us with powerful connections in washington. the fact that an operator with bechtel's connections and deep pockets was ultimately unable to secure its contract serves as a caution airy tale for the many u.s. and western companies seeking to enter libya's booming market and for other u.s. companies considering major investment projects here. gadhafi also antagonize france after being courted by president nicolas sarkozy the libyan leader canceled major arms dealers. and reacted. to me said. the short. cut of. the even shopping list of seven more. you know you to. those bad boys there in the community.
in march two thousand and eleven as yob spring spread through north africa france and the united states decided to. the united nations security council gave its approval protecting human rights provided the justification. for syrian. we had gadhafi his troops in neighboring. allowing the opposition to drive them out . we hit it off these air defenses this was afrikaans first war and its commander in chief was the first african-american president in the words of the obama administration the u.s. position in the war against libya was that of leading from behind what is really
interesting is of course the fact that the war was opened and directed first by africa. and then the mission was taken over by nato. another with people running the show me all over themselves being run by the united states which was formally in command of nato not only that in one of his speeches obama after the bombing campaign had ceased and was praising the efforts of our allies in libya revealed that even a number of french bombing missions were in fact piloted by american it's. the intervention of libya is also a way of sending a message to other african nation states that should they pursue a course of such radical the science radical independence such
a nationalist imagined him period us course that there could be ultimate consequences that are no longer hypothetical. gadhafi is gone so a major obstacle in the way of american military penetration of africa as in fact we. came we saw he died and look at. the the fall of gadhafi produce a shockwave that would be found far beyond libya. unfortunately there was not a very good handle on the forty thousand plus weapons that could offie had and so quickly we find out that. over thirty five thousand of those weapons just atomized
they just disappeared and so we discovered that some of those weapons made a made it into northern mali the southern algeria other in southern libya there are other everywhere. some of those weapons fell into the hands of the libyan rebels others including anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles fell into the hands of torak fighters who fought alongside gadhafi because he supported their demands for autonomy in the samarra. yet to you and your daughter is a letter to a law about it difficult to cause you to. commute a disorder known about this also quite. by the. charter is a very. noble or citizens of the zone green zone than all the war will agree on the
border go i'm also told it is our job as. you're all part of the pride of our your city great get a feel for greater than fifty feet of water or paddle i joined a story about a sort. of odd that i saw that i couldn't because as well know that we know the man who. voted in this and you can sit out or she was. the heavily armed formed a new fighting force and mentally and launched an offensive against the government in bamako in january two thousand and twelve their long held dream of creating a wide and independent tarik homeland that would stretch across the sahara finally seemed within reach. but the two our eggs were not the only fighters in the desert small armed groups which had emerge a decade earlier were now where armed forces to be reckoned. with acme. and and
sardine say they were fighting a holy war and what we could thing among the local population. islamists to. be full of the police security or not is often result although not remotely rather think it is. not the military to screw. around you have a group of. doctors are long over. but the islam preach on troops was nothing like the islam practice in this region for centuries. from me he managed to live for the practical. but. if
you're going to spend it if you're going to. thank. you so incisional. to leadership of this area it is also militant of syria kit want to. really come but it certainly isn't. the end. you didn't do the pakistan. putting aside their ideological differences the two are exam the armed groups forged an alliance of convenience. criminon arche them point of view unique. i says at the bottom. that i don't go to them but will take.
it as a given the circumstances. or. united the rebel forces launched an offensive against mali in soldiers in several garrison towns in the north. these million troops had completed years of training by africa . but the training didn't pay off. for america but is it as you need to assert a valid picture id is only a bullet to the left for most for some better call to. the local. for me source or dissent ok it's a song means so better to consider a bit. worse was yet to come when one thousand million soldiers were
captured in summarily executed in a rebel attack on the offices in bamako mutinies against the government they say it was incapable of controlling the situation. the coup was led by one of afrikaans top pupils captain amadou sana book who was trained as an infantry and intelligence officer at u.s. bases in virginia georgia texas and arizona. this was a guy the americans who train and invested time and money and then he made things ten times worse in mali. and then more setbacks for africa too are a game. other rebel forces invaded the major cities of northern mali they met little resistance in just two weeks the country was split in two.
despite years of training and millions spent the west's greatest fear became a reality a so-called islamic state was established in northern mali. lives organised a pseudo g.i.d. system. up was you know while on the levy lou normally i got a. bit crazy on the. president's you know. the a. reasonable price you know. you never. get rid of it.
you have us are going to have the most if you fail you credit. to the second but dungy i just i've also. going to be thesz air and i ponder bamako. this and quite. novel say. for the nearly she physical assault than the combat they'll just idealist upon the . community to all. as the rebels moved south france scame to the rescue in forty eight hours and government deployed four thousand troops to mali the americans remained in the background providing military intelligence and logistical support. chief it's also been our friends at a dinner so many. protection of the. economy can was
a view of war. for left leicester betrayed on the whole. the rebel advance was tops and in just two weeks the french regain the north the french army claimed to have killed hundreds of so-called terrorists the rest seemed to evaporate into the desert the former colonial power was now the savior of the country. but was operation survivor all that it seemed to be. don't sit with with us you normally the suddenness exact the most you see by simply squarely made your own. leg. don't demolish going to leave of a problem if. a what remains of it
today the town is key to understanding what really happened during operation survivor. it was a site of a decisive battle with the fighters of armed sardine who were surrounded here by french. a memorial in honor of the first french soldier killed during the clash was erected overlooking the only road in and out of town. but what has not been memorialized is the fact that on this same road a convoy of vehicles carrying hundreds of rebel fighters and their leader. managed to escape from right under the nose of the french. on the ground many witnesses of the conflict have questions. at that point. when of course he did it. in the house it will happen
next and it's just. as he said and stated it was he said not open it on this topic i don't say i was your kid has helped nor does i do you don't want to disturb it is anybody's idea of the opioids like this jointly soto's us say plug up the sound of a new or lawn the man you didn't i will show several. load going to the eleanor you know it if i see like a money i suppose left really isn't accepted don't. ya. in the most from pretty clear thought the law said that i will see i won't get a present or could lead to more. in this shadow war what interests might the french have been going easy on the forces they were supposed to be fighting little said the father hardly recover yet i'm certain not only is a cereal you normally get but up for. by michael. fox
illustrated i accept their produced seal. that are false and have their life jamar a vast. explorer limine the hell it just. left a million of us do you know only my leader works eight vocally commune the crew is going to double shuffle says just as you can i. don't shoot the dial eat your dinner machismo you exploded your own you're going to the life force you live alone they do got a deal on mars surely was was due on your arm. next right by paul no more. don't they look at our legs but us your nipples won't be she daughter they're what access your search. far from the desert sands of the sahara the future of the region is being determined and france is not
the only one with interests here. representatives of oil companies venture capitalists and african officials in charge of energy gathered in london the financial capital of europe and the ocean the us. despite the chaos wars and revolutions the interests of europeans and americans remains high in what may be the largest on top the oil reserves on the continent the eldorado of the science the tao dany basin which extends to mauritania to algeria across north mali. listen this is a source resource but in the vast vast area probably bigger than the whole of texas or. the two thirds of europe for instance so you can imagine very few wells in this vast area not enough to test the realities it would take a long time to put the space into for testing. despite
a recent decline in the importers gas and african oil to the united states the interests of major u.s. energy companies in africa has not decreased the needs of asia and europe will not stop growing nearly two trillion dollars of investments in african oil and gas are expected in the next two decades. to school the. next year when there was hospital yeah. there are no good all in sudan uganda saw. they tell you that fico. or field isn't the. president of. the us. in may two thousand and fourteen president obama announced that he would allocate an additional five billion dollars to the fight against global terrorism. but as we move to train and advise mission in afghanistan present. system or.
emergent. earlier this year i asked my national security team to develop a plan for a network of partnerships from south asia. this strategy has been very persuasive an increasing number of african governments have signed on to the africa com program like. where the u.s. military brought together african forces composed of one thousand soldiers from seventeen countries for military exercises. footlockers and international action. this year we could really have it in different areas of of africa as a tremendous opportunity for all work together and more from one another. during two thousand and thirteen alone africa has organized ten exercises on the fin clock
model fifty five other operations and four hundred safety seminars with forty nine african states. the united states has also established drone bases in djibouti. kenya ethiopia somalia south sudan. and this is shams. in september two thousand and fourteen the united states announced that they were sending four thousand troops to liberia as support during the bola crisis and to coordinate other unspecified military activities. not to be outdone france also announced plans to increase its military presence in the saya with a redeployment of three thousand troops. the increasing minutes her eyes ation of africa is a new profit center. covered by the military industrial complex with millions of
dollars of contracts for arms manufacturers and private contractors. in the stability of the individual. so the so that you do need to be sure that the fourth book called the goods on the world the most original berkeley richard loaded for germany. for the lever it's all for. the united nations has established a peacekeeping force of twelve thousand troops to help stabilize mali among them the chinese military as well as african troops trained by africa the arsenal of these peacekeepers include surveillance drones and apache attack helicopters.
more than one hundred thirty years after the berlin conference i new division of the african continent is underway as new powers seek to ensure oil supplies strategic minerals arab oil land and even the water under the desert sands so did. the problem so. has to use them. just because of what. this so-called war against terror. is more than it seems the battle is way out of a not just struggle for influence and control in a world of shrinking resources this battle the fight for the bounty is the real angeles war.
we've got high pressure in charge in our weather across much of north america that means losey settled clear skies when about i've not missed an fall get us the a possibility this line of clouds that will still produce a few showers long spells of right as we go through tuesday still trading its way down towards florida elsewhere those you can see lossy fog in dry and i think by the time he comes off in a much the us the. kind of the looking pretty good then a bit of snow there just around ontario quebec
a little bit of rain and snow around the western side of cat of the through b.c. pushing him towards the rockies setting northwest still seeing someone settle weather and that'll be the case as we go on through wettest day when she makes coming into central parts of canada still doing too badly in eastern parts of the us looking fine and dry although still a chance of want to into the southern half of florida joining up the showers that we have just around the right around tilly's this massive cloud here lurking in. around the turks and caicos islands are keeping a close eye on this one that could develop into a tropical system over the next few days so that does give cause for concern with our recent spate of hearkens of course that weather still in place maybe some wet weather there into the great around to nice as we go through tuesday little drier for wednesday. and age old part of spanish culture the one i can't stop thinking about the bullies
in my life others are explored and a symbol of central government i think we shouldn't carry on something that goes against the morals of got along. is that the catalan nationalist perspective the believe the present banished culture and the. catalonians enough to fight its time on al-jazeera wild. al-jazeera. and i'm joined in this is the news i live from doha coming up in the next sixty minutes. last celebrations as iraqi forces drive away kurdish fighters to retake cook we find out what this means for kurdish independence goals. spain's government gives catalonia
a seventy two hour ultimatum to clarify its position on independence or face the prospect of direct rule. it would be no stone unturned somali ways because look for survivors two days after a suicide attack killed more than three hundred in the capital. and a meeting voice against corruption in malta is silenced. we begin with major developments in iraq way government forces have taken control of the contested city of kirkuk from kurdish forces tension has been mounting in the oil rich region ever since the kurds held a referendum on suspicion last month that is more from a bill. the kurdish flag no longer flies in the center of kirkuk.
the city now officially back in the hands of the iraqi government its forces but made a rapid advance launched in the middle of the night fifteen hours later the industrial area airports military base and critical all fields were under the control of iraqi forces. soon after they marched into the center of the city. iraqi officials were quick to declare victory. the joint military operation was launched at dawn and progress significantly as the troops approached the area to crete and the north oil company were confronted by some rebels who tried to hinder the progress of the advancing units turned five and silenced that fourth thank god today we have achieved all our goals according to our plan. the u.s. military which a trained both sides in this dispute trying to downplay the escalation in a statement blaming the firefight on the darkness calling it
a misunderstanding. but kurdish fighters painted a different picture of what was happening on the ground well a week with an observer now the moment i don't know what is happening exactly because we have been in the fight since four in the morning in the areas of tasa we have suffered casualties including martyrs and now we have withdrawn into this position and some of the other forces have pulled out they didn't fire a single shots and that's all but when the seventh brigade holding up a session here. thousands fled the city as the forces approached mixed in among them kurdish fighters now as the u.s. urges dialogue and calm the question is what's next will iraqi forces and their militias pursue the kurdish people and fight is that answer will have an impact here and around the globe oil prices are climbing with the news the possibility. of a civil war perhaps in iraq with coalition forces fighting both iraqi army and possibly
iranian militias. did not play well with the with the well so traders and so the perception is that prices will rise. until that's what we meant risky is completely character russian was saying under state most world powers at will the kurdish regional government and not to go ahead with a non-binding referendum where the majority of people voted for secession from iraq now the people of this region and their government finding out there is a very real price to be paid in this search for independence the speed with which the iraqi army were able to achieve their aim is left the kurdish regional government shocked and wanting and already there are questions being asked as to whether certain members of one of the main two kurdish political parties may have colluded with the iraqi military in order to ensure such a swift and easy victory in and around kirkuk for al jazeera. now
the united states has expressed concern over tensions in the region the u.n. secretary general is also urging the two sides to resolve their dispute through dialogue. he appeals to the federal government at the kurdistan regional government to take ordinated steps to prevent and avoid further clashes escalation or breakdown of law and order the secretary general calls on the parties to jointly manage the situation and resolve all outstanding issues through dialogue in a manner that is consistent with the constitution of iraq let's look at why the region is so crucial for both baghdad and the kurdish leadership coke lies outside the kurdish autonomous region but it has a large kurdish population and is considered the center of their historical homeland kurdish peshmerga rebels have held the says he's since two thousand and fourteen they captured from eisel after the iraqi army was pushed out of the region a good cooks rich oil fields have been a key source of revenue for the kurds comprising more than half of their oil
exports the kurds held a referendum on to say sion in the region last bunch last month which baghdad says is unconstitutional you don't say that is a kurdish affairs analyst and a researcher at the middle east research institute joins us now from arlington virginia via skype very good to see you this is obviously quite a setback for those kurds seeking independence where does this leave them now what power do they have. absolutely i think that's a major setback for the kurdish independence and the kurdish state through the kurdish community the loss of hope on september twenty fifth when the kurds you know went to the polls and voted for independence i was one of the actually persons who voted for the. both of us for their independence but i think after the what happened in court because it's one of the really hard to see word of the
kurdish independence and even kurdish autonomy all all on there in the few years questions and probably the referendum that the kurds the leadership you find to go ahead without the approval of the original and the international powers will either compromise also on their mind the status of the kurdistan regional government and the openings that i mean the said by those in a joint the kurdish leadership felt that they had been overlooked pushed away by iraq's leaders i'm just wondering with this latest action now leaves any political leverage. i think that was a major political to military victory for prime minister they are now in a much stronger position the kurdish leadership is very fragmented because of factionalism out of the disunity that the kurds have been suffering as the camp really managed in the last twenty four hours and i see the kurdish leadership
at the moment the moment of. soul searching and it will take a. few days to come out from these major shoggoth that they never expected and that actually happened because of according to reporters collusion between one faction major faction of the of the kurdish parties with the iraqi government again the arrival of kurdistan democratic party and i'm sure thing they're very skinny jumping in again i'm sure that iraq's neighbors with large kurdish public populate kurdish populations are breathing a sigh of relief at what happened. absolutely because turkey iran all of them impose it you know function in one way or another on the record of there's no government they threatened even military intervention there was a very. a very and president because the nation between these three countries
to undermine the kurdish independence movement and i think to a very good extent you know they achieve their objective in this in this and they're not there because they were really concerned about their own security and also their own kurdish population all right good talking to you yet again say thank you. catalonia is leader has failed to clarify whether his region plans to secede from spain just hours before deadline from the spanish government colors put them or instead asked for more dialogue in a letter to the central government he hasn't till thursday to respond or face the prospect of direct rule so he gago reports from barcelona. it was supposed to be a monday deadline for the catalan president's response to madrid's demand but he clarified his position on secession lacked any definitive answers in his letter to
spain's prime minister might enter a catalyst but the suspension of the political mandate given by the polls october first demonstrates our firm will to find a solution and not confrontation not exactly the yes or no response required by the spanish government before it decides whether to push ahead with suspending catalonia as autonomous powers them and they're going to pretend that i know that on such an important issue we only asked for clarity to extend uncertainty we're only favor those who wish to end peaceful coexistence and to continue with the poor project the government hopes that in the following hours up until the next deadline on thursday mr persia will give the clarity that all citizens demand and the rule of law requires we can understand his preservations and confusion and that he is doing that to meet the demands of the most radical groups the spanish government is maintaining it's tough stance on mr preacher man but it has given away just a fraction on the question of the deadline the ball and the fact is back in the
catalan government's caught with a constitutional crisis is far from over. the back and forth between madrid and barcelona has prolonging the standoff between the two sides and the catalan government is adamant about its position organizing a referendum is not a crime so that when we are confronted with there is no separation of powers in this parish that there is no respect for the basic laws and the only thing we can address these politically to respond would be used demanding us to do. in madrid the head of the catalan police force just us capital was questioned at spain's national court despite pressure from the prosecution he's not being detained but all thora teams have withheld his passport he's accused of. failing to enforce a ban on the october first referendum a vote to madrid says that was illegal under the constitution. it has angered many in catalonia who is a hero to the region secessionist after his force took
a much less aggressive position than the national police force they came under international criticism for their violent crackdown on voters. there is little clarity about how this will end and which side will back down and many here whatever the capital and government decides to do it will pay the price for holding the referendum in the first place so you go out jazeera barcelona hundreds of people protested in barcelona after spanish judge jailed the leaders of pro independence groups. are being investigated for sedition for organizing demonstrations groups are urging catalans to protest by stopping work on tuesday. unfortunately the judge's decision is to take away our freedom it's an act that doesn't correspond to any principles of justice it's an act i mean that frightening us and punishing us for defending freedom and peacefully taking to the streets as we have done so many times and that's why i
want to sincerely ask that every response given in the coming days and the overall response will be to permanently protest which will lead us to the proclamation of the republic we will give them the same attitude that has made us stronger united polite and self-confident they can't defeat us if we remain strong paul brennan has more from madrid where the federal government is becoming increasingly confident that the catalan independence movement is fading away. you get the sense here in madrid of the pressure being slowly ramped up on the council on independence movement and its leadership both politically and legally politically for example madrid is giving no quarter at all to colors preached demands for discussions about the referendum issue as far as madrid is concerned the referendum was illegal and the independence movement unconstitutional so they're not actually giving any indication at all that they're prepared to meet for talks as calm as preachment
wants and the deadline of thursday for him to step down or step back and totally abandon any hopes of independence that remains in force illegally to we've got the chief of the capitol and police the most asked. to apparel he has been in court over my shoulder today and he face the very real threat of being sent to prison without bail on charges of sedition in the end the judge relented and chose instead just to take away his passport and let him walk free but the option to put him into jail remains an oboe that would be political dynamite if he was put behind bars i think it's a real indication of the cards all the big cards remain in the hands of the madrid government and the options facing the catalan independence movement are dwindling. head on the news including a report from the philippine city of morality where the government says its fight against.