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tv   Inside Story 2018 Ep 122  Al Jazeera  May 2, 2018 8:32pm-9:01pm +03

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if needed we will go to war because we are already at war there is no other way if they don't want it they should go away. at least sixteen people were killed when gunman including a suicide bomber stormed the headquarters of libya's electoral commission in tripoli the office which was set on fire had been registering voters out of elections expected before the end of the year the armed group eisel says it was behind the attack the separatist group has announced it has disbanded in an open letter it declared all of its structures have been completely dissolved the organization violently campaigned for sixty years for an independent basque state between northern spain and southern france at it killed more than a hundred people between one thousand nine hundred sixty eight and two thousand and ten before declaring a ceasefire a year later the u.k.'s prime minister is facing a revolt from within her own party on bret's it which could potentially bring down her government group of around sixty euro skeptic m.p.'s from two reason may's ruling conservative aussie have spoken out against her favorite plan for
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a customs partnership with the e.u. post breaks it. an alarming new report says pollution is killing seven million people globally each year and is still rising the world health organization is also warning that the inequality between the world's rich and poor is widening its latest estimates reveal nine out of ten people worldwide are breathing in air with high levels of pollutants going to bring you more on that story in the news hour in twenty five minutes time off to inside story. running out of water many parts of the world are drying up at an alarming rate
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what's being done to confront the crisis which affects at least a billion people and of course in the first place this is inside story. and welcome to the program i'm jane doctrine we are facing one of the greatest global risks of our time the shortage of water and the battle to secure supplies of the most vital life giving commodities is political environmental and economic the u.n. says there's an abundance of fresh water but that it's an evenly distributed around the world and under increasing pressure such as in cape town an entire city of iran four million south africans running dry water scarcity is
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a growing issue in the gulf countries such as cats on bahrain to sell an eight c. water to provide drinking supplies and more than one billion people in asia rely on rivers and glasses for drinking and irrigation the glasses that feed the rivers are shrinking or even disappearing altogether because of global warming north african countries such as algeria suffered extreme water shortages and the political battle of a damning the not has devastated many farmers in egypt central and. and america on the other hand have sixty times more fresh water than the middle east and north africa but americans living in drought stricken u.s. states such as california often have water restrictions as well bring those reports from. an estimated eighteen million people now live in the los angeles metropolitan area on land that was once largely airing the sprawling city has
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thrived despite the lack of an obvious large source of water nearby los angeles is history is tied with water this place was able to grow and expand and become one of the largest metropolises in the world because we brought water here the second phase of i think los angeles is growth now is going to be with the new normal with the expectation of less water over time and more people how can we sustain economic progress and sustain life itself here in l.a. las water comes in by aqueducts from the san joaquin river delta to the north the sierra nevada mountains to the east and hoover dam on the colorado river four hundred kilometers away but all three sources are in decline we have seen pressure on climate change which has been reducing our winter snow pack over time the snow if you're not falling for it small team too quickly and the early months and then were dry in the summer months the solutions to los angeles is water dilemma
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according to its mayor are conservation recycling and better use of local sources of water conservation was proven effective in the recent multi-year drought when l.a. residents reduced water use dramatically we have plenty of water in los angeles it's whether we choose to use it efficiently and effectively. recycling waste water is another challenge about sixty percent of our quibbling water usage every day we treat clean and then wash out to the ocean that means that we could have sixty percent more water if somehow that water came back to us if we could just take that water make sure as many places do that it is sanitary to drink and then bring that to the homes that we have contrary to popular belief it does rain in southern california but currently that rainwater goes to waste it's one of the perverse things about l.a. is that we've engineered this incredible system that whenever one drop of rain drops outside of our city we know how to grab it take it use it but anything that actually drops inside our city we quickly wash it out to the ocean instead of
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reusing it for ourselves that's what we're changing and that will ensure a life for you know centuries to come challenges that must be met to keep the city of angels from running dry rob reynolds al-jazeera los angeles. well it's not bringing guests joining us from cape town kevin winter lecture at the environmental n.j. graphical sciences department university of cape town in london david technique is a chief freshwater advisor at. that's the world wild life fund and in orange via skype mark said to co-founder of the water security research center a very warm welcome to all three of you gentlemen david take are we facing one of the largest global risks when it comes to water and the picture for us. yeah i think that served
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a fair way of summarizing it jane and i like your introductory piece as well which was one of those issues which unless it's in profound scarcity of her in the middle of a drought or conversely sometimes if we're experiencing floods it's an issue that quite often people don't think about but somehow or another every day we all live at the water's edge so it doesn't really matter how close you are to a river or a lake the water we need to generate the power that keeps a lights on to irrigate the crops that feed us to to manufacture the stuff that we buy and use every day and of course the wood to use in our in our homes all of this water comes from rivers lakes or aquifers and those rivers lakes and aquifers in many parts of the world are under increasing pressure. partly because we're over using them partly because we're polluting them and generally because we haven't really taken very good care of them in recent years throw in a bit of climate change which makes rainfall and water supplies increasingly unpredictable and it's pretty clear that the world is facing something of
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a crunch in terms of how it manages water. given winter knotting away there are no that kept others experiencing its own pain and misery when it comes to this but from a bigger global point of view how big an issue are we looking at at the moment i think i can really only speak for our region in particular because and the comment that david makes just now about we are all living on the edge of water in lots of ways and in our particular case it has been a prolonged drought and we now are going into our fourth year and very uncertain what our winter rains are going to hold so it's a massive issue and here we are with a city with its own history of apartheid and the implications of a city that is struggling with many other issues and waters never really been one of them we've cope pretty well up until now and we've had really good programs for water demand measurement over the years and now suddenly the triggers been laid off
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and set off rather and we have a city which is in crease in size and we've got climate change so the realities of your introduction and what there was was said or very real to us right now and david also pointed out that it's something that we never really notice until we needed to think that's one of the problems i mean look at the picture behind you in you know in cape town is water water everywhere is that one of the problems here i think the. issue that we really have to look at here is improving our ability to manage water and if we go back to where we were in two thousand and fifteen roughly using about two hundred and thirty liters per person per day that's well above the global per capita usage and we now are being pushed to use about fifty liters per person per day and we've almost achieved there which is remarkable but in between
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it says we must have been doing something that shows our. inability to manage water effectively lots of waste lots of decline in our water is will and let me just pick up on the other point was raised already our inability to capture storm water and to use it effectively to recharge our aquifers so we have learnt a lot and and what's happened over the last three to three years is a readjustment of a mention program that was focused on a particular area mainly around water them on management and reliance on our dams to supply us our water and ninety eight percent of the city of cape town's water comes from them some surface dams so that means you put in all your eggs into one basket and in the climate resilience strategy that's one that's not going to have faith it's going to rethink it was many challenges in the future and so these are some of the things that the cities is certainly having to deal with right now it's a wake up call a wake up call indeed mark the tune from
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a global risk point of view in your experience what you're seeing when it comes to water the role it's playing at the moment and the impact of the scarcity value card is not very much locally like your earlier interviewees who have said i look nearly at the middle east and they're all across the middle east of course. but in very different ways and in different places scarcity is built in very acute or less acute where it is so for instance i was curious city in jordan also mandated not let me let's not blame climate change or god or mother nature it's it's a drug or the world jordan just doesn't have a lot of water resources to begin with. but if on top of that you've got population influxes due to war from you know first regime from palestine and the creation of
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the state of israel and then from iraq and now syria then the pressure is not much greater on water resources that exist in jordan they were already scarce at the same time in jordan and in other places around the grounds the middle east were were were mismanaging water in the sense they were growing for instance crops in the desert with the little bit of water that we that exists in some of the places means that it should be used for its most valuable resource mainly for drinking water. and not so much to grow crops that are now and exported or that could be imported in there for a bit which is what we call virgil on the bit of the option to import food rather to group food then you can use the existing water that you have. for more valuable . reasons now and that's not even a good look at the trends boundary element in all the water conflicts that are
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going on in the middle east ok interesting that you talk about water conflicts that's one of things are going to touch on because kuwait is hosting the third arab water conference to discuss issues in the middle east leaders are discussing how to combat this as if occasion climate change management fame is and water theft and they are talking about regional conflicts such as the golden heights as well as water shortages in the occupied palestinian territories and southern lebanon let me go back to moscow and how often is water used to push a political agenda. well it's water's used all the time to try to promote the politics of water is politics water is used to achieve political or military objectives increasingly in iraq and in syria but to get back to the political objectives and if you look at the jordan river for example israel's neared total control over the trans boundary jordan river which includes lebanon
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syria jordan israel and the palestinians. control is being used not to share the water equitably but to them to displace one group of people of palestinians from the west bank for example by denying them water and then to lay down water pipes on the israeli settlements and courage and your population to come and settle the land so this water is used for population transfer and for ethnic cleansing in that case david i should imagine that you see politics at play all the time when it comes to water considering how profitable it is how much it's needed and how well it can be used to squeeze or exploit people get what you want. yes yes i mean i think mark's right that that the waters are profoundly political issue it's also an issue that often is tackled within broader geopolitical context particularly where there are trans boundary issues there about two hundred sixty two hundred seventy odd rivers
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around the world which flow across national borders and whenever that happens then how those rivers a shared how the benefits from those rivers a shared that's always going to be slightly at the whim of broader political debates between countries we see this i mean mark mark is mention the middle east a lot and we see this in other parts of the world as well that we have b.f. does quite a lot of work in the me kong region in southeast asia kong is you know one of the top ten longest rivers in the world it did flows for about four thousand kilometers across six countries from china down to vietnam and cambodia there's a lot of dam building going on on the me kong a lot of that is to generate hydroelectricity and it's a region which needs of the trustee for development but the way in which the dams are being built. is perhaps not particularly sensible and could have profound consequences for the food security of the downstream countries cambodia and vietnam that's less to do with water use for growing food and irrigation there are elements
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of that is more to do with the fisheries that lift naturally in the river which are a major source of protein for sixty million people living in the me you build the dams that has major impact on those fish populations which begs the question what are those sixty million people going to do for their protein sources where are they going to get protein from it's that's a different ballot read and difficult balancing to make me to answer that question yet scuse me jumping in here to get that balance you know man obviously wants to get involved but when you've got them changing the course of rivers interfering with mother nature disturbing that delicate it could balance it can only end in problems contact. well it can if you do it badly but one of the encouraging thing is that among sort of technical water management experts around the world there's been a real sort of flowering over the last twenty twenty five years of of innovation in sort of governance approaches in planning approaches and technical assessment
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approaches which have enabled us to understand those potential tradeoffs between for example building dams and impacts on downstream countries much much better there are sold imperfect solutions but quite often there are very good solutions what we really need now is the politicians to be alive to those to be ready to be informed by those to engage stakeholders in some of those discussions and if we do that then you know there's every reason why that we could manage our rivers much better going forward again we're going to focus a little more on solutions later on but i just want to come back to you kevin and talk about possible politics at play in cape town and south africa do you think the fact that the opposition party the da was in control of the western cape did this have a role did this impact on the government not wanting to release the resources that's needed and if politics has such a stranglehold on such an important resource how do you work around it. also
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africa's politics are in a very complicated space and the ability for national government to align itself and and to communicate more effectively with local authorities but typically if they are local authorities with opposition parties involved in running those cities seems to have been one of these challenges that has delayed some of the decision making and the cooperation from the national government to a local government level so that they certainly have i think been awkward debates that means slow in terms of timing to turn it around on the other side is that cities large cities like city of cape town are going to have to learn to lead a lot faster and national governments tend to follow rather than actually leads it is appropriate for cities the size of cape town to be much more proactive rather
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than waiting for either some pronouncements from politicians at a national level or to bring very limited national budgets to bear on a crisis and in the case of south africa we've had all nine of our provincial areas undergo a severe drought so there isn't a lot of money left in the party anyway and therefore local cities the whole governments have to do much more to become more resilient they have to literally lead certainly we've got loads of politics within our own own country when we look at the study in the catchment level but also the city level where in many ways day zero the minimal amount of water that people have been living on is something which people have been actively engaged in and living for for many decades people live in an informal settlements in south africa in cape town and in low cost housing areas water and access to that water and most to water in terms of sanitation today we
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seem to be told. and more about water supply but we also need to be talking about water services and want to set a taishan and also drainage that's associated with that as well the politics of bombs in our country and in the end it's sydney and makes for some very tough decisions that are based upon party politics at the expense of managing water effectively mark any solutions that you can talk about in the middle east region that are sustainable and that are easy to share with everybody who needs it and and cost effective you know the silver bullet is what we're looking for but i agree with dave there's no perfect solution there are some pretty good solutions based on best practice and what we've. generally you know using less water is a good idea and that means getting your agricultural practice under control which doesn't always mean more efficient agriculture but just needs i'm growing the kinds
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of crops in the right kinds of places and maybe important crops rather than using your precious water resources so that's one option two terms of trans boundary water conflicts i draw your attention to the conflicts on the nile with the dam that ethiopia is building up straight on the nile and the tigris and euphrates with the damage turkey is building on the tigris and the many several dams that iran is building on the tributaries to the tigris which all of which are going to have massive downstream impacts on sudan and egypt in the nile's case and mainly on iraq in the tigris case. what do you do there that's geopolitics your large imperfect solution is to promote. hydra diplomacy in the promotion of international water law international water laws been called a five and is effective is you know the fact is that it talks about some
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quite reasonable principles like i could a bill and reasonable use which suggests how the water or control of the flows should be used and should be divided it's actually said that the principle of equitable and reasonable use suggests that the water is not to be divided equally but equitably according to the need and access to alternative sources and other reasonable factors that i think all countries should be promoting and investigating and basing their transponder water policies upon a david said seems that we need to look at water differently because there is no substitute for ses and there's the same amount of water with you know we have a guys it will because when it goes up it's going to come down some ways that's how we access it and utilize it better. yeah i think that's right and i think that there is the beginnings of a fundamental shift in the understanding and the basis of how we manage water i
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think throughout much of the law of the twentieth century the emphasis was very much on engineering approaches build dams store water supply to people who need it and there's a role for that going forward as well but increasingly we're seeing that that rivers an aquifer is an area over draft where we're taking too much water out of them and so we can't just keep on supplying more and more and more until the rivers and their crews completely run dry we have to look at are a range of different measures marc has mentioned some of the measures that need to happen at that sort of the big scale if you like the global scale using international water lauren transponder negotiations there are a bunch of things that can happen it at a local scales as well so for instance you know we can plan how we allocate water much more robustly so that we're not living in hydrological overdraft if you like we're only taking as much out of the system as the system can afford we can tackle pollution source that's in it working with companies working with factories to try and make sure they have good pollution treatment in on site and also working
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with farmers to make sure that they're taking good care of soil and not applies and applying to many fertilizers and pesticides this is a global issue even see it here here in the u.k. we can work with a whole range of stakeholders including the public to just try and raise awareness of how precious a ruse also water is and also the role that ordinary people can can take through better conservation of water in their homes through contributing to citizen science through raising political pressure and importantly i think we need to take account of what's happening to the nature of our rivers i think it's an often forgotten dimension of the water security crisis that that from the wildlife that lives in rivers and lakes and weapons is declining precipitously at twice the rate we see of into in the oceans and in the tropical rain. forests ok if we really want a litmus test of whether women managing river sustainably stabilizing wildlife levels is a really good thing to look at given that it's
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a no brainer and briefly if you will i mean if we look after our water supplies you can raise a generation concha you can educate people far better you can raise health sent standard sanitation standards everybody benefits. and i think this is really insane discussion and part of the wicket we do in it is to come back to the the conversation around downstream impacts of our water in our mismanagement of that one of the experiments and with we do know the fairly large scale right now to not just experiments but we're taking failed sanitation systems from our informal settlements and we take in that water which is coming down into a stream diverting there through large nature based processes and these processes are able to clean up about seventy five percent of the contamination of that water and we using that water now are safely for it a book irrigating inable crops so it's amazing what we can do and if we can clean
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up passably effectively without a large investment of infrastructure and most of all not adding more chemicals to the problem we can start to improve as as they would say in just now our wildlife for the downstream ok let's leave it that value out of the moment and learn thousands of leads as we examine the barriers yes and it's incredible and going after labor day and december in winter that's one thank you very much david take there and mark so that. at the gates of all watching you can see the program again any time by visiting our web site al-jazeera dot com for further discussions on what you can do when it comes as water crisis to go to our facebook page at facebook dot com for slash a.j. and sad story can also join the conversation on twitter i handle is a at at a.j. inside story or me jane dutton recitative by fire.
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unpack it for us what will you hear and what will you sing whether online horrendous things humans will disturb as i was looking for doubt about that or if you join us on the set a lot of the major countries in the commonwealth how far bigger fish to fry and ship steve bass is a dialogue to us about some of this success if perhaps everyone has a voice what happens when the robots themselves are making the decisions join the colobus conversation. the nature of news as it breaks
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this is one of the areas where hard to still had blocked the road through things finding higher than anything else they could find with detailed coverage now there's an extremely hot assad regime that everyone striving for the good of the state from around the world this museum aims to be a way of posset torrie over region's history and its perfected war that has divided the tribes here for generations. getting to the heart of the matter if. the supreme leader calls you today and says let's have talks would you accept facing realities what do you think reunification would look like there are two people think the peace for an infusion is the only option for prosperity of south korea hear their story on talk to al-jazeera.

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