean War; utilization and numbers from 1951 to 1963, from...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Adults, Armed Forces, Enlisted Personnel, Females, Military...
By understanding why children engage in name calling and responding thoughtfully to such events, parents and teachers can help both the name caller and the victim to grow in their abilities to understand themselves and others. In their own social interactions, children mirror the negative evaluations they have observed. Left unchecked, such beliefs and attitudes can become the foundation of life-long prejudices. Name calling doesn't have to be part of childhood. Children can learn that words do...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Antisocial Behavior, Children, Elementary Education, Interpersonal Relationship,...
Fourteen myths about recovered mental patients are discussed in this pamphlet. The myths are introduced in a true/false checklist. Famous recovered victims of mental illness are cited, most notably Abraham Lincoln. Three vignettes concerning non-famous people and the rebuffs they faced as they attempted to become self-sufficient are presented. Deinstitutionalization and the problems of lack of social support and housing faced by recovering mental patients are discussed. The 14 myths are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Beliefs, Deinstitutionalization (of Disabled), Mental Disorders, Mental Health,...
This report focuses on the differences in work relations between teachers and teacher aides and between social workers and social service aides, using data obtained from in-depth interviews, classroom observations, and meetings at two Head Start centers. Center One, which is church sponsored, has two classrooms and 60 children, with two teachers, two teacher aides, a social worker operating out of central headquarters, and three locally based staff members (one family assistant and two family...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Nonprofessional Personnel, Paraprofessional School Personnel, Role Perception, Social...
This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would enable the United States to treasure the concept of cultural pluralism. The paper asserts that racism is the main obstacle to peace and tranquility, one...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cultural Awareness, Curriculum Development, Diversity, Elementary Secondary...
The role of leisure time in connection with one's work is presented in conjunction with the changing concept of work. Certain kinds of satisfaction and involvement which have traditionally stemmed from one's work must now be sought in other areas. Career development should encompass the concept of leisure as well as the concepts of work, and there should be ongoing reevaluation of the role of leisure in one's life. (Author/EK)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adjustment (to Environment), Career Change, Career Development, Futures (of Society),...
This annual report on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act describes activities conducted under the Act in 1969. The Act prohibits discrimination in any of the terms of employment against individuals between 40 and 65 years of age. Coverage is extended to employers of 25 or more persons in occupations for which age is not a bona fide qualification necessary to the conduct of business, and to employment agencies and labor organizations dealing with covered employers. Appendixes to the report...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Age, Age Discrimination, Employment Opportunities, Employment Practices, Equal...
A number of studies suggest that demographic characteristics may be related to individuals' satisfaction with their work. If gender does relate to job satisfaction, this relationship might be partly explained by a mediating effect of another set of variables--individuals' reasons for working. Because the effect of socialization on work attitudes is likely to develop during adolescence, this study tested the thesis that female and male adolescents would have different reasons for working at...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employee Attitudes, High School Students, High Schools, Job Satisfaction, Part Time...
The varying definitions, the primary characteristics, and the causes of hate crimes are reviewed. In addition, misconceptions about what constitutes a hate crime are discussed, as are the increasing upward trends in various form of hate crime. The important role schools can play in alleviating the hate crime phenomenon is the focus of the concluding section. This article summarizes the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL's), "Hate Crime: A Sourcebook for Schools Confronting Bigotry,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Elementary Secondary Education, Etiology, Hate Crime, Identification, School Role,...
The organization, operations, participants, and achievements of the Neighborhood Youth Corps are described. Tables, graphs, and photographs also provide information on this program. (NH)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Dropout Prevention, Dropout Programs, Employment Opportunities, Federal Programs, Job...
This study has tried to provide answers for why 45% of American workers do not want to be promoted in the next 20 years. It was hypothesized that six determinants such as health, low income and job dissatisfaction are responsible for not wanting job promotion. Sex, age and race were hypothesized as determinants of worker's promotional expectations. A national probability sample of 1,159 employees were asked questions concerning their need for and expectation of promotion. Several multiple...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economic Factors, Employer Employee Relationship, Expectation, Job Satisfaction,...
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Possible bias in selection procedures used for employment and college admissions is of great social and educational importance. However, there are many different definitions of what constitutes bias, with each definition based on different values and with different implications for how selection should be accomplished. A number of these definitions of bias and their implications are examined in this document, and a new model of fairness based on equal opportunity for potentially successful...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Admission (School), Civil Rights, Equal Opportunities (Jobs), Higher Education, Sex...
Managing a marginal identity different from the dominant culture is a difficult process. For a woman who is a lesbian and also Jewish, this means feeling marginal in each of the communities she considers to be her primary support systems. Within the Jewish community, lesbianism is not acceptable, and within the lesbian community, there is often anti-Semitism. This paper begins by briefly discussing some historical and religious issues of relevance to the empowerment of women within Judaism and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Homosexuality, Jews, Judaism, Lesbianism, Religious Discrimination, Religious...
This report on the status of academic women is divided into 3 parts. Section 1 presents a review of 4 major research studies that collectively provide a comprehensive description of academic women. The studies are: "Academic Women," by Jesse Barnard, "The Woman Doctorate in America," by Helen Astin, "Women and the Doctorate," by Susan Mitchell, and "Women as College Teachers," by Jean Henderson. The specific criteria most frequently used by investigators...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employed Women, Employment Opportunities, Employment Patterns, Females, Higher...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the job interview on the attitudes of applicants, those who were hired and those who were not, and to offer employers suggestions for the interview process. The potential previewing effects of discriminatory interviewing techniques were also assessed. Questionnaires were sent to 134 individuals who applied for full-time, entry level direct care positions at a large state-operated residential facility for mentally retarded persons in the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attitudes, Employee Attitudes, Employment Interviews, High School Graduates, Job...
A study examined the effects of two organizational structural elements--gender appropriateness of job assignment and mix of women and men in a work group--upon the attitudes and behavior of Navy women. Effects of being assigned to a traditionally feminine or masculine job were examined and related to attrition, satisfaction, and reenlistment. Effects of being in a male-dominated, balanced, or female-dominated work group on satisfaction, expectations, and intentions toward remaining in the Navy...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Dropouts, Enlisted Personnel, Females, Job Satisfaction, Military Personnel, Military...
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The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the report are (1) civil rights and the administration of justice, (2) education, (3) employment, (4) public policies and agencies for assisting the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Acculturation, Civil Rights, Disadvantaged, Economically Disadvantaged, Educationally...
A study was conducted to identify aspects of the training of male and female Navy recruits at the Recruit Training Command Orlando that might lead to differential military performance. Current data on the military performance of enlisted Navy women recently graduated from recruit training were used to document reports of female-enlisted performance and define suggested problem areas in terms of observable behavior. Problem areas included military appearance, leadership, adaptability, pregnancy...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Enlisted Personnel, Females, Males, Military Training, Performance,...
This research paper attempts to show that the country's dualistic views between perceived morals and practiced morals have confused youth to the point they have difficulty telling right from wrong. The paper advocates that schools should take a more active role in moral education before that role is thrust upon them by a decaying family structure. Several examples of what is perceived as the dualistic views in society are presented, along with suggestions for implementation of a strong moral...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Elementary Secondary Education, Ethical Instruction, Ethics, Moral Development, Moral...
The sources of faculty work dissatisfaction in U.S. colleges and universities were studied in 1978-1979. A sample of 1972 faculty teaching in 24 institutions were mailed questionnaires, and 1,096 usable responses were received. The sample included faculty from eight universities, eight liberal arts colleges, and eight community colleges. Five personal factors emerged: self-interest and institutional interest, discipline concerns, a pessimistic viewpoint of higher education, and perceived power...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Environment, College Faculty, Educational Quality, Faculty College...
SUGGESTED IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR URBAN DISADVANTAGED AND DISTURBED OR DELINQUENT CHILDREN. THE INSTITUTIONAL FAMILY LIFE OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS CAN OFFER THESE CHILDREN AN ESCAPE FROM THE DESTRUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE URBAN GHETTO. MOREOVER, URBAN SCHOOLS SHOULD INSTITUTE SUMMER PROGRAMS OUT OF THE CITY WHERE LEARNING COULD TAKE PLACE IN A RECREATIONAL SETTING. THE EXPERIENCE OF THE CROWN WOODS COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL, A STATE-SUPPORTED LONDON...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Disadvantaged Youth, Foreign Countries, Public Schools, Residential Schools, Slum...
Survey data of employee attitudes from a large sample of U. S. Navy civilian employees is examined for links with employee turnover. Factor analysis is used to reduce the data to a smaller set of underlying variables. Regression analysis is then used to explore the relationship between turnover and attitudinal factors, organization size, and time. Factors found to be significantly connected with turnover were employee services, satisfaction with subordinates, policy toward subordinates, union...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Employee Attitudes, Job Analysis, Job Satisfaction, Labor Problems, Labor Turnover,...
THIS CONFERENCE REPORT CONTAINS A SUMMARY OF THE SURVEY MADE BY ELMO ROPER AND ASSOCIATES, "A STUDY OF THE PROBLEMS, ATTITUDES, AND ASPIRATIONS OF RURAL YOUTH," AS WELL AS THE MAJOR ADDRESSES FROM THE CONFERENCE. IT PROVIDES A SIGNIFICANT PORTION OF DISCUSSIONS ON PROBLEMS OF RURAL YOUTH INVOLVING URBAN ADJUSTMENT, OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING AND PREPARATION, VOCATIONAL COUNSELING, IMPROVED EDUCATION, POST HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, SPECIAL EDUCATION, DROPOUTS, HEALTH, YOUTH SERVING AGENCIES,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Aspiration, Attitudes, Education, Educational Problems, Public Opinion, Rural Youth,...
In order to discover the attitudes, wants, and needs of rural youth as perceived by young people from ages 16-23, a survey was designed by Elmo Roper and Associates. The rural population was defined as people who live in towns of less than 2500 or open country which falls outside the "unknown fringe" defined by the Bureau of the Census. In addition to the rural youth sample, interviews were also conducted with a sample group of urban youth so that the attitudes, needs, and wants of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Questionnaires, Research Methodology, Research Projects, Rural Youth, Self Concept,...
This study found the status of faculty women to be similar to that in other college studies: women are a small percentage of the faculty, are clustered in the lower ranks, are not tenured, are victims of nepotism rules, receive lower pay than men, and have less chance than men for promotion. The administration of the University is, like the faculty, dominated by men. While administrative departments are largely staffed by women, men head the departments. The women nonprofessional staff is made...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Affirmative Action, College Students, Employment Patterns, Faculty, Females,...
Statistics for 33,902 of 1971 engineering graduates were used to describe job prospects of the graduates. Findings include: (1) engineering graduates were largely successful in finding jobs or carrying out other plans; (2) about one out of every five engineering graduates at the bachelor's and master's degree levels had plans to continue full-time study; (3) the number of bachelor's degree graduates entering military service increased in 1971 to 14 percent--the highest since 1958; (4) at all...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Science, Employment, Engineering, Engineering Education, Graduate Study,...
Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going through the second phase of the Industrial Revolution is characterized by: (1) the growing number of people working in the service area; (2) the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Change, Educational Responsibility, Higher Education, Institutional Role,...
The agenda and three presentations of a program conducted for youth employed through the Neighborhood Youth Corps in 15 southwestern Minnesota counties are presented. The three speeches were "The World of Work and Self-Understanding" by Charles E. Ramsey, "An Employer's Perspective" by Steve Baloga, and "The Department of Manpower Services and You" by David Maday. (DB)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Planning, Employer Employee Relationship, Human Services, Job Skills,...
Several guidelines and circumstances determine the selection of materials for inclusion in the annotated bibliography: (1) only publications concerned specifically with working women not women in general, (2) publications of interest to teachers, researchers, and serious students, rather than entries of general interest to the casual reader, (3) no unpublished dissertations, no publications dated before 1960, and no international studies unless deemed of major significance, (4) a determination...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Annotated Bibliographies, Employed Women, Legislation, Minority Groups, Occupations,...
The Profile of American Youth study, sponsored by the Department of Defense and the Military Services, in cooperation with the Department of Labor, is documented in this report. The principal objectives of the research project were to assess the vocational aptitudes of a nationally representative sample of youth 18 through 23 years of age and to develop current national norms for the Department of Defense enlistment test, the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The Armed Forces...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Aptitude Tests, Comparative Analysis, Enlisted Personnel, National Norms, National...
While working women are still underrepresented in managerial, executive, and professional positions, there are increasing numbers of women occupying leadership roles. This study was conducted to examine female secretaries' evaluations of their bosses and of their jobs. Secretaries of 20 male and 20 female bosses evaluated their bosses on personality and behavioral dimensions and evaluated the extent to which certain qualities were present or absent in their jobs. T-tests computed on the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Behavior, Employed Women, Employee Attitudes, Employer Employee Relationship,...
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This study suggests that, given the way public schools are presently organized, teacher styles seem to make very little difference in the degree to which the traditional values of work, time, authority, order, and perhaps achievement are emphasized. One can infer that children attending public school, in whatever permutation, will find that traditional norms form a hidden curriculum to which they must adhere. The study, though limited to intensive research in four elementary classrooms, does...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Authoritarianism, Classroom Techniques, Educational Objectives, Elementary Secondary...
THIS WORKBOOK IS PLANNED TO HELP SERVICEMEN READ "MEN IN THE ARMED FORCES," AND TO DEVELOP THEIR READING ABILITY. BOOK I CONTAINS 111 LESSONS WHICH COVER 142 PAGES OF THE READER. BOOK II, IN 100 LESSONS, COVERS PAGES 144-252 OF THE READER. SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS ARE GIVEN BUT MUST BE EXPLAINED BY THE INSTRUCTOR. (SM)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Enlisted Personnel, Instructional Materials, Literacy Education, Military Training,...
Recently, higher education institutions were mandated by law under Executive Order 11246 to develop systematized and action-oriented procedures aimed at eliminating discrimination in employment opportunities and conditions on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. The end product of such a program development has been labeled an Affirmative Action Plan for Equal Employment Opportunities for Minorities and Women. The purposes of this manual are to provide clearly defined...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Affirmative Action, Colleges, Employment Opportunities, Equal Opportunities (Jobs),...
One of the strongest sources of anti-gay discriminatory rhetoric comes from various religious traditions. In spite of such animosity, gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) people continue to claim their place at the table and a number of religious leaders with same-sex sexual orientation continue to work within their religious denominations. The present study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to gather information on this unique sample of GLB population: GLB clergy. In particular, the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Attitude Measures, Bisexuality, Clergy, Homophobia, Homosexuality, Religious Cultural...
(Purpose) The purpose of this study was to explore reasons why many academics "hate" their jobs by examining the current state of the academy--its values, culture, and possibilities. (Methodology) Through pragmatic and philosophical argument, the authors contend that the academy fosters a pedagogy (defined broadly) of disengagement, and ask: Why might this pervasive institutional phenomenon exist? What could be done to transform the professorate? What possibilities for edification...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Faculty, Work Attitudes, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Ethics, Quality...
The results of a study measuring the Central Life Interests (CLI) of public school teachers are presented. Elementary and secondary teachers responded to a questionnaire rating their attitudes as being job oriented, nonjob oriented, or as having no preference. Four subscales measured the attachment felt toward the informal social relations among teachers, general affective experiences, attitudes toward formal organization in the schools, and the technical aspects of their jobs. The CLI...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Choice, Job Satisfaction, Need Gratification, Occupational Aspiration,...
Several unearned benefits attending straight privilege are listed, prefaced by two main arguments. First, it is argued that the rampant heterosexism in the U.S. is largely attributable to many Americans' framing of heterosexism as a matter of religious freedom rather than as a form of bigotry. It is further argued that educators' elimination of the struggles and accomplishments of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people from P-12 curricula is an act of oppression--a clear,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Sexual Orientation, Sexual Identity, Homosexuality, Social Bias, Social...
A study of investigated perceptions of gay/lesbian undergraduates regarding their sense of marginalization or alienation in the college classroom. Two research questions were posed: (1) What, according to gay/lesbian students, are the characteristics of classroom environments that create feelings of marginalization? and (2) What, according to gay/lesbian students, are specific strategies employed to cope with these feelings? The participants were interviewed alone and in six focus groups of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Communication Research, Higher Education, Homophobia, Homosexuality, Lesbianism,...
To justify its labor force quality requirements, the Army sought to demonstrate an empirical link between Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) scores and soldier performance. The first data set contained written and hands-on tests on several weapons systems from the Army's training schools. The second data set used the Skill Qualifications Tests administered by the Army. Performance measures were formed into a multivariate regression model, using an instrumental variables technique to correct...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Armed Forces, Enlisted Personnel, Military Training, Performance,...
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) Archive
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This is the 5th article in a series of AAHE research reports, and summarizes research on the undergraduate woman. It discusses: (1) women as students: their test scores, grades, and academic motivation; (2) women's career aspirations, with research pointing out that high ability women show abundant aspiration when not faced with the instruction to be "realistic"; (3) the relationship between parent's socio-economic status (SES) and their aspirations for their children, with those from...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Aspiration, College Students, Females, Higher Education,...
This work puts forward a framework that takes into account the roles of the languages known by an individual in explaining his labor earnings. First, two different strands of literature are surveyed: (1) the material on labor earnings determination viewed through capital, discrimination, and supply and demand type models; and (2) the works on what can be called the economics of language. An earnings equation is then put forth that includes, as an explanatory variable, language and its role as...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Economic Factors, Ethnic Groups, Income, Labor Force, Language Role, Research...
This study investigates the relative effects of financial and other incentives on the willingness of Army families to extend overseas tours of duty in Europe and touches on some of the underlying reasons why families choose not to extend. A survey was prepared to assess the relative effects of a $50, $100, or $200 per month bonus or a one-time $1,000, $2,000, or $3,000 bonus on the willingness of families to extend in USAREUR (United States Army--Europe) for 12 months). In addition, the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Costs, Family Attitudes, Incentives, Labor Turnover, Military Personnel, Personnel...
This study evaluated the situation of women and minorities at the Air Force Academy addressing differences in performance indicators, cadets' perceptions, and Academy actions to enhance the success of women and minorities. Performance indicators for male and female cadets showed mixed results. Minority cadets had comparable physical fitness scores, lower academic admissions scores, lower academic grade point averages, and lower military performance averages than white cadets. Minorities were...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, College Students, Dropout Rate, Females, Higher Education,...
Alternate forms of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) were administered five separate times to 57 men and women of military service age. The objective was to determine to what extent means and cross-session correlations are stable over several administrations. Ten individual subtests, the derived ASVAB area composites and the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) were examined for stability. The means for this sample were below the national average and scores were less...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Aptitude Tests, Drills (Practice), Individual Differences, Military Personnel,...
The major objective of this survey research project was to estimate the Navy recruitment potential of male, junior college students. The results of a national survey of 807 students that a promising recruitment market exists for officer and enlisted recruiting, including both the active force and the Reserve. A second objective was to determine if the enlistment potential of male, college students varies in terms of common demographic characteristics such as age, education, race, family income,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Enlisted Personnel, Field Interviews, Males, Military Personnel, Officer Personnel,...
In anticipation of the projected decline in the national population of young men and of expanding the role of women in the military, the Navy conducted a national telephone survey to gauge the interest of women and men in joining the military under present conditions and under three alternative options. The options related to expanding the role of women in terms of the physical location (ships, aricraft, combat zones) and nontraditional job classifications (mechanics, electronics) where they...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Armed Forces, Attitudes, Females, Human Resources, Interest Research, Labor Supply,...
This 114-item annotated bibliography identifies prior research relevant to the individal, group, and organizational factors involved in the introduction of women into work groups in traditionally male career fields. Most of the literature discovered in the search is concerned with identifying rather than alleviating problems that women experience in non-traditional careers. Arranged alphabetically by author, each entry includes bibliographical information and a paragraph describing the contents...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Annotated Bibliographies, Entry Workers, Females, Methods, Military Personnel,...
The relationship between servicemembers' participation in the U.S. Armed Forces' off-duty voluntary higher education programs and retention of enlisted personnel in military service was examined through a review of existing and new data. The primary data source was a 1992 Department of Defense-sponsored survey of a stratified sample of approximately 32,000 active duty servicemembers and 8,000 military spouses. The survey data were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. Additional...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Education Work Relationship, Educational Attitudes, Higher Education, Labor Turnover,...
This book is the first edition of what is to be an annual report on the status of women in the United States. It presents information concerning changes in U.S. women's roles and analyzes the social and political consequences of these changes. This premier edition provides a broad overview of how women's lives have changed during the 20th century, with special emphasis on their roles in families and in the U.S. economy. Chapter titles and authors include: (1) "Women in Twentieth Century...
Topics: ERIC Archive, American Studies, Economic Change, Economic Status, Females, Feminism, Social Change,...
The results of more than two-and-one-half years of study by the United States Department of Labor on the effects of the Age Discrimination in Employment Amendments on older workers' retirement plans indicate that removing employment obstacles facing older workers will increase labor force participation rates and, in turn, help refinance the Social Security system more compassionately than simply reducing retirement benefits. Recent legislation raising the mandatory retirement age to 70, when...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Age Discrimination, Employer Attitudes, Federal Legislation, Labor Force...
The handbook provides college students and graduates with summary information about military service opportunities. All officer and enlisted personnel programs are described, along with entrance qualifications and active duty obligations. Officer programs fall into four categories: (1) training programs for undergraduates, which include military academics and ROTC programs in various branches of the armed service, (2) training programs for college graduates, available to individuals with no...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Career Development, Educational Opportunities, Enlisted Personnel, Higher Education,...