important point. well, go ahead. it's not true there are things you can do with a penny. he took 800,000 pennies and laid them flat, glued them altogether and made his best of abraham lincoln. well, it looks more like him. -- ban it looks like lincoln. [laughter] 800,000 pennies, it weighs 800 pounds. his best friend is from canada so he put 200 canadian pennies and with the others. ..
lincoln was not on the ballot in ten of them. of the 23 that remained the only won 17 states. las five and split one. he won the presidency with only 39% of the popular vote. no one has even come close. 39% of the popular vote. how do you win the presidency was only 39% of the popular vote? there were 500,000 -- to win the presidency only 39% of the vote it is because of the electoral
college. lincoln is winning new york, pennsylvania, ohio. he won 56% of the electoral votes. 39% of the populace. he was a sectional president obviously. i did a little calculation. >> guest: 64 election. if you put in 11 states that seceded and counted the eligible voters and ran them in the 1860's for election lincoln would still have lost the 1860's for election only getting 70% of the electoral vote. he was a minority candidate president which resulted of course in secession and civil war. the hague ran so high you think the rancor today is something, it ran so high there are eight plotzed that window of to either
kill or remove abraham lincoln from office. four to kill and four to kidnap or capture. at the time of his assassination lincoln was 56 years old, five weeks into his second administration. have already opted for ltd. black suffrage and had even spoken about the possibility of female suffrage before the end of the civil war. he had some pretty big ideas in terms of civil-rights and advancing the nation and as a result became a target not just for john wilkes booth but for 90 people. john wilkes booth bose one month shy of his twenty-seventh birthday. he was the top of his game. he was a matinee idol.
he was well liked by everyone. he was generous, friendly. outgoing. helpful. one interesting thing you won't find in many of the books that i think is relevant, he quit his electing profession 11 months prior to the assassination. in may of 1964 he gave his last performance. in june, july and august he transferred all of his assets into his mother, older brother and older sister. by september he was out of work, out of income, out of assets, flat broke and was in full gear plotting to kidnap abraham lincoln. next slide, one thing you need to keep in mind that tends to
confuse things is the assassination of abraham lincoln was an afterthought. that was not the plan. the plan was to capture or kidnap, taken to richmond, turn him over to the confederate leadership where he would become a pawn either for prisoner exchange for a peace conference or some sort of settlement with the confederacy. the assassination only came after richmond fell and was evacuated by the confederates and lincoln's value as ransom drop considerably. booth decided to go to plan ii which was not revenge. because he targeted the vice-president of the united states, andrew johnson who was to be assassinated the same night by a boatman.
secretary of state william seward was to be assassinated by lewis powell and his sidekick, david harold. the object being to decapitate the federal government in one fell swoop. vice-president, secretary of state. next. originally general ulysses grant. the question is what would have happened to the government had they been successful? had a decapitated the government? the idea being that he it would throw the union into chaos and allow the confederacy some breathing time to regroup and pulled itself back together. something people don't realize is there were 160,000 confederate troops still on if field. many of those were on paper but
three major confederate army still in field. kirby smith in mississippi and richard taylor and joe johnston in north carolina. three big confederate armies equipped and fighting. in hindsight it is foolish. it never would have worked but when you are dying and your country is going down you will reach for anything and it is not an unreasonable plot on their part. next. this is a map of the escape route following the assassination. from washington d.c. it runs through southern maryland. over the potomac river into king george, of virginia, in to caroline county to garrett farm where it all ends 12 days later. this is 108 miles. counting ford's theater there are 13 stops along the way and
the want to point out a couple things that normally aren't pointed out but you should think about. the distance from ford's theater to the potomac river, the average travel on a good horse is five miles an hour. at fast gallup you can go nine to ten but only go short distance. so it would have taken boots from 10:30 at night when he shot lincoln to sometime around 9:00 in the morning to reach the potomac river which means -- sunrise is at 5:05:00 a.m.. he would be writing roughly 3-1/2 hours through daylight in an area that is teeming with union troops. of course he would never do that. he would have been caught almost immediately. all of this was laid out ahead of time for the escape route with clinton and it was just rolled over as the escape route
after he shot him. he needed some place to stop over and wait until nightfall. if you look yo see he only travels at night. he doesn't travel during the day until he gets into virginia. only time he travels is at night. he can travel at daylight through this territory. the point is. the house is exactly midway between ford's theater and the potomac river. 30 miles from washington. 25 miles from the river. next slide, please. ford's theater was the ideal venue for the assassination. both new and well. he performed on c-span2 occasions. once when lincoln was in the theater. it was structured perfectly for an assassination. this is a diagram of the feeder and was set up so that. would come in the alley behind the theater and leave his horse
here. and ended the theatre backstage and go through a dugout cellar beneath the stage and cross from left to right thereby avoiding going across the stage when the play was taking place which he couldn't do. so he crossed over, came up on the other side out through this alley into the front of the theater, ended the theater to the box, shot lincoln, jumped at the stage and ran out the back door where his horse was safely being prepped. it is the perfect venue. his horse is being taken care of out back. he can only enter the theater in the front to get upstairs. only someone like boots and a new the theater intimately would be able to make this type of maneuver. this is the route as it existed a couple years ago. all these buildings have been torn down but here's the door he
exited. he mounted his horse and rode to you at this point, turned to your right hand up an alley. i don't know if -- this is the lips in the white house, ford's theater. anyway to darken? a guess not. this is the fbi building so ford's theater is right about here. he exited this way and we lose track of him but pick him up again here on the south grounds of the capital where he is seen riding hard down independence avenue. his next stop is that the navy yard bridge across the anacostia river. he gets to the bridge and all of the bridges are guarded by the military and they all have orders that no one leaves or
enters after 9:00 p.m. at night. it is april 14th, the war is over for all practical purposes, the guards are very lax. the guards stopped him, questioned him, asked his name and he does something very strange, he gives his name, john wilkes booth. he said where are you going? he said i am going home. where is home? charles county. he said you must live in the village somewhere he said i do. in beentown. beentown is where dr. mudd lives. when. hit that bridge within 15 minutes of shooting lincoln he knew he was going to dr. mudd's house. of one nonsense that he never broke his leg. never would have heard of dr. mud. he was headed to that house from
the beginning as his first state house stopover until saturday. so from here, he goes to the tavern which is 15 miles southeast of washington. this is the tavern and house built in 1852. it served as a post office. he died in 1862 leaving quite a few debts. . in 1864 she abandoned this by leasing it to john lloyd for $600 a year. this is the only known picture of her. and her son john. that is postwar in his people guard uniform. he joined the papal guard after escaping to europe before he was
captured. she moved in to washington d.c. to their town house which they acquired in 1853 and set it up as a boarding house in washington for her, john, and her daughter and rented out several rooms. st. louis this today as a restaurant. the chinese section of town. prior to this it was the rock and roll. in 40 years have never been able to get on top of that first floor. the owners will not allow anyone up there. we have to see what it looks like. next slide. . and harold arrive at midnight. they pick up a spencer carving. john wilkes booth had a broken leg at this stage. he had to ride with his left leg free.
he couldn't put it in the stirrup because it would cause great pain. he had to hold on with his hands but harold picked up a spencer and john wilkes booth picked up the an oculus from earlier in the day. earlier that day. had gone to the house in washington, and asked her to take it to the house and give it to pull it and tell lloyd people would be by that evening to pick of the shooting irons. that is what put her on the gallows, said testimony. she knew there was a plot at hand. in any event it was probably 12:15 to 12:20 when they headed to the home of dr. mud. this is the mud far as it looks today. the only difference is there are no slave cabins back here.
samuel mudd and his father and older brother all lived on contiguous land, 1700 acres which they farmed continuously, tobacco. they were primarily tobacco farmers and they owned 89 slaves. the largest slave owning family in charles county, maryland. they arrived at 4:00 a.m.. if you think about that, in the distance from the server and how to the mud house being 17 miles, you will see they planned to go there all along because that five miles an hour is the time it would take to get to the mud house. they stayed all day saturday until about 7:00 p.m. saturday night. sunset was 7:05.
that is just about when john wilkes booth and harold set out on the rest of their travels. dr. mudd is 32 years old. a graduate of the university of maryland medical school. i have searched the records a great deal and cannot find any bills, letters, anything to indicate that dr. mudd actually practiced medicine with the population. he certainly practiced with the family and with the slaves. he took care of the 89 slaves but i believe he was primarily a tobacco farmer that was his principal income and secondary position. next slide. i was going to say when john wilkes booth arrived at the mud house it was the fourth time they got together in the last five months. in those four times he had arranged meetings in which he
introduced other conspirators to john wilkes booth who agreed to join the plot. there's a lot going on between dr. mudd and john wilkes booth in these three months leading up to the assassination. i jumped the gun here. i usually say there is enough to write a book about and someone did. this is a map of the neighborhood. there is dr. mudd's house. there is his father's house a quarter mile away. they came down this way, passed this church. this is briantown and beentown. here is the major town. was filled with union troops. saturday dr. mudd went into uniontown to buy a few things and post some letters. he found it filled with union soldiers.
he came back, told john wilkes booth and when bruce left to go to the home of colonel cox the direct route was through briantown. but dr. mudd swung way around to useville. in and next met with archibald's one, a free black who lived here. we know this because we have affidavits of these people. why would they swing way around briantown unless they knew there were federal troops? they went miles out of their way. obviously dr. mudd told him don't go through bryanttown, there are federal troops there. they went to salon and asked if he could leave them again the swap to captain cox.
he said i can take you there so booth gave him five dollars. this is the next stop. there arrived at the house unti when cox cent for one of his other agents and had them hide them in a pine thicket until baker arranged to get across the potomac river. from 6:00 in the morning for the next we 5 days, that is captain cox, tough looking guy. next. we know the approximately location where they were hidden because it is directly opposite a house that was later built and the man that hid them here later wrote a book and in the book he describes the plan lake as being
directly across so we know they were hidden in here. from sunday until thursday night. thursday afternoon the man that was carrying for him, thomas jones, was in a bar drinking what a bunch of soldiers broke into the saloon and said john wilkes booth has been spotted in st. mary's county. so they settled up and rode down to st. mary's county. thomas jones -- that is the opposite direction of where they were. he said now is when i can get him across the potomac. he goes back to the fix it and gets them up and said tonight is the night you go. next slide. that is thomas jones. he was a confederate signal agent. i failed to mention this but every single stop and every person that helped him was part of the confederate army. they all work for the confederate secret service. this was known as the confederate male line that ran
from richmond to washington to baltimore to new york to montreal. it passed documents and papers up and down the line as well. it existed all through the war staffed by confederate agents and booth simply tapped into the matter is giving their aid all the way. this is the top signal service agent thomas jones. next. this is his house. the other thing i want to mention is every single one of these places still exist today. they are in private ownership. two of them are public. all the rest are private. it makes for a marvelous tool or. you can see all of these places. this hasn't changed from when thomas jones lived here except for the siding and roofing. we have pictures from when it was a log house identical to
this. next. here is the putting ticket. jones roust them out and takes them to the shoreine ticket. jones roust them out and takes them to the shore of the potomac river. this is where they launched to go across. if you were to turn and look to your right as you face toward washington d.c. up the potomac river. if you turn and look to the right you will see this place where the boat was hidden. for a week. they pulled the boat out of that and jones put booth and harold in and have a conference with the candle and pointed the direction. next slide. it was at this point here in
virginia. this is the highest point in virginia. this is maryland. at this point the river takes a very sharp turn so you can see late at night you are rolling across this river using a compass and candle to get to this point, how the tide and current could easily take you up river and that happens. they wind up on the maryland shore. they bent down here for two night and day until it is safe to cross once more and set out again. next. this time they successfully cross and make their way slowly down the shoreline to the home of elizabeth quintinberry,
another confederate agent. and go down the coastline and the first creek you will come to the home of prisonberry. she will take care of you. so they arrive at elisabeth's home. her house is right outside in virginia, the dog improving grounds. she sent for and confederate agent on the virginia side of brings two horses and his sidekick, william bryant, and tells him to take a booth and harold to dr. richard stewart's house where they will be taken care of next. this is the man samuel mudd set up a meeting to introduce john wilkes booth to. as a result, he provided the horses and a guide that took booth to stewart's house. this is the summer home where
they arrived in the evening at dinner time. this is his summer home. extraordinarily wealthy man the personal confederate agent who had been arrested twice. somehow all he had gotten word of coming down the line. he didn't want anything to do with them. so he refused them shelter but gave them food. he gave them dinner and sent them across this property into the cabin of a free black named william lucas and said you can stay with them. he was extraordinarily resentful and wrote in his diary a little note to the effect that ceremony to the meeting was without it meaning it is the manner in which you receive some one that matters. you did not receive me very well. as a southern gentleman. that is richard stewart who is
married to a cousin. this is ready lee. so he is well plugged into the confederacy. that is his regular home next to mount fern and as it exists today. very magnificent mansion. still in the family. >> william lucas put them in his wagon and takes them to the rappahannock river where they arrive on monday morning. >> this is the ferry slips. it is a boat ramp. and three competitive soldiers on the ferry. will arrive monday evening and. thinks he is home free.
he is in friendly virginia with friends, sleeping in bed in a nice warm house with a good hot food. little does he know that a truth of cavalry has been on his tail since monday morning and finally catch up with him at the carrot farm early wednesday morning at 2:00. that is richard garrick. this is an unknown and published photograph given by dr. balling human who uncovered this in his research. that is dr. richard garrett who owned a farm house. in the tobacco barn, they negotiated for a couple hours. booth wanting to shoot it out with them.
the troopers refused. they wanted to take them alive and negotiations weren't going anywhere so one of the men set fire to the tobacco farm with the idea of smoking them out. before they could smoke them out one of the soldiers shot. . it was a lucky shot and pierce the cervical vertebrae and cut his spinal cord. rendering him paralyzed from the neck down. he was dragged from the barn and laid on the porch where he remained alive for an hour and a half before he finally died of asphyxiation. the diaphragm gave out and he couldn't breathe. that is the end of the story.
next. the garrett farm, this was taken in the 1930s. was abandoned and caved in on itself. the median strip of highway 30 one running through a p l. it is the only site that doesn't exist anymore. all the houses and places, this is the median strip but it is very wide and there are markers back there and places where people can go genuflect if they so choose. next. one of the members is a surveyor who surveyed the property. he marked the porche, left the survey in one of the pipes that are stuck in the ground so you can orient yourself with the house. next please.
that is all that is left. that is a piece of booth's stretch that wound up in the hand of a schoolteacher. karen for booth when he was dying on the porch and descended to a neighbor and a girl. it is treated like a piece of the true cross. people want to come up and touch it. i don't know why but any time you take a group of people down on a 4 you pass round that crutch and everyone wants to hold it. is strange. they put up banners of john wilkes booth around washington d.c.. can you imagine putting up banners lee harvey of the wall around dallas, texas? he has become a folk hero. next. just a word about what i am here
for. there are 564 pages. and individuals of which there are many, this goes very far and wide. do you know who this is? shame on him. he is the attorney born and bred in bethlehem. he was provost marshal in washington d.c.. next slide. that is his grave. i put him in as a local boy. a story about him and the confession found in his paper. next. that is the home of john wilkes
booth. it still exits in maryland. next. events, be hanging. next. had put in several essays on the escape route and roundup and capture and military tribunal and gathering of evidence by the government. something that i put in at the last minute that i thought was very recent -- useful is the time line beginning on lincoln's election in 1860 and running through -- july 25th, 1865, the day they stepped into fort
jefferson to serve their prison sentences. anything else? no. that is it. thank you for your attention. thank you. sorry it took me so long to started. [talking over each other] >> we promised this wonderful audience we will be taking some questions. the museum curator said to me i have a question i need to ask. if our curator can stand up to the microphone you can see how it is going to be done.
>> you answer. >> thank you so much. that was really enjoyable and informative. we are delighted you are here today. you touched on marry sarah a bit and i wonder if you could elaborate about her involvement in the whole thing and whether or not you think she was guilty or not and if you do think she was guilty what your opinion is about her being hanged because she was the first woman to be aimed, am i correct? >> close. >> that is a common question. everyone is interested in that. she was guilty. i don't think she should have been hand under the
circumstances. here are things about the dangerous -- i have been around with the mud family. they knew all about the plot to capture and kidnapped but had nothing to do with the assassination and knew nothing about it so they got fraud for the wrong crime. that simply doesn't wash. there was a conspiracy. same people, same plot, basically the same end result. so the conspiracy to capture -- if you set out to capture the president of the united states don't you think someone might get killed in the process somewhere along the line? this is crazy. secondly, if they had no intention of killing why weren't they carrying guns? if you go into a 711 to shoplift
and your buddy pulls out a gun and shoots and kills leclair you will be charged with murder just like harry nichols got charged with murder and timothy mcveigh blew up the oklahoma building. it is called vicarious liability. here is what the law says. if you had gone to law enforcement officers and told them about the plot such that it prevented it from happening there would have been no crime, therefore you are part of the crime. she knew there was a kidnap plot and participated in it. she did carry the message down to them that night thinking it was a kidnap plot, not thinking it was assassination. she is culpable. she is guilty. did that warrant hanging? i don't think so. neither did five of the nine
judges. five of them, it takes six of the nine to haying. she got the six to hey. and commute the sentence, don't hang her, that is the controversy we can't get in to. johnson said you never showed it to me. the prosecutor said i showed it to him but he ignored it. that didn't help mary either way. she was a. she is culpable. she knew. she could have prevented it. she didn't. she could have got life. dr. mudd should have hang. he was found voted to hang 5-4.
surely they would have voted to hang dr. mudd. >> i have a question of curiosity. is samuel arnold by any chance related to the arnold bakers of baltimore? >> he owned the baking co. in baltimore but to tell you the truth i don't think they were related. >> anyone who would like to ask? >> i can repeat it if it would speed things up. >> that is the best way rather than -- let's start a line back here. ask your question quickly. we tried to accommodate as many as possible. >> this escape route for is run by the surratt society six times
the year. three in the fall. they go to all the places i mentioned. they run 750 towards. over 10,000 people. included in that, when i used to guide the tours. virtually all of the people that were involved, arnold -- they are all around everywhere. >> how much did jeff davis's government know about this conspiracy? >> $64,000 question that causes all the trouble. how much did jefferson and the
leadership know? there is one group of historians who say it went right to the top and jefferson davis knew. i don't know that that is true. all along that line, from top to bottom by confederate agents. the confederate secret service was involved in a plot from the beginning and certainly aided in escape all the way through. whether or not jefferson davis -- it is arguable. do you think these confederate agents up and down the line were acting as rogue agents on their own, taking actions like kidnapping the president of the united states without informing the president of the confederacy they were going to do that?
i seriously doubt it. especially jefferson davis who was a very controlling man. >> we are going to move these items along. we need to move quickly. >> who provided the most surprising or unexpected testimony? >> that won't move things quickly. i guess the most surprising was godfrey iambs who fingered the people in canada being involved and helping set upper the kidnapped conspiracy. he gave excellent detailed testimony but at the time was basically dismissed or not taken seriously because he was jewish and anti-semitism was very
strong but it turned out to be 100% true and you won't find it in the history books on the assassination. >> those who assisted booth, were any of them brought to trial or did they receive -- >> lot of people participated. after effect john wilkes booth knowing he murdered the president virtually all of them were arrested and taken into custody and released. they did know. in the 1890s like nixon and watergate. some of them would have a and.
most of them were taken into custody but were released. >> we have time for one more question. we are going to take one more question. do you have a question? >> as a living historian and civil war reactor i thank you for all your books because they are my bible and i use them almost daily for some type of research. i will think of something really quick. what recognition was given to the federal agents who captured. ? >> there were $100,000 reward put out. they did a fairly good job. you can imagine the shenanigans that went along to get a hold of that money and at first
political pressure came in and politicians did nothing and it was all sorted out, i can tell you the troopers that finally wound up at the garrett place, $1,050 each. it went all the way to the ranking officer, the ranking detective got 15,000. multiplying that by 18. that is what is in current dollars so someone who got $130,000. >> thank you very much. i appreciate your time.
>> for more, go to edsteers.org. >> every weekend booktv features 48 hours of nonfiction books. and the reluctant spy, former cia officer talks about life in the agency before and after 9/11 interviewed by inspector general frederick hits. find the entire weekend schedule at booktv.org. >> the story of america's little red school house is. the arthur is jonathan zimmerman who joins us at the american historians meeting. how did you get interested in this? >> as a historian realized in the nineteenth century virtually anybody who went to
public-school went to a 1-room school house. it was the ubiquitous educational institution and quickly declined for a number of reasons. yet the icon remained, the idea of the little red schoolhouse continued in our minds even though virtually no one attends one. i became interested in the contrast between the history and the memory. >> how many still exist? >> in the early 20th-century, there were 212,000 one room schools being used and we think of those buildings, very rough estimates, most of them were converted to other saints with businesses. probably 20,000 or so 1-room schoolhouses still standing. >> i am amazed to learn i was getting ready to talk to you the
association of a preservation association. >> they are devoted to preserving these because so many are falling down and i call the memory industry, a group of americans who are not simply trying to preserve that but also the memory of the institution and that has changed over time. >> they were most common in the great plains. in the northeast, in the great plains, 1940s and 50s a majority of kids went to a 1-room schoolhouse. it wasn't until the baby boom
that the decline happened. >> a friend in nearly 60s grew up in the mexico. the first couple years in school, would have been here >> host: 60s. >> they still do. there are a couple hundred one-room schoolhouses still operating today in a very rural places ahead and private school houses run by the amish. >> what do they stand for? >> answers changeover time. it depends on who you ask. in the 1916s there was a renaissance in the memory of the 1-room school house. they were doing so for their own purposes so people on the left or liberals celebrated the 1-room school house as the locus
of a progressive education because it was communal. the school was closely linked to the community. there was supposedly group learning. if there were things that people left to celebrate at the time. most of that is historically inaccurate. if a kid is toying with each other is because they were breaking the rules and the most common penalty happened for talking to your neighbor. imagine these institutions as a utopia of group learning is distorted. during the same years people on the right are celebrating the 1-room schoolhouse but they're celebrating as a locus of order and discipline and in the 1960s, there is a perception by some
americans of eroding so they seize on the 1-room schoolhouse the symbol of a lost order but this turns out to be completely distorted. the 1-room school house those were not ordered institutions. they were highly chaotic. if you look at nineteenth century fiction you can see it because the scheme is often a physical battle between the school teacher and the kids. think of tom sawyer. he wins the day because he lowers a catch on to his schoolmaster's head who pulls off the way. this is in a 1-room school house and not exactly ordered or disciplined. >> let's go through your research about schoolhouses. how often where they read? >> and very rarely. they were too expensive. communities worksheet. they painted it white but most commonly it was left untainted
so it would revert to a weather beaten silver or gray. they were overwhelmingly female and overwhelmingly young. and especially after you gave birth a common pattern was 16 or 17 in the school. at lake as 1910 only 10% of american teachers had any education beyond k-12 so these teachers are young and female hand have barely a more formal education. >> what the parents pay for students to attend? >> in some places they did but in most places school was free. [talking over each other] >> it depends on how wealthy the
community was. it was local. to answer the question of any resources depends on how many resources given to the school. if kids had a book it would be yes whatever book is that their house or whatever book was bequeathed to them by relatives. this created many teaching challenges, they teach these kids in any variety of books with different subjects. >> how many grades if you could categorize would be covered? >> they were not degraded. that is one of the reasons when people talk about the open school, in a california a lot of those were called the big red school house. they were not graded but were
multi age. it was not uncommon to have kids or people between the ages of four and 20 in a single classroom. most of the kids were between the ages of 6 and 14 but -- >> you tell us the frequent reaction to that chaos was corporal punishment. >> that was the discipline system of the nineteenth century and add a further irony to the idea the institutions were ordered. they were disordered which is why teachers felt the need to hit the kids. that was not the only form of discipline. there were others we would call rich will degradation. that turned out to be not historically accurate. we have very few instances of that being used although it did become an icon in cartoons but other humiliations were common. girls and boys sat on different sides of the room.
the punishment of making him sit on the girl's side or other kinds of penalties would echo the attraction so if a kid was chewing gum you would make the kit where the gun on his nose or his forehead. if the kid was talking out of turn he would get a twig and fix it to their tongue and my favorite, if a kid was a poor speller you would have him, usually him, cut letters out of a newspaper which may be, that might be where we get eager words. as barbaric as it sounds to us it tells you about the psychology of education at the time. this is before iq testing or special ed or differentiation of any kind of learning ability so
if you spell poorly it is presumed -- you should be punished in the same way as if you talk out of turn. >> a quality education in this environment -- >> it is hard to generalize. education is a cultural artifact so the conception of good education changed over time. most of us today would not recognize that. it is entirely based on repetition. every kid had a different textbook and there are so many levels and the teacher is supposed to teach all these levels it makes sense that memorization would be the line
of least resistance. there were 12-year-old kids famous for this plug does the reader. most people wouldn't call that good education. >> do you happen to know how many presidents attended 1-room schoolhouses? >> eight of them taught in a 1-room schoolhouse because in the nineteenth century it was not uncommon for a guy who teach in the school for a year or two as he moved his way to other single. jackson briefly and several different schools but as far as presidents who went to them i don't know but herbert hoover lied about going to one. by the time hoover is president
we are starting to sentimentalize the school because fewer kids were going to a 1-room school. it became political to say you were at one. >> it is called small wonder and you were hoping this would be read. >> people who would like to read at more than anyone else, teachers, students and parents. that is all of them. that would be two hundred million people. if people who are interested in education can get something out of the book because it was held earlier in ideas of education achieved overtime also it calls your attention to certain shared ideals. no matter how much we distorted
it it also symbolized the american faith in education which despite the lumps it has taken remains. >> thanks. >> thanks for having me. >> american expatriate and journalist john ross says globalization may cause the unique culture of mexico city to disappear. this program is an hour and a half. >> thank you. i want to apologize for the bright lights. this wasn't my idea. as i say i am accustomed to reading in bookstores with names like sedition and monkey wrench and the inevitable info shop. we were just informed that the gift