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tv   BBC News at 9  BBC News  January 17, 2020 9:00am-10:01am GMT

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you're watching bbc news at 9 with me, rebecca jones. the headlines: psychiatrists and campaigners call for social media companies to be forced to hand over data to universities for research into the potential harms of using the technology. we asa we as a world, notjust a country, would better understand the sort of pressures and problems being forced upon young people by social media platforms. iran's supreme leader, ayatollah ali khomenei, leads friday prayers in the capital tehran for the first time in eight years. we're in glasgow for our series our planet matters. the city has committed itself to become the first net zero emissions city in the uk.
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i'm annita mcveigh here in the city, we'll be answering your questions about how glasgow might achieve its objective and all environmental matters juat after half past. rebecca longbailey and emily thornberry set out their visions for the labour party, as they launch their rival bids to succeed jeremy corbyn as leader. in sport, england's cricketers aim to build a sizeable first innings total on day two of the third test against south africa at port elizabeth. also coming up: coining it in — a sovereign struck when edward viii was king has become the first british coin to sell for £1 million..
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good morning and welcome to the bbc news at 9. social media companies — such as facebook, twitter and instagram — should be forced to share details about how young people use their sites and the way they tailor content. proposals by the royal college of psychiatrists could see companies face a new tax which would fund research into a how a child's online activity affects their mental health. angus crawford reports. she had so much to offer. molly russell's death... and that's gone. ..sparked a national outcry. these are companies that count their profits in the billions, and they turn round and say to us that they can't protect our children? questions about young people and mental health. do you have the power to compel them to do what you think needs to be done? yes, absolutely. focussing public anger on the tech giants, and demands for greater regulation.
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announced in the queen's speech, the government's plans for a new independent regulator and a statutory duty of care. my ministers will develop legislation to improve internet safety for all. but the royal college of psychiatrists wants tougher action. social media companies are very wealthy, they have a huge amount of knowledge, they can create complex algorithms which hook young people into their platforms, why can't they be using that same amount of energy, knowledge and funding to try and harness the positive benefits, and help try and protect children and young people more? tech giants should be forced to share data with university researchers, and be taxed on their global turn over. new apps should be designed to be age—appropriate. radical solutions which won't be popular with an industry making billions from the children who use its products. angus crawford, bbc news. molly russell, who we saw in angus‘s
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report, was 14 when she died days before her birthday in 2017, after viewing graphic self—harm and suicide material on instagram. herfather, ian, said this morning, there was an urgent need for greater action. collectively, when you start looking at those images on the internet, the algorithms that are there start pushing more and more of those images and such content to you, and they connect you with other people who are in a similar, desperate place. and there's an element of self—help, i'm sure there's an element of self—help that goes on, but there is an absence of professional help on those platforms and an absence of real care. and i think it's even possible that the public, obvious platforms can lead you to darker places on the internet where there is much more discussion about suicide. and it's just a horrible spiral, a vicious circle that leads you into a very desperate place.
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i think it could be quite hard, that's what the social media companies seem to say, they seem to say it takes... its not as easy as we might think, it's taking them a long time to inch their way to safer platforms. i mean, some measures have been taken but i don't they have yet moved fast enough or gone far enough because there is still too much dangerous, harmful content online. louise theodosiou is from the child and adolescent faculty at the royal college of psychiatirsts and is a co—author of this report. we are so grateful for your time, thank you. can you tell me a little bit more about exactly what kind of content bit more about exactly what kind of co nte nt you bit more about exactly what kind of content you want access to? we would like to understand what content is available. we know children may potentially be affected by both the amount of time they are spending online, through simple things like sleep deprivation and lots of other
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activities, but we need to understand what content children are seeing. we want the tech companies to be transparent about the data they hold, how much time people are spending online, young people, and what they are looking at. if we understand what data is available then potentially we can work with then potentially we can work with the tech companies to help them understand how to keep people safe online. what access to data do they give you at the moment? at the moment it is very limited, which is why the government puts michael lestienne is important to us and why we would like the tech companies to be sharing data not only with ourselves but with universities, academics and researchers who can work with the tech companies to help keep the internet safe for children. what effect of social media ruc and at the moment? we know children are reporting bullying and before they could go home and close the door, but no cyber bullies can be in the
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bedroom. we know children are reporting feeling as if they are missing out on what are children are doing, seeing people online living lives they feel they are not living, they are comparing themselves negatively. if you have a spiral where people are potentially being bullied, as he another people having a more positive time, you can see the danger of sites that may potentially be very persuasive in terms of suicide and self—harm. potentially be very persuasive in terms of suicide and self—harmm there an issue of privacy around the idea of data—sharing?” there an issue of privacy around the idea of data-sharing? i think we wa nt idea of data-sharing? i think we want the online companies to be held to the same standards that offline companies are. we would like them to be very clear with people about the data they are collecting and typically about the data they would be sharing, but ultimately we would wa nt to be sharing, but ultimately we would want to gather anonymous data to help us understand that many children and young people using online services. louise theodosiou from the child and adolescent faculty at the royal colleges to,
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thank you for your time. thank you. a british teenager who was found guilty in cyprus for causing public mischief — after she reported she'd been raped by a group of men — has launched an appeal against her conviction. the 19—year—old returned to the uk last week. she says that it was under police pressure that she retracted her report of gang rape. two hospitals which were being built by the engineering giant carillion when the firm collapsed will be delayed, according to the national audit office. the royal liverpool and the midland metropolitan won't be completed until 2022, and each will cost around £300 million more than originally thought. the government says it is giving both trusts extra funding to minimise further delays. the us military has revealed that 11 american soldiers were injured in an iranian missile strike on an iraqi base nine days ago. a military spokesman said that although there were no deaths, some service members were treated
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for concussion after the attack. previously, the us had denied that any of its military personnel were hurt. the attack on al—asad air base was in retaliation for the assassination of iran's top military commander, qasem soleimani. glasgow recently became the first city in the uk to pledge to become carbon neutral over the next 20 years. it will mean radically cutting harmful emissions, and planting enough trees to absorb the carbon in any remaining fumes. it comes as the city prepares to host an international summit on climate change in november. the bbc is taking a closer look at the changes glasgow will have to make as part of our series our planet matters. 0ur correspondent annita mcveigh is there for us today. good morning. good morning, rebecca,
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good morning, everyone. it is great to be at the glasgow science centre in the week the bbc launches 0ur planet matters. there are two key reasons we are here in glasgow, firstly at the end of this year there is a massive climate summit taking place in the city, it is the un cop 26, conference of parties, leaders from around the world will gather and it has been described as the most important meeting on climate since the paris agreement was signed in 2015. and as you heard, glasgow is a city that not only wants to talk the talk on climate change, but to walk the walk as well. it's target is to be carbon neutral by the end of this decade. but what does it take for a big city to do that? what example can that what does it mean in terms of the pace of change, what needs to be done? what is the is the role for
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individuals, business, transport, housing and so on? our science editor david shukman has examined that question. the morning rush hour in glasgow, commuters pouring to scotland's biggest city. nearly all their cars are releasing pollution. motorways run straight through glasgow. for decades, the car has been king. but now, there's a radical plan to go carbon neutral. new charging points for electric vehicles are being installed. the aim is to make the city green in ten years, and the council's gritting lorries are going to be at adapted to run on clean hydrogen as well as diesel. but this is only one very small part of a very long list of what needs to be done. how big a challenge is it? getting to carbon neutral by 2030 is a big challenge. it is certainly one we're taking very seriously, and it's not enough for a few people in the council to be working on that. it's a challenge that everybody has to take part in, that we need to get everybody
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across the city engaged with, and that we need to be working on now. already, more and more of the uk's electricity is becoming carbon free. here on the edge of glasgow is one of europe's largest wind farms. there are big plans for many more turbines, and for solar panels. but going totally carbon neutral won't be easy. we've done some studies recently which show that we need to start installing 4,000 heat pumps and electric vehicle charging points every day across the uk. every day? every day, if we're going to meet the targets that we set ourselves for becoming carbon neutral. is that remotely feasible? if we start now. hottest of all will be making glasgow's housing greener, and that is the case across the country, because most homes are heated by gas. a mass of pipes being worked on here is part of a scheme to draw warmth from the river clyde and use it to heat an entire district. we are not burning anything on the site, that's the beauty of it. i asked dave pearson,
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who is in charge of the project, if glasgow is really on course to be carbon neutral. i don't think so. i think, in all honesty, momentum is all about progress. there's lots of ideas, lots of talk, but we need to actually decide that the city will become gas free by 2030, and how best to do that. —— there's lots of ideas, lots of talk, but we need to actually decide that the city will become gas free by 2030, and how best to do that. at the moment, we haven't even started. it is hard to believe, as things stand, how glasgow or any other major city could possibly be carbon neutral in as little as ten years' time, but the council says it wants to send a signal that at least it is trying. and this matters, because an international summit on climate change is due to take place here in november, and the world will be watching what this city does. scotland's first minister nicholson —— nicola sturgeon declared a climate emergency and say she was inspired to do so by young climate
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campaigners, so it is rather appropriate we begin a conversation glasgow would some of the city's schoolchildren. we are joined glasgow would some of the city's schoolchildren. we arejoined by 111—year—old and 110—year—olds and their teacher, they are from cuthbertson primary school in the govanhill area of the city. —— br joined by a boy and girl, they are ten and 11. i think adults need to improve, going in cars, electric ca rs improve, going in cars, electric cars and stuff, not more like pollution. what about you, ahmed? if we use less plastic, sometimes we don't care about it, little things can make a big difference in our lives and changes, and we had to improve. stewart, do you have lots of initiatives running in school, talking about climate change and
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sustainability to the kids? every stage at the school has one topic again looking at sustainability, we focus on the un sustainable development goals and we have conservation areas throughout the school, planting trees. even though we are an inner—city school we are developing school grandson trying to encourage the children to take responsibility. do you use pester power when you go home to your families? do you encourage them to go green? i always tell my mum instead of going by car, let'sjust walk or cycle. it's she listening? sometimes, but i live far away. walk or cycle. it's she listening? sometimes, but i live far awaylj do, i sometimes, but i live far awaylj do, lam sometimes, but i live far awaylj do, i am already walking to school so do, i am already walking to school sol do, i am already walking to school so i don't have to say it as much, but i doa so i don't have to say it as much, but i do a lot about plastic and recycling. good to hear you are walking to school. concepts like
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carbon neutral and net zero, are they difficult to get across? primary six and seven of very intelligent and clued in, they pick up intelligent and clued in, they pick up on lots in the media and quite often the children bring their questions to us and we had to develop our topics around those questions. that is really interesting. there is a massive climate conference in glasgow at the end of this year, what would you say to the world leaders who are coming to the world leaders who are coming to glasgow to try to set goals and targets to deal with climate change? i think if we all work together and started now, we can change and we will not have to face difficulties and issues in our lives. they are the adults and they are more responsible than us, we are only children. you are sending them a very good and very strong message. it has been a pleasure to talk to
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you, you are a credit to your school and your families, thank you, you are a credit to your school and yourfamilies, thank you you, you are a credit to your school and your families, thank you very much, and to your teacher. and the children in the background are enjoying the exhibits here at the glasgow science centre from cuthbertson primary school in govanhill in glasgow. at 9:30am we will be answering your questions on climate change and what glasgow needs to do to meet the carbon neutral target by 2013. joining me rr whether correspondence matt taylor and also science editor david shukman. —— joining matt taylor and also science editor david shukman. ——joining me, our weather correspondence. the headlines on bbc news: psychiatrists and campaigners have called for social media companies to be forced to hand over data to universities for research into the potential harms of using the technology. iran's supreme leader — ayatollah ali khamenei — has led friday prayers in the capital tehran —
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for the first time in eight years. china's economy recorded its slowest annual growth for almost three decades in 2019 — as it faces up to weak domestic demand and the impact of the bitter trade war with the us. also coming up — rebecca longbailey and emily thornberry will set out their visions for the labour party today, as they launch their rival bids to succeed jeremy corbyn as leader. in sport, ben stokes reaches yet another 50 as england look to post a sizeable total on day two of the first test against south africa in port elizabeth. saracens are told they will be relegated from rugby union's premiership unless they can prove they are complying with salary cap rules within a number of dates. and british number one jo cap rules within a number of dates. and british number onejo konta say she will not be paying for her country and the fed cup this year. she has been troubled by a knee injury and say she needs to protect her body. i will have more on those
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stories after 9:30am. iran's supreme leader, ayatollah ali khamenei, has called the killing of the general qassem soleimani a disgrace for the united states administration. leading friday prayers for the first time in eight years, he said iran's missile strikes on us. , us targets in iraq this month delivered a "slap on the face" to the united states. martin patience is in beirut. strong words, there strong words from around's supreme leader. what else has he been saying? the very fa ct else has he been saying? the very fact that he is speaking at friday prayers is an indication of the pressure he is under internationally as well as domestically, domestically as well. as you were saying, he said that iran's attack on american targets inside iran was
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a day of god, he went on to say that iran has the power to slap the face ofan iran has the power to slap the face of an arrogant power. that is a reference to america. interestingly he also addressed some of the anger inside iran, there has been a huge amount of anger inside iran because many iranians feel the government like to them after they shutdown the ukrainian passenger jets, but like to them after they shutdown the ukrainian passengerjets, but the supreme leader said that iran's enemies, that is a reference to america, britain and israel, was using that to weaken site's revolutionary guard. it is a design for domestic consumption, iran remains under enormous international pressure, american sanctions are having the country's economy. the political and religious authority of the country felt he needed to come
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out and directly address the iranians people. as you are talking, we are watching iran's supreme leader introducing friday prayers for the first time in eight years, as he said. good to talk to you, martin patience in beirut. the chinese economy has recorded its slowest annual growth for almost three decades in 2019. the growth rate dropped to 6.1% as china came under pressure from weakening demand and the trade war with the united states. let's talk to our china correspondent steve mcdonnell. why has the chinese economy lost momentum like this? that it's a very good question and certainly these numbers will turn heads. we will see big headlines in the newspaper. china of all countries posting its lowest g d p
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china of all countries posting its lowest gdp growth in three decades. you might expect lots of panic here, but there is not. it is interesting why that is, this slowdown has been caused by a contraction in domestic demand and also the us trade war really kicking in and impacting chinese exports. but some economists think that, funnily enough, the trade war has kind of help the chinese economy at least in the long run because policymakers here have been trying for years to step down peoples expectations in terms of what an appropriate growth level is for china. in years gone by, breakneck growth but field by this debt explosion, death that can't be repaid, often. the trade will, the view is it has impose some discipline on the chinese economy. the government does not want the stea m the government does not want the steam to come out of the economy too
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quickly so they have put some money into infrastructure and given more funding to the banks to provide more loa ns. funding to the banks to provide more loans. the crucial question is worded those loans go? if they will go to more of these vanity projects in small cities which do not generate much in terms of economic development, that is no good, but if they go towards these new drivers of they go towards these new drivers of the chinese economy, the new tech companies, the new service economy, thatis companies, the new service economy, that is the direction of the chinese government wants to take this place in anyway and for that reason you are not seeing much panic on the markets, maybe also people think the us china trade war is improving and so the chinese economy will be better in the near future. thanks, steve mcdonnell, a china correspondent. the eu parliament's chief brexit
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neogtiator says he's been given key assurances there will be no automatic deportation of eu citizens after the brexit deadline. guy verhofstadt is in london, and held meetings with brexit scretary stephen barclay yesterday. let's talk to our political correspondent, iain watson. we know the meeting has been described as fun, tell us what guy verhofstadt has said? downing street had suggested that guy verhofstadt had suggested that guy verhofstadt had been going around scaremongering over the issue of the citizens after brexit, they had to apply for settled status, there had been fears there could be another windrush scandal, they would not be able to prove they had the status, the right to remain in the uk after brexit. as you are suggesting, the meeting with the brexit secretary yesterday was described as frank, which usually means a total disaster that deteriorated into an argument, so i thought it was really interesting speaking to the today programme this
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morning that guy verhofstadt‘s tone was not very much like the pantomime villain the brexiteers would portray him as bertie sounded conciliatory, he said they had been given reassu ra nces he said they had been given reassurances on a number of fronts, for example people would be given the right to print out their settled status, have a hard document they could use in future years that they had applied for the scheme. he also suggested that people joining a new monitoring body to look at eu citizens' rights could indeed be drawn from the community of eu citizens in the uk. but most crucially he said he had been given reassurance that there will be no automatic deportation for people who did not sign up to the settled status scheme next year, even after a grace period they would still have the right to tell people why they hadn't done so. this is what he said a bit earlier, and i think it sounded quite conciliatory. a bit earlier, and i think it sounded quite conciliatorylj a bit earlier, and i think it sounded quite conciliatory. i wanted
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to be sure there is no automatic deportation of these people even after the grace period, because these people could be very vulnerable. the idea will be that even for these people after the grace period, they will have a possibility to apply, given the grant white was not possible to do it within the normal procedures. —— given the grounds why it was not possible. moving on to the labour party, we had two launches from two very different candidates for the major league —— labour leadership. what can we expect? so far, both campaigners have been low—key? what can we expect? so far, both campaigners have been low-key? very low— key campaigners have been low-key? very low—key campaign is, surprisingly low— key low—key campaign is, surprisingly low—key from rebecca longbailey, the shadow business secretary, seen by many as a potential frontrunner because she is expected to appeal to the kind of members that were also very loyal tojeremy corbyn, critics say she is the continuity coping candidate. the campaign so far has
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beenin candidate. the campaign so far has been in suspended animation, i suppose. encouraging for her, other not entirely unexpected, she got the backing of the left—wing grassroots group momentum so they will be putting their resources behind her. she is launching a campaign formally tonight in manchester, underlining the fact she is not part of any metropolitan elite. a key page will be firstly that she believes that people should grow up with —— that the people she grew up with so westminster as being 1 million miles away, so she wants to give power back to the regions of the united kingdom. she is appealing to the left—wing membership, saying there needs to be a seismic shift in the british state and also that westminster is a bit like a gentleman scrub, that could be seen as an attack on her nearest rival, keir starmer —— eight gentleman's scrub. emily thornberry, the shadow
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foreign secretary, is launching her campaign later, near the council estate where she grew up. she is saying she is battle hardened and resilient and can take on boris johnson, as she proved, she says, when she was shadowing him when he was foreign secretary. iain watson, our political correspondent, thank you. an edward viii sovereign has become the first uk coin to sell for one million pounds. it was bought by a private collector, bringing it back from the us in a deal brokered by the royal mint. our personal finance reporter kevin peachey was given exclusive access to see it. this is what £1 million will get you — an edward viii sovereign 22 millimetres across, across, 7.98 g, it's extremely unusual and very rare and precious, so i'm not allowed to touch it, only experts like matt here are allowed to handle it. and there are only six of them,
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and so the rarity makes it so precious, but also there is something very unusual. the head is facing the wrong way, according to convention. so edward viii is quite a vain character, and the way the monarch faces should alternate by reign. the long tradition goes back centuries. but edward viii would have been the first monarch to break the centuries of tradition, purely because of vanity. he insisted on facing the same way as his father because he believed that that was his best side. i have found it impossible to carry to heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as king as i would wish to do.
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in a moment the weather, but first joanna gosling is here to tell us what's coming up on the victoria derbyshire programme at ten. and today's programme, campaigners warn the uk is hurtling towards a major stroke crisis because of the shortage of specialist doctors. new figures exclusive to this programme suggest health of hospitals in the uk have vacancies for stroke co nsulta nts, uk have vacancies for stroke consultants, meaning many patients cannot get the care they need. you might cry could not go anywhere, either scared of collapsing, couldn't go out. you totally lose everything. you need help but you have no help, nothing there for you. ijust have no help, nothing there for you. i just felt lost. just... studio: and meet the women who want to live like it is the 1950s and to always
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put their husbands first. we will be talking about so—called charge wives and what the concept means for feminism is in the 21st—century. that so—called traditional wives. hi there. good morning. today may be a good day for a bit of rainbow spotting, because in the forecast we are looking at a mixture of sunny spells and showers. most of the showers move their way from west to east, as the day goes on. you can see those showers by lunchtime around central areas, moving their way into eastern parts, sunshine behind that. a few bits of rain moving their way through central and southern scotland, and through northern ireland as the day goes on. still some showers in the far north—west of scotland, quite blustery winds here, maximum temperatures round about seven to nine, maybe 11 degrees in the far east. tonight, there will be still be a few more showers to come, particularly to the north—west, a bit of wintriness over the higher ground. a bit of cold night. a widespread frost into saturday morning, temperatures
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generally down to freezing, if not below. but for the weekend, plenty of dry, plenty of sunny weather, this big area of high pressure develops right across the uk, keeping things very settled. that's all from me. hello, this is bbc news. the headlines. psychiatrists and campaigners have called for social media companies to be forced to hand over data to universities — for research into the potential harms of using the technology. iran's supreme leader — ayatollah ali khamenei — has led friday prayers in the capital tehran for the first time in eight years. china's economy recorded its slowest annual growth for almost three decades in 2019 — as it faces up to weak domestic demand and the impact of the bitter trade war with the us. rebecca longbailey and emily thornberry set out their visions for the labour party,
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as they launch their rival bids to succeed jeremy corbyn as leader. and a sovereign — struck when edward viii was king — has become the first british coin to sell for £1 million. also coming up — we're in glasgow for our series "our planet matters". the city has committed itself to become the first net zero emissions city in the uk. sport now, and for a full round up from the bbc sport centre, here's holly. good morning. south africa bowler kagiso rabada will miss the next test against england after being punished for his over—the—top celebration when he took joe root‘s wicket yesterday. that earned him a fine of 15% of his match fee —
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and a demerit point, which took his tally to four over the last two years. after a rain delay, play is under way, on day two of the third test in port elizabeth — and ben stokes and ollie pope have both made half—centuries this morning. england have moved on to 264—4. england's rugby union champions saracens have been given just days to prove they're complying with salary cap rules, or they'll be relegated from the premiership. with me is our senior sports news reporter laura scott, who broke this story originally. they decided they wanted to take tough action so they could prove compliance. it is important they have crystal clear, they are not willing to take chances this time. and this morning, saracens convened players and staff to update them on
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discussion, they are saying discussions are ongoing but what seems to be the case is they are struggling to get within the cap this season, they are struggling to off load player, we haven't seen any go for sure yet. it seems more and more certain they will be relegated, if they can't prove that compliance and there is still the chance they could have a fresh audit, of them this season, past seasons, that could bring fresh charges and sanctions. it is hard to imagine a side like this, a quarter of the england squad were saracen, is there any hope, what happens next? we will see, this is moving rapidly, i think we will see a lot coming out of the clu b we will see a lot coming out of the club and premiership rugby, my understanding is that if they don't meet that deadline, you know, relegation could be confirmed in the coming days, but this will have wider implication on the england set up, you know, if players aren't playing in the premiership or if they have to move abroad, this could
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be really significant over the coming days. a huge story. laura, for the moment thank you. well, that story features on a fair few of this morning's back pages. "saracens relegation threat" is the times headline. they report that the ultimatum was made at a meeting of premiership chief executives on tuesday evening. the mirror claim that harry kane has been told he should forget trying to be fit for the euros this summer and concentrate on preparing for next season. and the independent carry a picture of prince harry at the draw for the rugby league world cup and the headline "back on the job". harriet dart has made it into the main draw at the australian open, after winning herfinal qualifying match — that makes four british women in the first round. that includes number one johanna konta, who's confirmed she won't by playing for great britain in this year's fed cup, as she looks to preserve her fitness and extend her career. konta has only played in one tournment since the us open in september.
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ita it a tough decision to make because fed cup is something that has been very close to my heart, and i've had some incredible experiences in my career so far some incredible experiences in my careerso far in some incredible experiences in my career so far in fed cup and i am looking to hopefully have some more, but for this season, because it is an olympic season as well, ijust need to take care of my body and make some decisions that are not a lwa ys make some decisions that are not always easy but hopefully will help me have the longevity that i want. there was controversy at the masters snooker, as ali carter scrapped his way to a surprise win over the two—time champion john higgins at ally pally last night. the referee called a foul shot when carter missed the yellow — he insisted he'd hit it, though, and she overturned her decision, but the replay showed the balls didn't touch. there's no suggestion of dishonesty on carter's part. he went on to win 6—3 to reach the semi—finals, where he'll play shaun murphy. and the third of the masters quarterfinals is live
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on bbc two later — it's stephen maguire against david gilbert. you can also follow it on the bbc sport website and app. and don't forget sportsday at 6.30 here on bbc news — but that's all from me for now. we're going back to glasgow now as part of our series on the climate — and answering some of the questions you've been asking about crisis and sustainability welcome to your questions answers we are in glasgow for two key reason, glasgow will be hosting a meetling of world leaders and eminent
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scientists talking about climate change, the sum met thought to be the most crucial one since the paris arm agreement was signed in 2015 and secondly, and certainly by no means the least important reason, glasgow is attempting to lead the way by setting a target of being carbon neutral by the end of this decade, by2030, neutral by the end of this decade, by 2030, and this year is thought to bea by 2030, and this year is thought to be a key one, an opportunity that the world can't afford to miss say climate scientists in attempting to control global temperatures. thank you for sending in questions, you are engaged with this and we hope you will be throughout the year as the bbc launches our planet matters this week. let us get some questions a nswered this week. let us get some questions answered for you. i'm joined now by our science editor david shukman, and our weather presenter matt taylor. before we get into the questions briefly, matt, what is the
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difference between climate and weather, because that is sometimes a cause of confusion? they are both linked. weather we are talking about the variability of situations, weather—wise from one hour to the next, one day to the next. it is the weather we are having. what is happening now. climate is taking that longer look, what we expect to happen. and how that changes over time, and of course, still get that bit of variability but you are looking at the climate, the longer picture, you can start to identify trends and it is the trends which are starting to cause more alarm, with each passing year. david, the first question from viewers is from christopher lang gone. how exactly does carbon dioxide, which is a clear and chemically stable gas actually cause a rise in temperature? so matt might correct my answer but asi so matt might correct my answer but as i understand it, for at least a century now, scientists have understood the carbon dioxide when it is in the atmosphere has an interesting property. ultraviolet light from the sun can pass through
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it down to the earth, when the earth warms up it releases infrared radiation, which the carbon dioxide in the air blocks, so it acts as a heat trapping gas, that is why people talk about carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, the effect is like you get the warmth inside a greenhouse, that is why carbon dioxide and other gases, which are known to have the same kind of property, like methane for example, that traps more heat, so people talk about a range of greenhouse gas, all being key, but carbon dioxide is by far the biggest one, so all these effo rts far the biggest one, so all these efforts people are been talking about about going carbon neutral is about about going carbon neutral is about trying to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide we keep adding to the atmosphere year—by—year, that a quantity keeps going up, scientists tell us it has to come down. a clear ex plea nation. i hope that answers you question. we haven't seen levels
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like this for 800,000 year, another mesh the role carbon dioxide is playing is is the stratosphere is cooling, and that is an indication that as david said the radiation is not getting there and warming the stratosphere up. has the is cooling we are warming, that is another way of showing the effects carbon dioxide is having. of showing the effects carbon dioxide is having. alex burnett, brightons, scotland. how much of this rise is the natural cycle of changing world temperature patterns? have scientists researched past patterns? of course they have. they have looked at all the option, the scientists will look at every possible scenario, climate has been variable, the patterns have been changed. it will continue to change. the cycles generally driven by various things, the orbit of the earth, subtle changes in that, changes in solar strength as well, and of coursers the natural things such as volcanos, pushing more in the way of particulates into the
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atmosphere. taking those into account, the sun is going through an actual lower stage, really, a less prominent stage in its cycle, you would expect earth to be cooling at the moment, a bit, but everything that points to all the human factors that points to all the human factors that we are taking part this is just starting to warm them up. you can't account for the warming at the rate we are seeing, in just natural factors the alone. it has to be the human elms that go with it. very interesting. very interesting. david bassett, locks heath, hants. is the fundamental problem the overpopulation of the human race rather than just climate change as earth cannot support eight billion humans? it's a question that keeps coming up. it always has this this debate. clearly, the mother of us there are on the planet, each of us with a carbon foot print, the bigger the problem is going to get. you have to
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drill down more to answer the question, i think accurately, which is we all have a different carbon footprint. different countries use fossil fuels in a difference way. the carbon footprint of someone in america is way higher than that of someone in india, or even poorer country, so you get into an argument here aboutjustice, country, so you get into an argument here about justice, you country, so you get into an argument here aboutjustice, you know, if it is right for a country to be burning a lot of fossil fuels but the effects are felt in another country, what you going to do? when it comes to trying to sort the problem out, what do you do? are you going to tell all the people in india for example or other countries, you can't develop in the way that we have. their awe guemt is, one can't develop in the way that we have. theirawe guemt is, one indian ministera have. theirawe guemt is, one indian minister a few years back said we have millions of people without a single bulb in their home, you can't tell us not to develop and use fossil fuel, it is a difficult
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initially sensitive issue here. we have another question along those lines ina we have another question along those lines in a moment. terry, essex. at what increase in temperature do we pass the tipping point and vast areas of the planet become inhabitable? that is going to be a key focus for the delegates gathering for that conference in november this year. the delegates gathering for that conference in november this yeahm would be easier to think there was a particular temperature in which you tip things over but you can't say that, a tipping point for one part of the world will be different from another. i think what you... what is the1.5 another. i think what you... what is the 1.5 degrees we keep hearing about? that is almostjust a target at the moment, that was decided by the paris agreement, we are going to try and aim for that, because with each passing degree of the lift, the temperature across the planet, further and further, the extremes, the impact will get greater and
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greater, so, 2.5 compared to 1.5. the impact on greater population, different parts of the world will become greater, but, even now, you are seeing parts of the world with just a one degree change in temperature, having regular impacts, so some across say bangladesh —— bangladesh they are feeling the effects of rising sea—levels and some scientists are thinking greenland has passed that point already. it takes a lot longer to build up know and ice in these areas, than does does to melt it away. we are not putting it back. have we gone past the tipping point as far as greenland is concerned? certain parts of the world become uneveryone happenable. in the years i have been covering this, it used to bea i have been covering this, it used to be a rise of two degrees was a safety threshold, the world come warm up to that, and then the
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trouble would start beyond that. recent research has drilled into this in more detail and found as matt says 1.5 is a target beyond which you don't really want to go, because all kinds of more damaging effects start to kick in beyond that. we have done a degree, not much further to go. and we saw that opinion very much expressed in your interview with sir david attenborough. i have interviewed him several times over the years and over a year ago he addressed the un summit in poland on this topic. he has talked about the need for your gent action, but i think his language has toughened up. he is welcome becoming more gas greated with the fact that science is clear now, clearer than ever before about the need for action and the short timescale we have got. the fact so many young people are on the streets in their millions round the world, arguing foran immediate in their millions round the world, arguing for an immediate response.
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yet the process of international negotiations isjust so grindingly slow at the last un summit in madrid la st slow at the last un summit in madrid last month, i was there, you know, many of the key issues on the agenda weren't settled. many of the key issues on the agenda we ren't settled. they many of the key issues on the agenda weren't settled. they were kicked down the road for the british government to try to sort out, here in glasgow. i think that what sir david was trying to reflect. picking up david was trying to reflect. picking up on the question you were answering a moment ago, and this is the one that is linked to it. christina dudley. what can we do about other, bigger countries not adopting green practices? we feel helpless, are we helpless? it isa it is a difficult and great question, do we feel helpless? i think the climate scientists east answer would be it doesn't matter where the carbon reductions come, and if individuals find some way in theiroh and if individuals find some way in their oh own home, lives, of making a difference because they want to, and there is no compulsion about this, it has to be a individual choice and their own voluntary view of this, but i mean there are little
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things that one can do, it might be depressing, i am switching the lights off, turning the thermostat down, switching to a bicycle from a car, whatever, and china is still building coal—fired power stations, isn't that going to blot out anything i do? yes, it might to an extent, but at the same time, china is investing massively in renewable power, and the world is waiting to see the next chinese five year plan, it is due to come out some point this year. we don't know whether that will signal a bigger drive to go green. if it does, that would send a signal round the world that might indicate that even the world's biggest emitter is taking this more seriously. one feels there needs to be unprecedented co—ordination, which isn't necessarily happening yet. let us move on to george wood. why should a few degrees rise in global temperatures across the world be catastrophic when previous average temperatures were even higher?
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yes, but we are talking about three, five million years ago. we have to look now, we are a planet which is becoming overpopulated, we have got greater stresses on the environment round us, we are crowding into ever smaller place, and all these are going to have greater impact, so a rise in sea—level now compared to 100,000 years ago, well, there is so many more of us crowded round the edges of our oceans, so any little change is going to start to make those big differences, and, the way we use the world is different to how we use the world is different to how we did way in the past. this is something david you have been exploring as you did your report on how glasgow was attempting to achieve that carbon neutral target? what are the most important things we can do as householders and individuals to help with climate change? so in the context of glasgow and it
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isa very so in the context of glasgow and it is a very ambitious target, like for any city to be carbon neutral in ten year, it comes down to several key thing, housing, how you heat your home. in the uk, across the uk, including in glasgow, nearly all homes are heated by burning gas. when that happens that released c02 into the atmosphere. how do you heat your home? are you going to make a choice to go to a green partier heating scheme, it may pay dividends later. are there things with insulation, are the windows leaking, can you do something about the loft insulation. then there is how do you get round? glasgow is a city that is chris crowd crossed with motorway, to designed commuters to bring cars into the cities in the 60s. that has to change. the council are seeking to change. the council are seeking to discourage people from bringing ca rs to discourage people from bringing cars into the city centre. that are involve a massive programme of
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better public transport, getting people on the bikes. that is something i am going to be talking about with guests through the day, from the leader of the city council to people running small scale projects to effect change. we have about five minutes left, so let us try and get through more questions. brett fraser, larkhall, scotland. what is the risk of the gulfstream being reduced or turned off completely? that is something you often talk about forecast. in the ocean, yes, the oceans play a huge, huge part in the oceans play a huge, huge part in the atmosphere above it, and the warming of the oceans is probably equally if not more alarming than the warming we are seeing above the surface, record levels in 2019. the gulf stream is important to our climate here in the uk. it is almost a co nveyor climate here in the uk. it is almost a conveyor of warmer watt waters tracking from the caribbean, it stops wi nters tracking from the caribbean, it stops winters from being very cold. it feeds in milder air. there is a theory and worry as we start to melt
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theory and worry as we start to melt the glacier, the icecaps in the north atlantic across the poles that additions of fresher water it decreases the amount of salt in the top layer and causes, stops the colder water from sinking down top layer and causes, stops the colder waterfrom sinking down into the lower, the lower layers of the ocean, and so, we are going to see colder air at the top and so weaken potentially, and for a time, there is the theory that while the planet is the theory that while the planet is warming here in the north—west of europe, we could see things cool because you are taking that conveyor of warmer water away which has an impact on the atmosphere of the uk. but it will be continue to be research and it is a possibility in the longer run, things will start to turn back to normal, but it is over a long spell of time. you are talking about a global ecosystem as we saw the smoke from the australian fire circumnavigate the globe. you
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are talking a global ecosystem. you are talking a global ecosystem. sophie hill, astwood bank, worcs. is it true that a plant based diet is one of the best steps you can take towards reducing your impact on the planet? yes, the scientific calculations are clear on this, because if you are cultivating plants and you eat there, that is one level of carbon footprint but if you cultivate them that you feed to animals and eat the animals you are adding to the process. there is a whole fascinating and sensitive debate about where cult farming livestock is high carbon, where it is lower carbon, a lot of british farmers get exercised about this pointing about their practise, but the fact remains, if you for example chop down the amazon rainforest to create fields and grow soya and you ship that across the atlantic, turn it into cattle feed, feed that to cattle you have a high carbon footprint indeed, because you have
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lost the carbon stored in the forest. one more question which i will put to you from john in kent. how can humanity change to sustainable production when the economy is largely in private hands and decisions are based upon the profit motive? so, ithink so, i think one interesting answer here is whether the big companies of the world see that the tide is turning, in this debate, whether they see there is is a reputational risk if they don't have an ambitious climate plan. when i started covering this subject 15 odd years ago i never heard from companies talking about green credential, my e—mail box is bombard. the extraordinary news are from microsoft last night, which came one a plan not like many companies with a plan not like many companies with a distant ambition to cut their emission, some remote date in the future, but to be and here is a new phrase carbon negative, in other words, and here is a new phrase carbon negative, in otherwords, not and here is a new phrase carbon negative, in other words, not carbon knew trawl to ten years time their
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ambition is to be no longer adding emissions but pulling them in. we don't know the details of how they will do that. crucially we don't know who will check how they are doing it. but in an interesting initiative. we must leave it there. thank you both for your expertise. thank you both for your expertise. thank you both for your expertise. thank you to our viewers for sending those in, plenty of opportunity to get your questions answered over the course of the year, on the continuing our our planet matters here. we will look at the subject of climate change throughout the year, building up to that key summit in glasgow in november. right now, let us get the weather forecast, and thatis us get the weather forecast, and that is with simon king. this might give you an indication of the type of weather we experience today. today. we will see showers moving through but sunshine in between as well. so that was the scene this morning in leicestershire, a scene this morning in leicestershi re, a lovely scene this morning in leicestershire, a lovely rainbow coming out of the clouds. the showers have been heavy so far this
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morning and aligned with this weather front here, morning and aligned with this weatherfront here, moving morning and aligned with this weather front here, moving through england and wales, another weather front in scotland and northern ireland. that brings rain. still breezy in the far north of scotland. scotland. close by to an air yes of low pressure. that rain moving through scotland and, northern ireland, a bit of rain for a time. heavy showers moving east ward. spreading into east anglia, the south—east. sunshine ahead of the showers, sunshine behind them as they clear away from the west and temperatures down a bit compared to yesterday, so feeling chillier, temperatures seven to nine degrees. tonight, most of the showers in england and wales will tend to fade away but we will continue to see feeding in across scotland, those would be wintry over the higher ground. clear skies going into the weekend. means it will turn chillier, chillier than recently. a bit of frost round to start off on saturday morning but the weekend will bring high pressure, it builds across the uk through saturday and
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sunday, and when you see a big area of pressure like this, well, it means it is settled. lots of dry weather round. one or two showers round scotland through the morning, those easing off into the afternoon, fairly light wind developing, plenty of blue skies and sunshine, still feeling chilly, temperatures round about six to eight degree, especially after a frosty start. but as we go through saturday evening, notice as the blues take over the uk, so, a widespread frost going into sunday morning, those temperatures at or below freezing. mine three, mine four in rural areas, a cold, crisp start to sunday, lots of blue sky, sunshine throughout the day, a dry day expected. there could be one or two patches of fog, those will clear away, by the afternoon temperatures similarto away, by the afternoon temperatures similar to saturday, about six to eight degrees celsius. this big area of high pressure is a going to stick
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round, especially for england and wales, well into next week, a weak weather system moving through, next week no appreciable rain in the forecast, cloud amounts maybe tricky to determine, but we will keep you up—to—date with that at bbc weather. enjoy the fine weather after the wet and windy conditions we have had recently. bye.
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hello, it's friday, it's ten o'clock, i'mjoanna gosling, and we're live from new broadcasting house. campaigners have told his programme the uk is "hurtling towards a major stroke crisis" because of a shortage of specialist doctors. —— told this programme. we can exclusively reveal that half the hospitals in the uk have vacancies for stroke consultants — meaning many patients can't get the care they need. i couldn't go anywhere, i got scared of collapsing. i couldn't go out. you totally lose... you totally lose everything, you need help that you have not got any help, nothing there for you at all. ijust have not got any help, nothing there
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for you at all. i just felt lost. leading psychiatrists say social media firms must hand over their data so that independent research can be carried out into how

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