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tv   U.S. Senate  CSPAN  April 20, 2012 9:00am-12:00pm EDT

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and that's particularly confusing when you look at the u.n. system. the u.n., essentially, does two things. one, the blue helmet group and peace-keeping activities and, second, a commitment to.com. over the years that commitment of development has included a great deal of education activity, health activities, human rights activities, empowerment of individuals, but energy had been until very recently totally left off the agenda. one can say why is that, well, it was really the reason of -- for two reasons. the united states has blocked any activities by the u.n. saying that's our sand box, don't get involved in it, we'll control all of those issues, and they were aided by the saudis and an alliance of others. so it's been very, very difficult politically for the u.n. to try to get any traction at all on the, on the question of energy.
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.. ban ki-moon arrived at the u.n. with two very deep and surprising commitments. a very deep commitment to working on climate change and energy, and a very deep commitment to working on women's issues and how do you engage women much more actively in the international system. those two priorities have driven his administration, he is now just been reelected as all of
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you know for a second term, and has driven his first five years, and now particularly on the very sharp edge for his second five years. and this brings us to rio+20. we put rio+20 in the context. rio+20 is going to be the first of a number of very important way stations between now and 2015. those way stations get us to the second phase of the millennium development goals. a system of thinking about poverty in the element around the world that is not something that most people in the united states know much about, but which have become the guiding principles and frameworks for countries all over the world. seven basic millennium development goals focus on poverty, women, hunger, aids and so on. there are seven basic goals plus a number of subgoals. those were started by ban ki-moon in 2000.
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the first phase is over in 2015, and the second phase will kick him in 2015. so what should be in that second phase? many people have said that energy is the missing mgd. energy was not included as a specific focus with a specific target in the original development of the millennium development goal. i think many people looking at rio, looking at the work that the secretary-general has done are hoping that the second phase of the in gp will include a very important framework for energy. so much of that framework be? the secretary-general from secretary-general bond over the last five years, using a number of outside task forces from using a very extensive analysis provided by mckinsey, which by the way has been extraordinarily helpful, providing a high level task force, and the commitments of hundreds and hundreds of companies has built a program
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for sustainable energy for all, or see the. sustainable energy for all past three basic goals to it that have been worked through, except a broadly across the u.n. system. there was a u.n. declared last year, development over this part of the building process, across the international system. sustainable energy for all includes three basic goals. one, access to sustainable energy for everybody in the world, and wanted by the year 2030. are currently 1.7 billion people who do not have any access to electricity, and two-and-a-half billion u.s. access to really basic fuels and on modern energy sources. the second purpose of the sefa program is to double the rate of efficiency around the world, and the third is to double the rate of penetration of renewable energy around the world. three basic goals, and those
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will be i think adopted and picked up and become part of the program of action, and one of the major outcomes of rio, and that in turn will be translated into the discussions through the development of the mgd. so it's a very, very important time in terms of the history of the u.n. come a very important time in terms of ban ki-moon's own administration, and a very important time for the world's development, its own development agenda, this second phase of the mdg. the final point, this is not by itself a climate issue. rio is not specifically about climate change, but obviously we can deal with climate change unless we do with a number of the building blocks along the way in energy and even with energy and energy efficiency and renewables is a major building block for an eventual climate agreement. so maybe that's a useful kind of outline for getting us going, as
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to where all this fits together and why this is important, where it came from, and then a beginning sense of the roadmap of where we go from here. thank you very much. [applause] >> good morning, nancy, senator wirth, ladies and gentlemen. is a great delight to be here. doing a great job pulling all this together as a force for good. i'm very pleased that we're discussing the sustainable energy for what he nicely put together for us. and to me, this gathering here actually represents the philosophy that we're trying to bring together for sustainable energy for all. this is the kind of partnership with the government, with civil society, institutions like the
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u.n., the world bank, and all the leaders in this room but this is exactly what is needed to look at this issue, look at the challenge and see what solutions we can come up with. the world bank has been associate with sustainable energy for all from the days that secretary-general kofi a nonstarter the energy initiative, one of the founding members of this initiative with the u.n. and our president bob zoellick is very committed to this. we embrace this very strongly. and we are finding ways in which we can be contributing to the achievement of the goals. i just want to make four points in my opening remarks. what does it mean in terms of achieving access, achieving electrification for 1.3 billion people? and to start with that, if we look around the world, where are these 1.3 billion people located? you will see that most of them are in sub-saharan africa, about
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580 million of them. south asia, 360 million, east asia and other parts of the world about 350 million. so these challenge of delivering -- clean cooking fuels is simply goal but it has several challenges built within it. so if you take the case of the united states, in the united states in the 1930s, most world households did not have electricity. and as during the fdr administration in 1936 that the rural electrification act was brought in. by 1953, 90% of u.s. farms have electricity. so what any period of 20 years, this electrification drive with a lot of federal funding behind it, but also a lot of political commitment, it is exactly this kind of effort that is needed at the country level, to become more in terms of funding and in terms of political commitment to
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drive in electrification process. if you look across the world, even though you have access in many countries come and develop countries come in developing countries, the consumption is very different. in the u.s., for instance, on average a person consumes 12,900-kilowatt hours of electricity a year. in the uk with 100% access, 5700-kilowatt hours of electricity per year. brazil, its 2200 china 2600. in mexico its 1940. so you can see that there is a wide variation in consumption patterns, and herein lies the point that senator wirth made about the way in which we consume electricity and the level of efficiency that can be obtained. just to look at some numbers, if in the u.s. every person were to consume 10-kilowatt hours, 10
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units of energy less per month, which is not a whole lot, that could save actually 4000 megawatts of generation capacity, which is the combined demand today of kenya, uganda, and rwanda. there's huge potential for energy efficiency and energy savings that can kill a lot of the power that we need in cleaner ways. let me address very briefly the productive potential of power. in addition to the daily task of lighting, opening of productive potential is very important in developing countries people in the rural areas use now electricity mostly for lighting, for cell phone charging now more and more, and for other simpler basic purposes. that there is a lot of productive potential as a centerpoint ethic and drive economic growth, economic development, and this is why not just for lighting but for other
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productive purpose is very important that you will also unleash a lot of human potential in these countries, and raising in this issue about raising carbon emissions with electricity also has to be put in the right context. let me take the case of vietnam. when vietnam, when you see in the early 1980s, it had about 40% of the electrification. and people living in rural vietnam. today it has gone up to 95%. but in these 19 years, between 1993 and today, the key factors in delivering this transformation have been the economic -- vietnam itself, strong leaders, good inclusive development, good governance at the local and national levels, and a lot of capacity building technical assistance by institutions like the world bank. brazil is also achieved rural
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access. you just heard between 1980 and now from 50% to the entire country being covered by electricity. but what has been the key back from the amount going from 14% to almost 100%? in nations have not increased that much. it has increased by about 30% per capita in all of vietnam, if you look at the carbon emission profile after having achieved in electrification. so this is where i think we need to find ways in which we can balance the provision of electricity, with the oil we have been discussing about -- a word about financing. leveraging, the financing that is available, i just mentioned that they electrification programs in many countries, including the u.s. come have required a lot of public funding.
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picking up the public funding and leveraging the public funding with more private financing is what is needed. the iea estimates that current levels, about $9 billion for the year, need to go up to about $48 billion, fivefold over the next few years if the u.s. is in energy for all goals are to be met. and leveraging data financing sources, for instance, climate investment funds, climate technology funds, investments are making huge difference across the world and how we are able to bring both the public and private sector together. we also have to scale up some of the programs that have delivered in the last two years to many funded programs, technical assistance programs, lighting africa, and cooks does, global
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alliance for cooks does, programs like that have delivered substantial results, and these need to be scaled up from including programs like the global gaslighting production. there's also a big role for knowledge and technical assistance and capacity building in countries to achieve these goals, and the analytical and knowledge function is another function the world bank is working very close with its partners, with the u.n. agencies to see how this can be built up. in closing, i wanted to say that this is a very challenging agenda, and i've only touched on very few aspects. hopefully we will discuss more of it, but i really welcome the leadership of secretary-general ban ki-moon, the u.n. agencies, institutions like the center for global development, and the partnership that this will bring, and collective knowledge, financing them at the technical capacity that it will bring together with the private sector to help achieve these goals. thank you.
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[applause] >> thank you very much, tim in fiji. i think us off. restarted maybe i'll ask each one question, trying to be short and enough time to collect -- >> both ventures? >> both. will have time to collect some questions and comments from our participants. some of you are standing in the back. let me invite you to come up and take some of the seats here in the front, if you're willing. and able. so, tim, you really have been carrying the water for the secretary-general on this particular set of issues, as i understand. maybe you could share with us come it was very interesting for me to hear that the u.s. for many years was not endorsing united nations taking leadership on the issue. you are not hearing me speak was no, i am hearing.
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>> are you hearing me? >> mine is turned off. >> it's okay. tim, we can hear tim so far. so, could you say a little bit more about now in the run up to rio+20 what countries have endorsed, push, joined in? >> well, it's a more interesting question that you raise. it gets more complicated than you can imagine. if you go to the u.n. and talk to all firm reps, all the ambassadors of the yuan, almost uniformly come with exception exception of maybe and not have to a three sort of renegades, the americas and a couple of people surrounding in the arabian peninsula, everybody is for it. they all say this is a great idea. but when there he is, you know, negotiations begin, you have a
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lot of come you begin to have a lot of joint backsliding a lot of people saying well, i don't want to get that done, or let's put this all prepared of time, over we are getting a a lot of foreign financial assistance and you really ought to slow down this activity. great big country, the united states is an example. are we really sure we want to get involved in this if there is a requirement or a goal of doubling energy efficiency and doubling the renewable energy between now and 2030? is that going to apply for us? are we signing up for something that applies to us? general guidelines. so it gets much more complicated in the negotiation, which is why in anything like this you have to have a secretary-general who was just going to drive this. and he is done so, very, very good chat function check holiday
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-- these are serious effort along with lots and lots of companies. just kind of bulldoze your way through. if you are meek about it, it gets checked to death. that's true what goes on in capitol hill. if you don't kind of driver, it doesn't happen. the u.n. is more complicated and more difficult for that happens you. is the u.s. leader in this? well, we will hear from the special representative who is focusing on this for hillary. the u.s. is always a little bit nervous about any kind of international agreement, and we would hope that they would stick and really endorse this and drive and help make it become a reality. i think that that is now going to happen, but let's hope that is going to happen. >> dj, maybe can say more about vietnam, because i would always talks about partnerships and private capital. the question is about the policy environment in many countries.
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will it attract private capital? what would the keys in vietnam? you know, i was struck when you're talking, it's the world bank and a good way but also in a troubling way. you have to put everything together, the technical assistance, the financing, the right policy environment. give us some insight into how it worked recently in vietnam, and why. what were the key issues that got addressed? >> thank you, nancy. the non-is a very interesting case, because he was a country that came out of war, came out of conflict, and the leadership that was there -- finding ways in which it could be driven in a very intensive way. and in 1993 when they started embarking on this path for finding ways in which they could increase in electric occasion, a lot of factors, good factors
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that enable that to achieve, get off to the goods or. so you had the program from the donor agencies, development bank, the world bank, the initial level of technical assistance and capacity building to understand and prepare the sort of groundwork for looking at solutions that would enable them to achieve this in electric occasion. then there was a whole issue about how do you find it? as i mentioned, successful cases around the world have got two major ingredients that sort of cross everything. one is a large level of political, very strong level of political commitment and leadership to keep driving the campaign. because this takes years. it doesn't happen in five or 10 years. it takes 15, 20. so it's something that needs to be consistent across the local
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spectrum to be able to drive. and vietnam achieve that kind of political commitment. second is large amounts of public concession funding that can lead it to power, or to lease finance the networks that are needed in order to put in place some of the large investments that are needed to create that basic framework. so in the case of vietnam, again, this was driven largely by a lot of lending and funding from grants and other sources were vietnam over a period of time. so together, at the same time that you start looking at diversifying their resource base as well, for power generation. so they started moving into hydropower. they started moving into gas. so today's have a a much more balanced resource system for generating power than they had back in the '90s. and it has grown quite
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substantially, also a sort of a clean and green field, as compared to some of the of the countries are totally dependent on oil. oil. so the key factors, very strong community participation to the political commitment was at the national level, also at the local level, the local governments are very much behind this push. they was good public consultation that brought in a lot of the civil society organization, community ownership. so in the beginning for them five or 10 years ago, very messy. there was different parts of models in play off grid come on grid. and all these voices today the non, powered through many grids with local generation. that are systems that are connected to the national grid and are protected that there are many islands that have started their own system. it is a very mixed kind of approach, but it has worked in its dimension.
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it took five or 10 years until it got more systematic and start to produce results. >> very interesting. and no problems with pricing, underpricing. this constant pressure -- >> there's always pressure for pricing. [laughter] as much as a political issue as anything else. >> that's our problem in the u.s. 12,000 megawatts or whatever it was. >> 12,000 gigawatt hours spent there must be some underpricing at the local level. okay, let's turn to those of you who would like to raise questions. yes, please. please introduce yourself. stand up and introduce yourself. a mic will come to you. >> good morning. i work for gene can. i would like to know about what you mean by sustainable. what you mean by access and what you mean by all. particularly for petitioners. and furthermore, this idea of
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sustainable access for all come is this aspirational or can we really achieve this by 2030? thank you. >> okay, it's not okay with you if we do several questions and then people have time. you each have time to do what you like to do. >> i am a student from american university. and my question is very simple. what will happen to oil dependent countries as the economy realize that oil and not always they have another alternative source, such as my own country, mexico. but there economy heavily relies on oil, and is it possible to break this energy monopoly from fuel-burning energy?
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>> hi. i michelle from the center for global development i look at the goals doubling renewable energy globally, which is currently like 3%, right? will go from 3% to 6%, is that enough? >> great question. one more. let's go to lisa, if it? >> thanks, lisa friedman to i was also interested in vietnam and the number you said about the 30% per capita emissions increased. it sounds like perhaps you're saying that the concerned about the emissions rise in developing countries is a little misplaced. can you talk about, you know, with an energy strategy stuck at the world bank are more than a year now, you know, what is the banks plan now for balancing the
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need to develop sustainably and not cause irreversible damage with the pressure from developing countries to build with coal? >> great, thank you very much. why don't we go to him and then dj'd spent start with renewable to its the rate of renewable energy, not the absolute percentage, whatever it is today, by 2030 we will double that. know, the rate of penetration annually is, we hope was going to double. that's happening in many, many places across the world, even in our own backyard. we've seen renewable goals gets at that are now being, not only achieved but we have gone beyond them, causing troubles for much of the renewable industry, not, so it is the rate, not the absolute percentage. i think your question reflected a percentage. >> for those of us who can do all a compound in our head, could you suggest that the goal be framed in a waste if it ends up as dublin, about 50%
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penetration of all energy, the whole business, approximately a 50% goal, a goal of approximately 50% penetration of renewable energy by 2030. that's what you end up with, in that ballpark does that make sense? >> that's much more ambitious, good. >> no, it's not. i mean, if you compound interest is a wonderful thing. [laughter] spent as i said, we can't all do -- it's a better way to say, that's what i mean. >> there's lots of ways to say. how to lie with statistics. >> maybe we could fool the u.s. into agreeing. >> let's hear from carlos. you will be okay, probably. >> vijay? >> just to pick up on that, and the question that came, at what level do you suppose our aspirational? these are to drive action, to drive commitment, this is to drive a campaign among countries
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come for something that has been long development challenge. it has not been addressed. the way some of the other develop the challenges have been addressed. and these goals, the way it they are defined have to be a factor have to be in the context of each country and each region. it's not the case that every country will have to increase its renewable energy shared by 50%. there are countries that are better placed to do it than others. and a lot of action on energy efficiency and renewable energy will have to come in the developed world. i give example of the united states where energy saving potential is very high, similarly europe has potential saving is very high. the e.u. already has goals for 2020 that they're looking at increasing the share of renewable energy and energy efficiency by 2020 that is driving all the e.u. maybe
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countries towards that direction. so a lot of the inherent action within these aspirational goals is already taking place around the world. if you look at last years statistics, about $250 billion was in renewable energy around the world for almost half of it came from the private sector. a lot of this investment took place in development courage, and china and india and in brazil. so clearly there is action, element to these aspirational goals, and the whole business of leadership of u.n. secretary-general and other institutions and the partnership we are posing, and the continuous happening around the world will start to drive more and more action and campaign around reaching that goal. to pick up the question that michelle asked, actually, some analytical work needs to be done to see what they mean in real numbers, and in real terms.
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so together with the international energy agency, the world bank has already started doing some analytical work to support, in terms of finding what it would mean and what we the target between now and 2030, what would it look like. based on sinners. what is the penetration rate for renewable energy is ask percent to what would it mean, what would it look like? and we would like to strive what is happening around his goals around the world. so we're trying to put in place some system, so monitoring framework that would enable the campaign to track what is happening and we are in achieving some of the goals say, five years from now or 10 years from now. picking up the question about balance of emissions and energy access, in some countries the solution is fairly clear. that is a lot of potential, and some country is more challenging. so just to state the way we are
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approaching a lease in the world bank, how do we balance access with making a clean and green and producing a missions as we it, let's look at east africa. east africa is a very good example very low access there, kenya, uganda has less than 10% access to ethiopia. if you look at the sources available in east africa, and if you look at sort of 10, 15 years ahead, say to 2025, the demand in these five or six countries in east africa can be met by a mix which would be about one-third geothermal power, which is very clean, one-third hydropower, and one-third of the would be dead -- one-third of the would be from gas or other sources. so you can get a 33, 33, 33 makes in east africa over time. but that action has to start today to get to the.
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today, the mix is heavily weighted in favor of fossil fuels and hydropower. but to balance good a time, investment and geothermal exploration, investment in finding the right kind of response will hydropower project be done with minimum impact on the employment. these are some of the issues that we are helping these countries with finding ways in which you can set the goals today, set the granted a so that 10 years from now you have that kind of mix. >> let me go back to a minute, i think i missed an answer to nancy's was the overall i think really the aspiration is about a 30% penetration of renewables by 2030. 30% is the overall penetration. there's another point i think that vijay, talk about the financing, one of the, the u.n. is at its best when it is setting norms. not in an operational sense but in setting norms, which is why
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the process, the process of engaging countries, getting agreements in a place like rio, providing those norms, therefore provided basic, groups, non-government organizations, states, political parties, kind of hold governments accountable for that set of norms. that's why, generally why what the u.n. does overall is so very important. the finance side of it falls more into the world bank, but the world bank in cooperation with the global compact in terms of making this a reality. we are not going to reach the goals of the sustainable energy for all with concessionary financing only. and certainly not going to be done with government funding or aid funding. we will have to be very creative and there are teams that working on different financial model so that government funding, foreign assistance funding, can be used
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as, say, risk insurance. can be used to cover the differential or the costs that are perceived by the private world as the costs between, what would they do a normal market is this a troubling market, is there a delta there that has to be covered, and we would cover that with some kind of public financing. there are lots of different new models on the come out and that's going to be one of the most interesting, one of the most interesting features of again, the very close relationship between the world bank and the u.n. system in trying to figure out to finance this very ambitious set of goals. >> that's going to be a very good segue. keep that in your mind for when we come to the next session. let me just a word about the question on oil from my colleague from mexico. oil and natural gas, i was reminded, tanzania has just had a huge discovery of natural gas. and, of course, brazil is about
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to have come on board very soon a lot of oil for the global market. for development people, the challenge is how to manage these natural resources, and to ensure that they are managed in a way that is closer to norway, say, then angola, to nigeria. so these natural resources at the domestic policy level can sometimes be as much as a curse as a blessing, depending on management. mexico has done recently well. i do think there is a big question hanging out there, but hopefully it will be answered in the next session, or in the future, about how all this, all these new sources of old and somewhat dirtier energy, natural gas is cleaner than oil but somewhat still dirty, will they crowd out on the pricing side the willingness of private
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capital to go into renewables? so that's just kind of hanging out there. >> that's a very, very good question. we find that the united states is able in the world with a significant discoveries of oil and natural gas and shale oil, and the oil we are seeing in the u.s. is having a real, you know, battering. and it's going to have a lot of different place. the world energy balance has clear change in a very, very interesting weight in a short period of time. and my guess is that a lot of the policy thing hasn't got up without a people haven't become aware of how significantly different we are today than we were three years ago. >> with the natural gas. okay, let's have another round, quickly. please, yes. >> thank you.
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food security is important to energy security for all, you know? ending poverty, building infrastructure for health, education it good government. those are all good things, those are all things we want. but they all take natural resources. and i have just come under the plan under pressure conference in london were 3000 clients very clear he had said we are already or realizing the earth's resources and we're exceeding planetary bounty. so i would ask you to how do you deal with this conundrum between the desire by us all to develop and the fact that the planet has limited resource? how would you expect rio to do with those? think you. >> that's a tough question. yes, in the back. >> thank you. i am voice of america television. i don't know if there's any study of potentially next crisis
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to produce energy, which is water. so far, all our energy ceases to produce energy, consume massive amounts of water. we are running out of water. is there any study about the next crisis of water that will collapse the energy production? >> okay. let's see, i saw some others. >> steve moser, you in a board an independent education consultant. 10, you talk a eloquently about hoping where the outcomes of rio+20 is to really establish another millennium development goal of an energy which makes eminent sense. there's a tendency and policy around development pendulum swings but if you add something to start dropping things. which gets us to the point where the post 2015 has an opportunity many of the other in the gees to 60. but there is a tendency to call for trails. how to get the energy behind the other morning calls to ensure that this addition actually
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becomes a catalyst for something that drives all of them to succeed in education? we see this year this administration is so super of gold, has proposed to drop by 50% funny for the mind develop in poll on children's education as a trade off for good security. terrible trio. could you talk about that trade off dilemma as opposed to the rio meeting? >> i'm going to take one more, and then give you the last word to address them. >> they are all huge questions. >> i saw somebody -- sorry, yes. >> nina gardener with strategy international. i was wondering whether there's some discussion in rio about revisiting the whole measuring of gdp and the whole goals of tiny other indicators to measure progress.
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i worked on this at the oecd, which then became part of the commission. but i think it would be great if in rio the governments would decide to adopt, or at least a timetable, to get some key indicators to measure progress so we can get away from the gdp as the only indicator of economic development. thank you. >> let's start with mean it's good question because that goes back to the first question as well. the door is opening in a very happy way. i think on april thinking about what's the new economic, the current system isn't working for us. you know, we are undervaluing or evaluating the entire, the gap between rich and poor. a whole litany in a system that is just not working. the u.n. just had a major conference last week on, sponsored by the government, you probably there. and say what do we mean by a
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growth happiness index? and how does that relate to the overuse of resources, what was being said in london two weeks before by 50 colleges that we will were meeting there. there's kind of a drumbeat going on and there'll be a big new economic institute meeting at bard college for three days, the second week of june. so it's starting to bubble up in a lot of different places. can that be done at rio? know, but there'll be a lot of side events related to this, and this will be a very important discussion, long-term, for the u.n. to consume. the u.n. tends to be the keeper of the statistics. it tends to be the keeper of the rules. someplace within human system, -- the u.n. system, we are the keeper of those rules, and the u.n. is, and how those rules get changed and how we work on them is going to be very important. it's a wonderfully interesting challenge i think for those of
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us concerned about going back to the first question, what do we mean by sustainability. well, what is sustainability? how are we overusing resources? how do we dramatically change our way, we have to change definitions as you point out. there's gross domestic product by itself does not help. we have been talking about that for 20 years, but they are now i think institutionally that is beginning to change. the other questions are great but that was a good opening, nina. >> that address also the planning under pressure question. >> let me try the really great question, and, of course, we are all trying collectively to find answers to some of these very difficult questions. just to go back on your point, nancy, on the gap. actually, if you look at the way gas projects are done, power projects are done and how renewable energy products are done, in gas technology, it is very, very well-established.
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there are no bad areas to developing this kind of projects. so what needs to be done on the renewable energy site is to leave it, the projects we tried to do, it's not available at scale. so some of the work that the world bank and other institutions are doing is to find ways in which renewable energy -- this is a major area that we're putting a lot of focus on. >> this is the point that tim was saying. >> this isn't anywhere private sector and public sector have to come together to find leverage points so that we can leverage technology, we can level technology, capacity, and also funding. >> could you, on this, give for the simpleminded, including me, when you say the risk, are you talking and one private to public money? five to one what does it vary tremendously? what would it be for renewables? >> let me give you concrete
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examples. if you look at the clean technology fund, this is a fund that many of the developed countries put together to trigger, categorize, in developing country. and as they create about $8 billion from the technology front, but it is leveraged about $26 billion, other money. but we want to make it one to five. we want to make a one to 10. that's the direction we have to go in. but to go in that direction it would be harder to work with governments, work with agencies and other influentials, make us to find ways in which the right policy framework and also increase the risk appetite of financial institutions go into these areas but otherwise it would be a problem. the energy water nexus is important if you look at the way i think someone mentioned that
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the pressure on resources is growing so drastically, so, therefore, we have to find ways in which these three issues can be addressed together because they influence each other. and there is now a lot of work going on in this area, particularly on the nexus between energy and water and see how we can get some of the impact there. the last point i want to make was about the natural resources, and nancy made the point very well, that how'd you, you go about creating the right framework toward the transparency in government? a lot of new work is going on in this area with initiatives like -- which we are supporting in order to bring some responsibility around the exploitation. but it's a very challenging area. >> okay. into so much, tim and vijay, and to all of you. now i want to invite nigel to come up and introduce the next
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session. [applause] >> before nigel starts, let me put in another plug for the report which is available outside. it brings together some of the questions raised in the last session, with some of the answers we hope for in this session. >> thank you, nancy, and thank you for your partnership in organizing this event and the profile of development issue policy here in washington in the many contributions to your scholars make to the effort. it's a wonderful opportunity to be a partner with cdg. -- cgd. i want to thank abigail, my
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co-author on the report and my colleague for their contributions to my thinking for joint writing in this area. finally, i want to give a special thanks to our friends at the embassy of denmark here in washington for the support for this work and for their leadership on the government issued and climate issues more broadly, particularly in their new very green government. thank you. so we just heard why in ensuring sustainable energy for all is vitally important and why people live longer, healthier and more productive lives when they don't spend hours each day gathering fuel and breathing smoky air, and when they can read, study and work even though it is dark. lack of access to energy isn't the cause of poverty, again energy access is vital to most solutions. sustained the develop an, in other words, requires sustainable energy. but securing progress on sustainable energy for all this year presents both opportunities and challenges. once a decade as well this year,
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a symbol at a global summit to promote the elusive goal of sustainable development and based on the idea that economic growth or environmental protection and social justice must proceed simultaneously. these events as the event this year does creates an opportunity for imagining and envisioning a new set of solutions for developing a new political narrative and a new set of expectations about what we, the world, both governments and the private sector need to do to promote this agenda and perhaps rio this you can refresh interest in sustainable development and reimagine solutions that catalyze new partnerships and partners. that is our hope. let's be honest. these are challenging times. the lingering effects of the weak economy, the financial instability, the euro crisis, high unemployment, slow economic growth plus a highly partisan political environment in some countries and elections, including in this country, make this your a particularly challenging time to achieve major breakthroughs in just about any international development issue.
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low appetite exists in some, perhaps many donor nations to ask taxpayers to fund large-scale global efforts. at the same time nation struggling, are struggling to make progress in climate change with a new global agreement still years away and likely to be in perfect even when it is done. despite these challenges, the idea of achieving sustainable energy for all is managing to inspire people in both developed and developing countries, bringing them together. developing nations are gaining interest in renewable energy and energy efficiency, and strategies for developing, not just as climate solutions. and in the developed world the success of merging the climate and the development goals together through this concept is generating new interest in new political running room for action. in short, the political narrative on sustainable energy for all has potential to refresh the international development climate and energy debates in an exciting new ways. even though real itself may not be this year what real was 20 years ago, this issue at this
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moment offers a tremendous opportunity for progress. while the possibility created by this new framing and by that we use him as exciting, the incremental cost of delivering sustainable energy for all is not small. the international energy estimates it could be around $48 billion a year when compared to today's efforts of about $9 billion a year. while many new technologies now exist and good work is under way in getting -- many barriers and financial obstacles exist to getting to this scale. in this age of financial turmoil and austerity, and in this partisan election season, what can be done and what can the united states specifically offer? the goal of her second session today is to have discussion on this question. the report released today that is of able outside outside provide some initial policy recommendation in this regard to frame our discussion before introduce our speakers for this topic, let me just briefly run
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through our four principal recommendation to the thesis of the report is that the key contribution of the united states could help by helping to close the financing gap. but not primarily through new foreign aid which, of course, would be little political appetite but rather by damaging ways to marshal private capital. american policymakers need to see that $2.27 billion has potential customers for u.s. companies. we need to replicate the success of mobile phones. between 2000-2010, the number of mobile phones in developing countries increased from 215 million, to 4.1 billion in 10 years. even war-torn afghanistan has more than one mobile phone per household. and by and large governments are not subsidizing this technology. rather, private companies and the poor have found ways to work together that are profitable for both. as we heard earlier today, the role of government is to create investment climate that allows private capital to services this
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blatant consumer demand. ample evidence suggests that this approach was works for mobile phones could be made to work for ending energy poverty rapidly and affordably over the next two decades. consider this, in sub-saharan african and in indy, global phone towns and rural areas are being used to generate solar electricity that could help charge the cell phones that are being serviced by the mobile phone towers and they also charge led lights which are becoming increasingly unaffordable for the poor, as well as the chargeable batteries which can run for use and refrigeration units and also to other generators which are vital to escaping poverty. the united states has much to offer the globe in terms of creating the conditions that allow for this type of dramatic transformation, given the size of america's venture capital investment community, the prominence of our financial markets and our exchanges, america's tradition of support for free market and free trade and business friendly economic policy.
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you are for recommendations that are in our report that are designed not only to meet this need of transforming the issues by creating markets and empowering our companies to be part of the solution, but also are trying to thread the needle between right and left in this capitol about what is possible in the area of international policy. first, the united states should support global adoption of the concrete goals and norms that tim wirth the ugly spoke about that are part of the secretary just sustainable energy for all initiative. these goals themselves are not the solution that targets against which to measure progress can help catalyze action and focus attention. second, the united states should join other countries in pledging the international team you will support nations with the political will to achieve these goals by ensuring that these nations have the ability to implement the policies and programs needed for success. private companies will invest approximately $5 trillion annually in energy infrastructure each year by 2020. compared to that the amount funds needed to ensure that
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energy decisions work for the poor and for the climate armadas, only about 1% of the total amount, expanding sustainable energy access is within reach if nation just public policies to create the right investment environment. the changescome the incentives and the decisions of private investors. the united states must open sure that nations that are willing to take these steps, to put the right policies in place, many of which have political challenges because they involve things like energy pricing, have the support of the international community and technical assistance to identify, adapt and implement proven, best practice global energy policies. third, the united states should announce that rio+20 its commitment to work with other nations. this is a phrase we came up with that is meant to reflect the mechanism that is within an existing international institution probably, but that would connect long-term investors with sustainable
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energy for all investment opportunities, a portfolio of projects in the country. according to the imf, long-term investors in the private sector have $60 trillion nss, and banks, commercial banks hold another $72 trillion in assets. many of these private investor, including pension and sovereign wealth funds, are eager to invest in sustainable energy solutions. what's missing is not money or fund, or rather an abundance of investment grade opportunities. a new deal flow mechanism that is designed to pull together smaller projects to make them larger scale, more liquid, to manage risk, we do a lot to marry the capital that is available in the world that is looking for a home on the issue of sustainable energy with projects and people in the developing world. finally, the u.s. government should ask would be to make sure u.s. congress have every opportunity to compete to access and profit from these untapped energy markets in developing countries. the business oriented foreign investment agencies including the overseas private investment
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corporation and the export-import bank should be given a new set of tools for the 20% you on energy and with the ability to take equity stakes and profitable projects, the capacity to take on, work more closely with her counterparts, and other donor countries and the ability to incubate new business ideas to get them to market. like other opec services, these costs of these actions could be supported by decent which was actually make up making money for u.s. taxpayers. while low-cost and in some cases revenue-generating, the self interested growth oriented ideas taken together would require significant but a manageable increase in u.s. foreign assistance. two days assistance represents about 2% of foreign aid which, of course, is less than 1% of the federal budget. doubling these programs in the next couple of years to implement the strategies i've just mentioned would represent an affordable and yet politically realistic contribution by the united states in this area, and we urge
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the u.s. government to do that in the context of real. so we are incredibly fortunate to have with us here to incredibly distinguished individuals that reflect on, provide our perspective on opportunities for u.s. leadership on sustainable energy for all, and specifically with respect to real. carlos pascual is the u.s. special envoy and cordoned for international energy affairs, and the president's nominee, the first assistant secretary of state for energy resources. previously he served as u.s. ambassador to mexico in ukraine, and as vice president of foreign policy program at the brookings institution. i had the pleasure of working with carlos and some of those roles and knowing to be the epitome of a diplomatic scholar and i'm excited to hear his new thinking in the role he is crafting at the state department for secretary clinton. william reilly serves as the chairman of the climate works foundation, the world's largest energy for lengthy.
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specializing in sustainable solutions around the world. previously he served as the administrator the environmental protection agency under george h. w. bush, and in the capacity lead the original u.s. delegation to the 1992 earth summit. more recently he has co-chaired what most of you know as the president oil spill division followed the deepwater horizon disaster. as his record and distinguished public service commission is bill reilly is my most respected thought leaders of the energy and environment space. so carlos and bill, please join me on the stage. [applause] >> nice to see you again. >> it's a real pleasure nigel. bill, thank you. thank you to the center for global development, nancy, a
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pleasure failed to be a part of the session, and thank you to the danish embassy and the danish government for the involvement you've had on the sets of issues. when nigel and i spoke a few weeks ago about participating in this session, one of the things i said was that i could talk quite a bit about sustainable energy for all, if nothing else because i've been latched that they have with this guy vijay hire down here. we been spending a lot of time together. if you want to take that as a statement from the u.s. government, the importance, of international cooperation with united nations, world bank on these issues, you are free to do so. i'm not the person who's been leading the efforts on rio+20, because that falls under kerri-ann jones who will obviously you will be working very closely together. and august recess in energy for all has a big, big role to play in the rio+20 some of the i just want make clear those parameters. i'd like to add a few things to
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the discussion that has, give a little bit of context of the united states perspective. i think the first thing that is absolutely critical that happen. and secretary-general's effort is that this was defined effort to leverage private capital investments to sting the action and change. it was not defined as an assistant sprung. the reason why this critical issue go back to the figures that niger was just using. .. -- that's nigel was just using. ..
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into energy infrastructure on an annualized basis. the challenge that we have is not to say we need $48 billion a year and that's an absolutely instrumental fund. the challenge is how you create and change the incentive structures so you have more of the capitol that would have been otherwise going to different types of projects being able to make the decision that the risk and the returns are sufficiently good, and sufficiently dependable that you're willing to make the investments in these kind of sectors. and that, in my mind, is what single energy for all is about. how do you bring together governments, donors, the international community, the host governments are involved, a private sector, banks, pension funds, hedge funds, civil
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society, the kind of organizations that can continue to beef up monitoring groups behind this. how to do we bring them together in order to create this value proposition? in the past, they're have been efforts on coordination to try to achieve greater investment in energy access. but the issue that we have often found coming into this is fascinating, some of the discussions we had in the context of the u.n. -- the ulin foundation, you guys have been absolutely fantastic and providing the substantive not just the financial support, but the substance support that has been so necessary in this effort. one of the things that came out of this discussion is that when we had a dialogue with the private sector and we started talking about issues like commitments, the private sector turnoff because from their perspective they said you guys are talking about charity, and you're talking about the
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corporate social responsibility account. when we say we don't want to go to a corporate responsibility people, but we want to talk to are the people who are responsible for making this serious investments that are going to be in the billions of dollars, the hundreds of millions of dollars and billions of dollars and how we trigger the investments that you would be willing to make. and so it came back to this discussion on sustainable energy from this is what is so valuable a lot this initiative is it starts to bring together groups of actors that can put on the table kind of actions they can take on policies that might be advanced by individual governments, investments that can be made and financing possibilities on the role that the civil society can play, and we then start putting them together and understand where are the gaps, how do we fill the gaps and as a result of that how do we get better performance, and that's the challenge that we have to face, is how to live up to that value proposition.
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the way that we try to approach this sustainable energy for all the ways we are thinking about it as the government we have to look at on the tracks, if your series of the energy access, one has to be on the country basis because in the end it's the country store going to set the policies and we have to think about it here and not least two different ways because there would be the operating investments critical we can't ignore the investments and they will be offered investments critical and what is the policy around the environment around those. what are the possibilities to invest, what kind of financial instruments to you need, what kind of financial institutions and businesses and what kind of civic groups can support that and how do we build better on the individual countries and so what we are trying to work towards is the situation it's not the u.n. or any other organization coming out saying this is a sustainable energy has got but some of the countries that want to be the leaders in this initiative coming out and
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saying they're going to be out there in front we've got it. these are the actions we are going to be taking in ghana bringing together our policy and how we join together more effectively, and where you come and be a partner with us as we take is on further in on the other side and here i would just talk about the global gas firing reduction initiative that's a great. last time we get to talk together we precluded him from saying that initiative. the concept here is there are some issues that are not necessarily country's specific but can be global or sectoral in nature and the good example of that is an initiative which is supported by the world bank called the global budget gas flaring reduction initiative
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that is a major oil and gas company involved, and the proof of this is to look at how do they set standards on how to reduce, and as a result of that from the standards how do you create practices in the industry that can transform a hell of this industry operates so if you can imagine things like that and gas flaring in the building codes because most that exist in 2015 haven't been built yet or solar lightning initiatives that are being moved forward, so these are the kind of things we are trying to do and the final word i'm posting my time we now need to figure out how to transform this into viable financial challenge and so some of the ideas that might shall put on the table are very productive but here are some things we need to give real flops too. in the end of to give money to
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projects. if we in particular let's think about the small-scale projects coming and when we think about those projects you have to think about how do you give investors assurance that they are going to be technically viable, how do you ensure that there is consistency, how do you ensure there can be service and they can repay the loans that they get? how do you assure the financial communities that might actually give them loans might have capability and adequate capitalization, how do you ensure against the currency risk in the intermediary organizations to some form of linder that's starting up? that's the chain we have to follow and so the challenge that we are facing here is how to develop the instruments that would mitigate the risk that would allow the capitol to flow and how to ensure the base is technically sound and i will leave you with this thought and then i will come back to a positive let's think about the mortgage crisis. one of the things that is great
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about fannie and freddie is they are able to securitized mortgages to give hundreds of billions of dollars of capital into the market flow but it was based on a product that wasn't sound, so if we can't create a sound product at the bottom it doesn't matter how much capital we get into the system we don't get the assurance that we want. but we need to do to get the capitol, provide the mechanisms to build, the quality and sustain the quality and as a result of that, be able to create the conditions that allow tens of billions of dollars, 50, $48 billion a year to be able to slow and increase energy access. it's something the we can get done and it's going to be a critical milestone to demonstrate how countries on the crosscutting different groups are stepping up its not the end point and that is what we have to remember. we have to use rio to drive momentum of as an endpoint but to keep us going. thanks very much. have a good day. [applause]
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>> good morning. i want to begin by complimenting the center for global development and climate advisors, nancy and my jolt for convening the session and the audience for the extraordinary insightful penetrating questions asked. i hope the most difficult have already been posed which i must say vijay dealt very well with. i am reminded listening to carlos that one of the things i've done in recent years is to negotiate for investors the purchase of the electric generating company in texas, the largest private equity investment 45 billion-dollar investment, it was a practical profit oriented investment, the kind of numbers that we are talking about here if you are talking about the global private capital, they are not daunting and in fact if the incentives
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are correct and that is what policy is all about can be very effective. i want to begin by going back to stockholm, the conference on the environment, 1972, which was a u.s. delegation headed by russell train who i had dinner with last evening and is now 92. what came out of stockholm were two things in my view. the united nations environment program was created and number two, countries took stock of their environmental commitments and keep a devotees and established environment ministry's. virtually every country established an environment ministry or its equivalent many of them cabinet level agencies. moving forward to rio, the conference on the development in 1992 where i headed the united states delegation, the expectation is much greater than for rio+20. one cannot feel the sense of
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meeting fatigue and a resignation and lowered expectations going into rio+20. i think it is probably a good idea to lower expectations for the conference frankly. there are some specific things in an appealing way that can be achieved there and will achieve the cost perhaps not as dramatically as was achieved 20 years ago but never the less effectively to continue the world, the environment in a better direction. now, what rio did, and i have a number of really indelible memories, most compelling is a flying back from a meeting that i had with the president in three of his ministers wear i leave out the terms under which i would support president bush attending the conference, the president made clear 65 heads of state were waiting to find out if president bush was coming and the would determine their own
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decision to come we had some concerns and was granted take place in that election year in the diplomat from asia who had an important role but commented later we should learn from this experience to never have an international united nations conference during the presidential election year in the united states. well, we are doing it again that somehow rio+19 or 21 doesn't quite do it. i started to talk about the compelling memory that i had to be it was flying back on prince charles plaine. i had met on the plane on charles invitation and princess diana in the middle of the night leaning over to me asking if i would like to go back and watch sleeping with the enemy with her in the back of the play and which i did. and that kind of blotted out a lot of other less pleasant memories of the united states having declined to commit to the
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targets and timetables or have signed the biodiversity convention. what came out of rio 20 years ago is the agenda 21 which i'm happy to see is getting some statement and prominence because the tea party noticed it and they don't like it and it involves a section of sovereignty in the united states. it basically is a litany of positive interventions and policies which have guided countless ministries quietly i think that effectively around the world in thinking about how to do environmental assessment. such good common sense principles. a statement of principles on forestry we didn't get a conventional forestry which the united states and germany particularly drove to get but we got a statement of principles that make sense and are a lot from. i'm disappointed that rio+20 will not address the issue were
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the oceans issue were the fresh water issue in ways that make sense and that will leave something further for the united states to do in the future. we also of course signed a global convention on climate change which created a moral if not a legal obligation to return greenhouse gas emissions to the 1990 level in the year 2000. notably a number of countries have made a very strong commitment at the time did not succeed in that, but now we are getting some help particularly with the downturn in the economy in the greenhouse gas emissions in the last few years and improving the efficiency and intensity of our economy and our energy economies. the most important one is the degree of the international focus on the issues.
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there were 165 heads of state in rio and i heard a charming conversations on the part of some of them what is this by you diversity thing about, what does it mean? some president paying more attention to their environment minister is preparing to become press conference than the ever had before. we had at one end of the presidential spectrum president bush of the united states and president castro of cuba. major asked president bush to come in early to listen to his presentation and that meant president bush was present for president castro's unmitigated attack on the principles and the economy and the history of the united states. what to do with this speech is over, applaud, walkout? i just watched my boss. the first question he was asked is how could you have applauded that attack, it was a blistering attack on you and your country. he's a i know we were given six minutes i didn't think he could do it. [applause]
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how do you take some of those lessons and move them forward? there is a history, and i guess i should digress. i cheer the board of the clan networks foundation. it is a substantial organization which is deploying about $180 million a year into the three regional foundations and six best practice institutes, best practice for energy efficiency. the original foundations are in china and tear up and the united states we expect to have another presence in brazil at the end of the year, by the end of the year also have best practice institutes, which focus upon energy efficiency, policies for appliance come for power, for industry, for agriculture, for land use for the transportation urban development and autos and
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trucks. we promote policies that promote prosperity. we asked no country, we ask nothing of any country that is not in its economic self-interest. we are talking about energy efficiency and we have some of the best people in the room and those institutes. one of our institutes, the institute for the transportation development or to the city in southern china and brazil to promote the conversion of the traffic rhode serving 9 million people in that community to bus rapid transit that now carries 800,000 people a day with drastic reductions in pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and a more congenial way of life. that is but one of the interventions we've had and we work very closely with the chinese government and others to promote efficiency and appliance in india for example we have
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that foundation and the regional climate foundation and one to suggest you reflect on the history of something was done for food and agricultural research. in 1960, norman borlaug was a scientist in the research funded for ten years by the rockefeller foundation, ten years by the way without any obvious progress being noted, the great philanthropic commitment. the international institute was created in the philippines. some six years later philippines were raised and 1970 to the suggestion was made i think by morris strong, this a good jury general of the conference that the united nations, the world bank actually, take over the secretariat and the funding for would then begin a series of
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institutes designed to promote development productivity in all parts of the world. secretary-general of the bank was robert mcnamara. he embraced this program and they're emerged something called the consultative group on the international agricultural research. my expectation, the climate works expectation for the conference in rio is to create a consultative group on low emissions development. climate works to substantial matching funding of the initial outlays made by the world bank and international aid and development organizations. that is a very specific commitment in the expectation of, and i think a very practical and necessary one that could be
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of enormous assistance in meeting the secretary-general's important goal of energy access to all significantly more efficiency, significantly more renewables. i will close with a remark i think i remember more or less accurately from senator moynihan. when he said if i learned one thing in my career, it is that success of a culture is of a society is a culture, not policy. the policy can transform culture and change it for the better. and the two together have worked hysterically to improve life vary considerably for all of us. thank you. [applause] >> thank you very much, bill and carlos for those remarks and we have about 15, 20 minutes to
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hear from the audience. there's a microphone in the back i would like to ask that you raise your hand, and then when the microphone comes to you, you identify yourself for the benefit of our audience. as a, we have a first question over here. >> thank you. we've been talking a lot about what the government can do for policy, and i am just wondering about why the business community can do better to promote these goals better. islamic that's a great question and we will do what we did for the first session to collect three or four questions. right here. >> , from the world research institute here in washington, d.c.. my question, on the comments mr. pascual made earlier on the role of the small projects and energy access in particular. it seems that the initiative is really focused on mobilizing the private sector, which i think is
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important but i also seek a mismatch perhaps with the size and scale of those projects. you give some comments about risking the smaller projects to be done but i would also like to hear about the faults on the particular role of the small and medium enterprises and providing energy access particularly in the rural communities, the decentralized technologies. thank you. >> lisa freed mcginn from climate wire. it was interesting to hear the commitment from climate works for mr. pascual. what will we see from the u.s., what specific commitments will u.s. make in rio? thank you. [laughter] let's take a couple more questions. as he sat in fairness he is leading the energy issue and not coordinating all of the government work on rio.
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okay couple other questions right here. >> sorry to ask another question, are we going to have a commitment on actually phasing out subsidies to fossil fuel? enough already. this is one of the things that's really stopping a level playing field. >> last question and then we will go -- >> i didn't want to do this but since two of my predecessors have asked a second question i have a question about the international hyrdro association says that the hydro potential in africa is twice the energy needs of africa. and it's not a new unknown risky unskilled technology like renewable. why don't we hear more about hydro? >> carlos? >> great questions. and i will try to go through them quickly, because in fact i just studied each and every one of those we can have a seminar to talk about as part of what we need to do to continue to
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develop fees'. in the kind of commitments that are helpful, in terms of the kind of things that the business community can do one of the things that has been critical is getting the insight from the business community, standards and performance that you have been putting forward that are absolutely key to them into getting into a global dialogue and then for countries to be able to pick up on these and integrate them into a discussion. i mentioned sort of in running the issue, the building code. we have the lead standards that starred in the united states and have gone global the controls have been working on this extensively. we learn more about the best practices groups that you were developing governor climate works. but here is an area of it is absolutely fundamental. and if you think about india and china and the extent to which the energy use is building base
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residential base, then she put it in the perspective that most of the buildings they will have in 2013 or 2015 haven't been built and if you can get adoption of the codes that are developed in the conjunction of the private sector and if it's done in a way that can be financial, we can change the whole equation, that entire equation the we are going to be facing 20 or 40 years down the road. if you take similar approaches and look at the steel industry for example if it can come to an understanding of what kind of measures they can propose for the reduction or increase of efficiency in that sector i imagine these are many of the kind of things you've been working on plan that works. it's really did as well to the question of financing. and let me kind of jump over to that question for a second. one of the challenges of the evin finances commits a lot easier to get one into the large
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skill projects. and it's a lot easier to manage the political risk insurance, it's a lot easier to be able to work correctly on the project to be able to give the investors a sense of the technical viability of the projects and it's a lot easier to deal with specific interests like to guarantee the power purchase agreement. when you're dealing with small-scale projects coming here the challenge becomes multiplied because many different groups in this respect and i know the world bank can talk about specific projects but say small-scale solar projects that have been integrated with cell phone systems to allow the purchase mechanisms where you can then on the basis of that have power which essentially sent in a village and you have the ability to actually use
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wireless technology to use the meters. interesting projects developing along the scales. the question is how do you created into a valuable business model because in the end, you will have to figure out okay the international providers of that technology are not going to come in to that level of the market. you have to create how to figure out partnerships with local entities and built that capacity to be able to insure you have the ability to service those projects and maintain the most technically sound overtime and then if you start bundling them together you come back to the question mentioned before how do you ensure the bundles are absolutely sound so that if you then bring them back into a financial intermediary you're not selling a product filled with john that can then create a financial crisis for you later on. one of the challenges we are trying to work through is how to
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work but with the system and take the financial instruments that may exist. in technical assistance to be able to insure technical feasibility the aid has an authority that can provide partial guarantees between small-scale projects and intermediary investors. how can that be defined as a part of the package. then extending that back into the broad financial community where opec can play an important role for example in the past year they provided about a billion dollars worth of renewable energy finance so that might get you renewable energy finance projects but we need to get more of that financed to the intermediaries that can push it down so this the challenge we are working through. next week at the clean energy ministry one of the things that condition is going to be doing this funding and number of side sessions we're going to have
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with a range of different potential financial partners and we are trying to work through the flow chart and figure out where do we need the intervention and hal dewey but those interventions in place. in terms of the u.s. commitment will be will seek particularly in the energy in rio concerns' lines in talking about now and i'm not going to see with the commitment is that why else would you go to rio. think about it from this perspective. how can we mobilize technical assistance that can be made available up those critical points of intervention whether it is in the small skill project, whether it is in some form of guarantees of the financing system, with its providing greater assurance on on grid power that you have utilities that your voluble and able to function, tariff rates that can actually compensate the
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technology, all of those things we can work with countries together whether it is providing support to the ngos on the ground that can play an important role in the marketing networks. another important type of contribution that we can make all of those kind of things would then be packaged together. but here is the note i would close on. i think that to be effective one of the things we have to do is to put them together in packages then actually work better than just simply giving statements of commitment that say we are going to do things and not understanding how the pieces come together. i question on the hydro, a huge hydro potential in africa and especially southern africa and still there are some people that have a glimpse in the body about the drc power in africa in the
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power sector and energy sector role throughout the bank but it's a topic maybe we can come back to because i think there's a huge amount of potential especially with some change happening in south africa now and being a bigger market that can essentially be the demand focus that helps to provide the financial security necessary for financing on the hydro sector. >> i would like you to answer the questions you felt would be the most relevant to do but if you could add to your remarks something about how you lived to the original would advise the president of your surfing in the white house to think about the question of where the issue would go off and how to define the u.s. contribution and have a special window into the decision making process and your analysis on how the decision would be used by the white house. >> there's no question about rio he will be attacked for the
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problems at home and engage in a talkfest which isn't likely to produce a concrete achievement that he can campaign on in the near term. that is the way it was raised for president bush and will be no doubt post to president obama and there's a lot of truth in that because it's an issue on the campaign i'm quite sure a lot of people will be disappointed if he doesn't go. people have said it is vital to the conference and to the brazil and the united states relationship that president bush, and i promise i will do everything to not embarrass the president but make this work, recognizing the ism of the campaign. he's going to have to sort those things out and have a constituency that very much wanted to go to rio and continue to play a significant role as he did in copenhagen on the world stage where environmental policies and priorities are
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discussed and further. on the question of coming back to the business question what can businesses do. i'm reminded of a conversation i had with the president of mexico about their intervention in the world trade organization to try to prohibit the u.s., which was trying to basically then tuna olver sale in the united states if it wasn't safe because of the way in which it was, the turnover setup on falling dolphin, and he immediately got to the point and said i will fix that and he withdrew the application and said under no circumstances do i want to win and see mexican tuna on the will to carry the label in american supermarkets dolphin safe. the was the genius of the fort stewart should council created by the world wildlife fund and others years ago and the marines georgia council, both of which are labeling the non-governmental organizations, in fact one of the most
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successful regulations in the united states is building the certification and it's not a regulation of the major developers in california, of course built the stadium in l.a. told me you cannot get lending for a significant building from a bank in california if it isn't clear lead certified. that tells you something in my history creating the program when i was in the epa is the energy star computer and program growing. in the beginning these were only advisory come only informational at the have a significant impact. if you look today wal-mart has made commitments to the sustainable fisheries and throughout the supply chains the president of wal-mart said very clearly, ceo of wal-mart said we took stock of world fisheries and concluded of something is not done there are important species we will not be selling in five years that we now sell because there won't be enough.
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i think that perception and the degree to which it has permitted to the culture is significantly affected consumer facing companies in the united states in the developed and the developing world and elsewhere as well. there is beginning to transform the business culture and it's having i think an appreciable effect on the purchase of sustainable products on the organic harvesting techniques not only chemical techniques and the like. >> we just have a couple minutes before we begin our keynote addresses and i would like to take a couple more questions and give the speaker is a final chance to offer their closing remarks. in the back here. >> - kathleen from the development advertisers. i've heard a lot of emphasis from both of you speakers about the billion dollar commitment required from the public from the private sector in order to find a sustainable energy access
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for all. there seems to be a difference of emphasis talking about funding that will go to research and funding that will go to will a lot of these initiatives so i would be interested for you to talk more about what the appropriate balance is for research and new technology but also expanding the delivery of the existing solutions. >> the final question, the gentleman right here. >> i'm an american university student, thank you for taking a second question, and my question is in the united states and the global community is biofuels and others that are going controversy on the nuclear energy and without the things that it happened recently what is there will and the rio+20 conference. >> one thing on those questions and also any thoughts that you
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had intended should get to today but haven't had a chance. >> i will go quick. in terms of the public and private fund, there's absolutely no doubt there are public funds that are necessary for the research and development and feasibility studies for the technical assistance and how much out of the $48 billion is necessary for the public funds i would have a hard time putting a specific. the question that we need to keep on asking ourselves is how to get results and if the result is to generate investment that's necessary in the specific concept sluts look back at the technical resistance at the private sector financing requirements from that and understand related to those investments how do you get the right combination of private and public and and the key point that we are trying to get at here is that we can't just look at those as a public funding goal and that leverage as private capital. and biofuel i want to mention the global biofuels energy partnership that was created
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last year. and in may of last year they came together on a 24 recommendations, eight of them environmental and eight of them social and economic. they create standards and indicators for how to measure the interactive tv to effective. it's a development and moving forward. even though we are going to take one more minute on one thing that happened this past weekend which was hugely important and that is the summit of the americas. one of the things that was put forward was and an initiative called connect 2022 advanced by columbia i have supported by the leaders throughout coming and what it's going to do is begin a process, advanced process of creating seven regional interconnections to the point that you make those connections and expand them out further. that may sound relatively boring but if you look at this from the perspective of how you expand the access of the renewable energy you need bigger markets
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for hydro, wind and solar and interconnections need. >> i would just say to get private investment into a number of areas the united states on this every single conference is a bit of a broken record but it happens to be true in fact i can think of places where subsidies and constrain some palm the market's have prevented the efficient investments. for example in power but also in
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water. a number of countries in the world have policies that provide free electricity for farmers could pollute water for some several hundred feet down advising the water table to drop 15 or 20 feet a year and then producing low value crops. these are counterproductive policies. there's any number of barriers to entry in the creation of power in the facilities and a number of developing countries that were not there, cheaper power and much more successful power would be provided by the private sector. these are opportunities to alter and one can go country by country and we have this in the united states included but they are there for the taking into the involve reform but if we are committed to but making energy access and increasing renewables and the rest of this is the way to do it. thank you very much. please join me in thanking the
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panelists. [applause] >> terrific. we are on to the t-note section of the event today and excited to have for a partner of this event the governor of denmark and the embassy of denmark, not only a leader in the development assistance and a longtime leader in that space, but also is through its new government which was recently elected making a tremendous commitment to going green not only domestically but also supporting the green revolution and green growth around the world i am absolutely delighted to welcome to give a keynote remark the danish minister of the cooperation
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after being elected to the danish parliament in september, 2011 for the social liberal party. he became the demark minister of development cooperation in october. he has a ph.d. in international economics from the agricultural university in copenhagen and prior to being elected to parliament, he served as a special light visor for the e.u. climate commissioner connie and therefore is the perfect person to bring together these issues of clean energy and development. minister bach please, the audience join me in welcoming. [applause] >> think you very much for the warm welcome, and i am pleased to be here ladies and gentlemen, colleagues, a few words on our expectations for you and a few words on sustainable energy for
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all. i was recently in brasilia having a dialogue with some of the key negotiators on the rio+20 and they were quite concerned and said that the real outcome was now becoming a christmas tree, it was becoming overloaded with candles and decorations from all countries hanging more and more items on the trees, and it is becoming longer and longer. but as all in denmark know the most important thing about the christmas tree is that it has to be the right side up and a bunch of presence at the bottom, and that is what we should focus on. ra view the bright side of the top is and must become the vision to build an inclusive and agree in the economy that creates sustainable growth opportunities for all. this should be our vision in
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rio. less be promoted by a strong economy. it should be followed up by policy reforms that can give the right incentives pricing as we also heard it is the key tool and should be used wherever possible to create growth in the public, private partnership is another key and we hope we will be able to create a number of strong partnerships and rio and we stand ready to also strengthen them and share experiences in october when we host the global green forum in copenhagen. financing is of course critical element. we must ensure that parts of the global finance now work in the same direction of the climate finance, the development finance, and we must be even better at ensuring that our public finance can leverage much larger amounts of private
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finance. being here this spring meetings we hope the world bank will take a key role on promoting finance and promoting green growth and creating the knowledge and the policy dialogue, and also the loan portfolio that can promote it. so, the top of the christmas tree has to be an inclusive and green growth. when it comes to the presence of the bottom we hope we will be able to build the foundation for a new set of sustainable development goals. we must include all elements of sustainability. they must be relevant for all countries and they must include and build upon and increase the ambition of the millennium development goals. there is a lot to be done. the good news of the spring meeting is of course we have already now been able to halve the number of people living in extreme poverty, but that of course only means that there's
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still too many people still living in extreme poverty coming and we need to be there to increase. millions of mothers still buy and what should have been the most happy moment in their life, giving birth to a child here, there's a long way to go. but then we need to expand with new and much stronger goals for the biodiversity for land, water, oceans and the sole sustainable energy for all, and they should support and strengthen the human rights command the ship especially promote the rights and opportunities for women. we need strong indicators and monitoring tools for the sustainable development, globally. we very much welcome the number of initiatives also by the world bank and regulation of ecosystems and creating new measures and indicators and
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creating new measures of gdp and wealth creation to move on the agenda. and we need a global architecture. let's be daring and establish a strong sustainable development council that can monitor and report and that can keep us accountable in moving forward to our sustainable development. we would like to see a stronger units that can increase the public and private participation so this is the christmas tree mostly religious mostly ethnic tree that we would like to see in rio and the green economy, the top good presence of the bottom in terms of sustainable development goals, strong indicators, accountability of the organizational ambitions. and of course it should be humiliated by the sustainable
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energy to read on sustainable energy for all i hope, and i've heard several times the u.n. secretary-general telling the story how we got access to electricity when he was a freshman and how it changed his life. i hope that once again when he rides now he will tell the same story. i also have a slightly personal relationship to the sustainable energy. when i was a freshman, my father elected one of the first modern windmills in denmark, one of the first hundred that was produced in the 40 of the windmills and one of the first hundred he erected on the farm we lived and it was a 55 year and we thought it was a big wind mill. today they are 100 times larger than that. so technology has done a lot. back then the share in the total electricity production in denmark was close to zero.
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today it's almost one-quarter. and with a new energy plan we have just approved in the parliaments, 50% of electricity in 2020 and denmark would come from the windmills. the wind mill industry has created thousands of jobs and the enormous income opportunities for denmark and many other countries so the economy is there and it is a win win opportunity and sustainable energy from all. it's definitely an opportunity for africa that struggles to collect firewood and struggles to make food using wood in the polluted environment where she and her kids get sick but it's also an opportunity for denmark and the u.s. and this conference is all about. and how they come about it would
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be because strong support and development, but it premier li did so because they were price subsidies to the wind electricity and there were taxes on energy from a fossil fuels, the prices matter enormously and we met price is right and this is an energy for all serbs of course hasn't done a lot because in order to promote access to all, also the crisis must below it can go into the double efficiency in the future the prices must be high, and if we want to make sure that it's sustainable energy prices must be right. so here we have an enormous challenge in making the good policies in all countries that can promote sustainable energy for all. we need an enormous global price policy change, and this is the challenge that we should work on. sustainable energy for all
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concerning the climate to date on the head because the climate debate has been above constraints and restrictions from the top sustainable energy for all is about opportunities, growing for all people from the bottom and that is also why with the commission we hosted a high level event the people in brussels on the sustainable energy for all, developing countries came and they were encouraged because this is about opportunity and this is about jobs, is about building a green economy. cities are some of the elements and divisions we hope to see in rio, we and europe are heavily engaged and we hope to come with a strong unified voice towards building a global inclusive agreed economy and we hope the u.s. will be there as well. thank you. [applause]
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the minister has agreed to take a few questions and we have a few minutes for that. if i may ask the first question you are speaking here not only has the cooperation minister from denmark but also as a country that holds the presidency of the european union and i wonder what you could reflect whether you're a busy night in its support for the sustainable energy for all has the strong backing that denmark is given to it and also offered in observations on whether there are any points of difference between your government and tear on the one hand and of its u.s. administration on the other. i'm not asking you to suggest there's any deep transatlantic divide, but i think the audience would be interested to know if there are points you would like to see an evolution in the u.s. policy. [laughter] >> i can definitely say that the european union countries are
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united at a sustainable energy. on monday the european commission's launched the initiative to plug and to the electricity and to half a billion people by 2030 and i believe and hope the european countries will align themselves behind this vision. so the european union and commission, the european countries and european commission is strongly devoted and engaged in the support of the secretary-general initiative and it's not only about access, this is also the goal for efficiency and renewables. they will be met by year at although there are current debates about the energy efficiency directed in europe that could perhaps moved faster and we hope they will.
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but definitely hear of his united behind them. what we hope from americans? we hope a strong engagement and a of course this is not only to the benefit of the world. that's a story i would like to tell the benefit of the u.s. and i don't think i need to tell that story to anybody in this room, but i think some have said it in the energy revolution will be the leaders of the world and i do believe this challenge comes upon all of us and it's a positive challenge of creating the building blocks for a future strong climate from b. knees, doing it from below, the building blocks in terms of investing in their renewables and sustainable energy patterns for all it's a very positive challenge and i do hope and trust that they will come and strongly.
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>> the secretary-general will be joining us momentarily. as you understand they will be accompanied by a sizable delegation from the u.n. and a number of you have taken reserved seats in the first or second row and if you're in a reserved seat and not supposed to be in my bus deutsch quietly relinquish nellis we collect a member of questions from the audience. to questions from the minister and give you a chance to offer your final words. >> on the energy in a factory we are seeing a lot of development in the developing world and china, india and elsewhere with what advice can you give both the u.s. as well as those looking to invest and develop manufacturing and clean energy, how do they become leaders in their own technology?
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>> how do the countries that invest become leaders of their and technology, was that the question? sorry if i misunderstood. >> how do you promote more investment. >> how do we promote -- well, i do believe that the investments would come also because now, finally these investments are heavily beneficial. if you look at the danish companies that now invest in their renewables around the world, these investments yield solid benefits and are not good investments, and i think that is really going to change the name of the game. but of course we must acknowledge that in many countries prices are still not right. we use five or six times as you already heard more subsidies on fossil fuel today than we use on their renewable energy. if you want to create a revolution on the reva will energy you need to get the price is right, and that is a right
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you can give to all countries that want to become a leader in sustainable energy. you need to get the price is right. to with 50 u.s. billion dollars used on subsidies that are many of them environmentally harmful, those investments could be used so much better in promoting a renewable energy investment. but, you need to have a financing scheme all over the place. there are sheep set good examples and i assure you heard them already of how you can actually create a financing schemes at the local level in the villages in africa that promote solar panel investments, and how you can create a public-private partnerships where you leveraged financing and create guarantees which we do a lot more now with the
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assistance. we use public funds to create the guarantees that can allow the funds to come into the sustainable energy investments. so it has to go from the very top to the very bottom. getting the price is right and creating the financing structures to improve the investment. >> great. second question. >> from the world research institute. i was just going to turn to the international financial institutions that are at the control of the european union, particularly which is done pretty admirable work on the energy efficiency in curious if there are additional commitments forthcoming from those institutions for the additional funding. spread the european investment bank? >> but in particular are also of your investors petraeus connect the commission would come in the strongly on the sustainable energy for all and the investment bank as well would
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increase its loan portfolio in the sustainable energy. and the same goes bilaterally in many countries for a number of the financing. we have prominent visitors. [applause] >> [inaudible conversations] >> thank you very much, minister bach. >> we will have more in just a few minutes on the global renewal and sustainable energy development and u.n. general secretary ban ki-moon is arriving in the room and is going to speak in just a few
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minutes. .. >> he has really stuck to this nation of worrying about climate issues as they affect the world support, and about energy for all. mr. secretary-general. [applause]
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>> thank you, nancy. president of center for global development, your excellent minister bach, minister of development of denmark, we met just this morning. and distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, it's a great honor and privilege for me to speak and discuss with you one of the very crucial important agenda or humanity is the energy issues. i cannot think of a more timely, or more important reason to come together and sit together with you today. energy ultimately is a global threat. it connects economic growth, social and environmental sustainability. i know this from my own experience. as a young boy of korea, i grew
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up during a time when we didn't have energy, and july became freshmen in the college 1963 i had to study. and i had to leave under smokey -- i had to read under a smokey lead. i used only during the time to prepare for exam, examinations. they were too expensive for me and for most of the people. this memory has stayed with me such a long time. i have many things to tell you. whenever i talk about the education, i have flood of things to talk to african people, and many poor children. i just want you to give them a sense of hope for their rightful future. the pending on looking to the united nations.
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fortunately, my country changed. my perspective also changed. we were able to have affordable energy now. nobody would have questioned whether we would have lights here, or some heating faciliti facilities. but too many people around the world have not that kind of a benefit. widespread energy policy condemns billions of people to miss opportunities. energy poverty is a threat to the achievement of the millennium development goals. it is inevitable. it is unsustainable. it is unjust, i'm just.
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children cannot study in the dark. cannot learn or be productive when they have to walk miles and miles to have firewood. businesses and economies cannot grow without power. we must find a way to end this energy poverty. and the climate change, a growing threat to all of us, we must also rethink conventional energy solutions. we can no longer -- this is what we have done through many, many last decade without knowing there is a limit in our planetary resources. we are using 1.3 times of our available resources, as if we have five planet earth. this notions must be changed.
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fortunately, providing sustainable energy to all, benefits for developed and developing countries alike. they can't enable developing countries to leapfrog over the energy systems of the past, and build a resilient competitive, clean energy economies for all. that is why i've established sustainable energy for initiative november last year. this has three very ambitious goals. first, provide access to all the people around the world of energy by 2030. and to double this energy efficiency by 2030, and to double the share of renewable energy and the global energy mix.
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these sounds very ambitious, but we believe that it is possible, it is attributable, if we worked together. that is why i have mostly established a high level group of experts and visionary thinkers. i'm pleased to say that united states has provided strong leadership. we have had secretary of state, dr. steven chu, his vision. we had senator, president of foundation has provided his trademark passion. we have chad holliday with chairman of america bank. is also serving as the co-chair of this, along with director general. i am truly, truly grateful for their dedication and commitment.
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so members come from very different backgrounds and comes to the initiative. they are united. they are united in thinking and working together for humanity. to in this energy poverty. our challenge is to join forces, overcome the barriers and bring our -- [inaudible] we need to scale up example images clean energy and energy efficient technologies. we need innovation to spread throughout the world, especially in energy demand is growing fastest. we must make a quantum leap and private capital froze my forging a strong partnership with a private sector, global growth, and primary source of new
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investment. my sustainable energy for all initiative will bring together key stakeholders in an effort to create transformative change in the world energy systems. by leveraging the global convening power of the united nations, it introduced new public-private, by fostering the necessary and enabling conditions, including mitigate risk and initiative. promote largest scale investment. and by engaging a broad range of -- the initiative will mobilize solutions, and for the commitment. the partnership will be central to this endeavor. that is why i am making sustainable energy for all one of the main initiatives to be
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supported by day you in partnership facility which i am going to established soon. that will be one of my commitments to implement this agenda which i have laid out january of this year, as i begin my second term as secretary-general. next week in london, the clean energy ministerial meeting will receive our action agenda on 11 areas, very concrete areas, of how we can end this poverty. we must rally behind these priorities. i am very excited that we are joining hands with a clean energy ministerial to promote game changing initiatives, such as the global lighting, energy excess partnerships. developing countries are also
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standing up. ghana, all the country to partner with this initiative have started developing program of action. many more countries are getting involved. and already this week the european commission pledged to providing access to sustainable energy so these, half a billion people by 2030. and i think minister bach in his capacity as chairman of european union to have initiated this a very bold initiative. these are all powerful that can help set a new course for generations to come. i count on all of you to emulate these strong initial examples of support. ladies and gentlemen, the u.n.
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conference on sustainable development, known as -- is just two months away, 60 days. member states want to make the most of rio plus 20. they want to see new political commitment to sustainable development. they also want to see a concrete deliverables that will place us on this path. the negotiations are complex, and wide-ranging. i continue to use every possible opportunity to press member states to maintain high level of ambition. and to produce a powerful outcome of document. this morning i'm coming from, just to conclude, the world finance meeting which was held at world bank. that was for the first time that secretary-general of the united nations has participated in this
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world bank, imf, finance ministers meeting. and we discussed about this energy. we discussed about overall aspect of sustainable development at rio+20. negotiations very difficult, but we are committed to make this a real great success for humanity. the current one identifies 26 critical areas thomas starting from the climate change, water, food and jobs, cities, oceans and land use, tourists and transport, chemicals, forest and climate change, poverty education, and sustainable consumption, and production. those are some of the very key issues where we are now hoping to have bold, ambitious meeting.
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energy is essential to each of these. energy is crosscutting issue. without energy we can achieve anything. therefore, if we are successful in providing energy, if we are able -- wisely, you can have solution for all of this. one expected outcome is new and measurable commitment, but commitments alone are not enough. we must do what we can do. we know what to do. we need to focus more attention on how we will do it. that means finding things and technical assistance. we need a system to track our days and where we may be falling
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short. we need to establish the regulatory frameworks. major groups such as business and industry has a central role to play in planning and implementation. we need to strengthen the interface between science and policy making, and to improve the institutional framework for development. for my part as secretary-general, i am committed to mobilize in the entire u.n. system to promote success, and then the robust implementation of what is agreed. as i said this morning, while i was meeting with the finance ministers, i emphasize that their role would be as crucial as anyone's. the transformation to agreeing economy will be propelled in
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large a part by their decisions on investments, subsidies, incentives, environmental accounting, and much else. i stressed to them that challenges we face are of such immense magnitude, and so closely interconnected that they require nothing less than the paradigm shift, a fundamental reset of the global development agenda. i emphasized that we must seize this once in a generation opportunity to agree on a concrete set of outcomes that will create an inclusive green economy for this and future generations. i am also mobilizing the entire u.n. system. last week in geneva, i chaired
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what is known as a chief executive board meeting, where all the heads, leaders of the united nations, specialized agencies, programs, and international financial institutions like the world bank and imf, they are all gathered together where i chaired it and we agreed and committed ourselves to produce an ambitious and broad package in the name of united nations system, which will be discussed by the member states. let me share with you from a joint declaration we used. we issued as result of this mean, just a brief meeting. i've got rio+20 must provide for the future we want, a future with peace, dynamic, economic and social development, universal building, and a healthy and equitable
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environment to present for present and future generations. we have men and women, boys and girls, equally contributing to and benefit from development. this is the task before us. the great challenge of our time, rio+20 is those crucially important opportunity. we must ensure that it is -- 20 years ago. as a leading think tank in the united states, a center for global development is a uniquely positioned for policy and help ensure that development commitments are kept. you have crucial and important role to play in this process. we count on your research, your
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reputation to help us move toward sustainable energy pool. that's why the success in real and more sustainable future for all. together, let's walk to shape this world, future, let us walk together to make this world better for all. and i thank you very much for your attention, and i count on your leadership. thank you. [applause] >> thank you very much, mr. secretary general. you can see the excitement you engendered. and on the part of the center,
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we accept your challenge to help in the fundamental vignette that you invoke. and i also thank you for the energy you have brought to the issue of sustainable energy. the secretary-general has agreed to answer some questions from the floor. maybe i could ask the first question. mr. secretary general, one of our ambitions about today's event has been to help formulate and push and encourage the u.s. in terms of its commitments and its promised actions at rio+20. i wonder, you have said a lot about the various commitments that you are receiving through the u.n., to making this new reset, this reset real and operational. going forward. i wonder if you could say, give us, if you could whisper in the ears of president obama, if you
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could whisper in the air of secretary chu, if you could whisper in the air of tim wirth, who would whisper in the air of some of our leaders in congress, what would be, what would you say? what would you ask him? >> i have liberty saying publicly and privately addressing many global challenges like sustainable development, climate change or hunger eradication, global health issues, is political will and leadership really counts most important. it depends upon how a leader of a country or leaders of the world commit themselves, commit themselves. that is why i have been -- that's why we're going to
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rio+20. one of the most important forces is to have leaders commit themselves, raising political leadership. as of today, more than 130 heads of state and government are coming. they are coming. it will be one of the biggest united nations conferences in the history. president obama -- crucial import again, as number one world economy, as the most powerful and leadership country. we count on the united states on everything we do. when it comes to united nations, 22-27% of their budget. regular and peacekeeping budget. when it comes to climate change,
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u.s. can play the most important role. that is why i had been walking very closely with u.s. president, former presidents bush and current president obama. and president obama has been very much committed and forward-looking and addressing global challenges. i hope that he will participate himself. g20 summit meeting. that is why force in a just take effect, we are put back to back -- synergistic, right after g20 i understand that all g20 leaders will be in moscow those in mexico. then after that just a few hours flight, they will have to come. the message has already been delivered to president obama and
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i believe that you all have to speak. you have to maybe better access to whisper to his ears. [laughter] i really count on your cell. this is not only the government, i count on business communities, civil societies. sometimes civil societies as bigger power than i secretary-general. sometimes i need to to be politically sensitive sometimes on certain issues. but you don't need to worry about more sensitivity so you can speak out always. [laughter] so why don't you raise your voice? thank you spent yes, please send president obama a tweed. [laughter] spent yes, tweet. [laughter] questions? yes, please. go ahead in addition self. >> american university. thank you very much for your dedication to its this really
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important topic. and i was wondering if you could maybe mentioned briefly, or recite briefly on commitments or maybe dedication of the private sector that you've seen so far towards your initiative, may be given in your meetings this morning. thank you very much. >> mr. secretary-general, how about we take several questions and then you can decide which ones and how you want to answer. yes, lisa. >> thanks so much. lisa friedman from climate water. could you perhaps say what you think could, out of the rio that could most directly help the u.n. climate negotiations? thank you. >> other questions? yes, please. >> thank you, your excellency.
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it seems a significant emerging issue is that the total scale of the human endeavor on the planet is, it's really overusing planetary and natural resources. so i'm wondering how you would recommend that rio+20 do with this conundrum that we all want more human development, i get in the face of the fact that we are already over subscribing. thank you. >> should we -- do you want to answer those and then will have time for one more round? >> one more. >> one more, please. >> jack warner with climate institute. we have a big project with all a small island states in the country, and we did a presentation for the general assembly last you on this. would like to see if we could go count on your support to have the island states become the leaders and going towards sustainability. >> very good. >> thank you. on this very important questions, very important. in addressing many global
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challenges, we believe that partnership is very important. in the past, normal, usual pattern was that it's been on the government. government that has been providing official development assistance too many developing world. united nations has been heavily depending upon the government sources, funding sources, but in this time of era, air of austerity when most of the donor countries are suffering from economic difficulties, i think role of the private sector's will be very much important. i think they are the ones who really have innovations in technology. they are the ones who really invest more, and wisely, for
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sustainable and green economy. government, nobody make their policy guidelines. even private sectors, they are leading the governments. they are leading the governments. toward the right and better innovations. but it's not really against indigenous communities we count on. it is civil societies. never in the past has the voices of civil society been so stronger these days. you are even stronger than government ministers or prime ministers or presidents. they are sometimes very weak to your voice. so use your influence to challenge government leaders, to work to sustainable, sustainable way.
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politics, economic policies, social policies, they all should be based on sustainable path. and this is what we are going to achieve ngo plus -- rio+20 meeting to put everything on sustainable. including youth issues. we have to provide decent job opportunities for women and youth. and we have to change, business as usual time. this, let me go to this 2030, third question. this is related. we are using 1.3 times more than we have. if you have to spend 1.3 times
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more, what would happen to your own economy? what would happen to your companies? they all bankrupt. if we continue this way, as the same way that industrialized countries spend and create in terms of using our resources, it's something like we're having five planet earth. we have only one birth. we have only one birth. we don't have five. but what you are doing, what we are doing is as if there is no tomorrow. in the name of prosperity. we have to change this. we have to be very austere in terms of utilizing resources. that is why we have to use renewable energy. we have only 16% of global renewable energy in global
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energy mix. .. so let us be very conscious of the pachauri limitations. we have a limited resource for a very strong message i'm telling you.
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on another issue, a specific issue of would be negotiating the climate change of. we have a list of 26 important areas we have to address starting from climate change. but the specific meeting will not be the venue for climate change and negotiation. climate change a separate united nations mandated process of negotiation what is known as united nations framework convention on climate change. we had 18 negotiations last october. i have made this climate change number one priority on the
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agenda in addressing without addressing climate change as soon as possible like 2020, then we will be heading eight hitting point predator's in this slowly approaching threat through our world to our future. that's why i had been watching the member states to agree on globally binding comprehensive plan and change encouraging the last year of the states have agreed on a global binding treaty by 2015 and five more years following the ratification our target is by 2020 we will have an effective binding
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comprehensive climate treaty. that is our target. but the strong reaffirmation of the commitment of the united nations to address but we have to deal with many white water scarcity, food crisis, gender issues, global health, transport, all of these are important issues which we have to address a very comprehensively from a broad perspective for the future of the world. and last, about this smaller developing safe -- of developing state for the global ambassadors for the smaller island developing states. you have a very powerful group
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of smaller states whose futures are threatened. that is why we have to address this climate change as soon as possible. september last year i visited the developing states in the pacific. for the first time the secretary-general of the u.n. has ever visited these smaller islands in the pacific states. i'm also struck by what i've seen. i went to the islands and it is almost under the water continuously, and we were given
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the objective in case -- i saw many children have to be very diligent in watching in the rise during night time. i was struck when i read the three or four weeks ago the president told us negotiating with the future of government to relocate all of his country's population because the island sinking for their future, for their survival. there are so many countries. that's why i had been raising
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alarms on the importance and the urgency of climate change and very much committed to these issues. the united nations has established a special bureau dealing with a small island developing states. you have seen this mode of violence who is former president hadn't held a cabinet meeting to raise the awareness of this. if you don't feel much prosperous country there for what i am telling the cities of the south american government of the state's you have to see beyond what you are living. this is mostly prosperity. you don't kill anything real evin climate change but you
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don't killed. but when you go out there are millions of people whose life are threatened days daily by this impact of drought and climate change and scarcity of water. those are things we have to help those peoples of the united nations is committed and cannot work together. that is why very important opinion makers. let us work together for the future of our generation and the future and i thank you very much for this opportunity. >> thank you. [applause]
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>> thank you for your inspiration. please remain where you are until the secretary-general leaves. i would like to inclosing think the government of denmark and those of you that have principate for your inspiration sector general and to nigel, the climate advisers and to our fantastic speakers. i hope you will all pick up a copy of the report which gives you an agenda for what the united states, with the role of the u.s. can be at rio+20. thank you all very much.
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[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations]
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this year's studentcam competition asks students across the country what part of the constitution was important to them and why. today's second prize winner selected the tenth amendment. >> i would have to say my favorite class is probably art, world studies or my business finance class. >> probably going to have to be electronics. >> i would say i'm doing a pretty poor. >> i'm doing pretty well except for math and science those are not my strong points. >> probably not as well as i should be. i don't really put in a whole lot of effort into my other classis. i feel like i think it's a waste of time.
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i lose interest. i am not motivated to work for it. >> it's not something i'm interested in i don't feel as applicable to life i don't see the point. i think it's because i'm not a mathematical person. in some of my class is i like them so i work hard. in others, i take naps. >> do i do my homework? >> as students, we often find ourselves asking how is this part of my future. especially things like calculus. teachers say we learn what we learn so we can be more successful, but sometimes it seems like the only reason is to help us be successful is because it's things the state requires. the tenth amendment of the u.s. constitution states that the
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power is not to the united states by the constitution, nor prohibited to it by the state's reserve to the states respectively or to the people. currently the education system is included in those rights to the state. >> i think the writers of the constitution wanted to define that something should be governed by a national level, by the constitution but some things are better served through the state's and the government of individual states. >> currently the debate is the u.s. government should take even more control over education. but the perspective of many students curriculum doesn't leave them as motivated as they would be on their freedom. don't get me wrong. as a student i think there are things that have to be standardized curriculum. >> i think the benefits of standard is curriculum are that it encourages you or forces you to take class is that what increase your general knowledge because it encourages students to stand out and try different things, such as art or fielder
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and music coming and they find those areas they can pursue that in college. sprigg the benefits from the standard of curriculum are many i think. one of them is again, students are learning the same things. influences into a scirica them are on accountability efforts, state assessments, federal assessments. so the implication might be. but we will also be the professional i think we are holding our souls more accountable when we do that kids achieve more. >> ethical class is should be required. i think we need to focus on the whole child. kids need to have the arts, graphic arts, visual arts, ban, music, acquired, maybe not all of those that at least a taste of all of those and of course they need to have math, science, english, social studies. bye giving them plus courses and focusing only on what people think that we are going to lose kids. kids need to be able to make choices, be able to make
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decisions within discipline, but we as educators of the responsibility to provide the trees is the target for them and the kids can make decisions after that. >> the movement towards the standardization of the curriculum began back in 1983 when the u.s. department of education released a report that's really controversial. it was called a nation at risk. and a stated that the public education system was being eroded by the rising mediocrity. >> we have a tradition of local control of the schools, and that's a tradition that has served us well, but i do think it's important for the federal government to step up and help local school districts to some of the things they need to do. >> i've got to agree. i think the education system got today where it is for a reason. it's important some educators have control over the students to give them a little taste of every subject. however, i think the problem would stand up for a lot of students of the government were to step up and take even more control at the national level.
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the current system is based more on the time when society and american needed, you know, people to run factories, but now, it's even more specialization i feel the to the united states could have more room to expand and find the area in which they xl the most. we took a survey out of 100 high school students, 76 out of the high school students said they would rather work under them on standardized education systems. that meant 76 out of the 100 students are not feeling motivated to work under the current circumstances. it plays a big part for students as they go through high school. obviously the student doesn't see the need for school it is hard to be motivated if they don't see some rabbit motivation from being in the class and get tired of it quickly and give a lot easier. >> according to their rights for action education approximately 69% of all high school dropouts said the drop out because they were not motivated to work hard.
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as we talk about the pros as having this interest curriculum. with the benefits of an on standardized curriculum? >> the benefits of an on standardized curriculum is i think it allows for a lot more in the depravity and a person's education, and i think as an educator, educators possibility -- my responsibility as an educator is to try to make as much relevance to my subject to the kids as possible. to get back to the relevant question, if it's not relevant to you then why should i try. i think if we got more motivated like half and half, where it's back to the basic academics and the other part of the day they get on the hands-on kind of vocational, computer tech, video operators, degette to do that and get excited about it and they see how the basic math, the basic english and courses like that apply to that particular job field, and i think that's the answer to get the kids motivated. >> so again, the date is that the government should have more control over the content in schools. but this is contradicting the
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tenth amendment. the tenth amendment holds what individual the of our educational we still have left. >> to the educators, officials and whoever else might be watching this, i have a question for you. wouldn't you rather students in america be the most successful they can be? the tenth amendment mentions that the rights should be installed to the state or to the people. i'm speaking for the students of america when i say don't standardized curriculum any further. let's keep what variety we have, because friday is what makes as individuals, and it's our individuality that motivates us. believe me come to would be surprised what students can do when they are motivated. >> and cut. >> was that good? >> the was a good take. >> thanks guys. president barack obama will
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call on congress next week to take action on student loan interest rates. they are set to jumbled debate could double in july. he will travel to universities and north carolina, colorado and iowa. coming up we will bring you live coverage of today's white house briefing. spokesman jay carney is joined by secretary arne duncan. it's scheduled for 12:30 eastern. extol "los angeles times" correspondent talks about the two secret service agents that had been fired from president obama's security detail in colombia. we also spoke to him on the washington journal about allegations involving the u.s. military staff and columbia. it's about 45 minutes. joining us now is can of the "los angeles times" who serves as the national security correspondent. good morning. thanks for coming in. so, we have two names of their connected with what happened in colombia. what is the message behind this as far as the future of what happens when we take a look at this? >> guest: the message to the
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name is that it is trying to be transparent about this. ordinarily, you don't hear the names of agents that were disciplined in a variety but this is high profile. normally they would be concerned about the privacy of these individuals to get a facebook page where he was talking about standing behind sarah palin in 2008 campaign and she's already commented on that. so things are moving quickly. >> host: so, what happens to those in question now, what does the secret service do with them? >> in the case of these three people, two of them are going to retire. these are to supervisors in an agent, and of third person is in some kind of the administrative process where he gets to have a lawyer and dispute the allegations. and there's another eight that are on administrative leave so they are not allowed in the building and they go through kind of an ad adjudication as i understand it in the process.
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this may be implicated they may not be fired or disciplined. the issue is will they lose their security clearances and that if that isn't fired but prevent them from doing the job. >> host: from the top result that happened. >> mark sullivan, the chief of the secret service is getting good reviews for acting quickly to address the scandal and bring some accountability. but a lot of people are talking about is there a larger culture they will have some work to do and people talk about should there be more female agents and those kind of things. that is a long process. is this a specific incident or a cultural thing? >> you get different messages on that. i talked to a lot of retired agents over the last couple of years that insist the prostitution is generally been out of bounds particularly at this scale we're talking about 21 women alleged there are the cultures of the parties after the president leaves in the past
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one particularly in the u.s. news ten years ago that talk about extramarital affairs and discipline problems there's a manager real issue come a long series of lapses and not enough accountability. so that really remains to be seen. at some point there will be an outside body that looks at this that will mean the answer some of the questions. >> host: is there an inspector general for the secret service? >> guest: there's the office of responsibility and i think it is the inspector general, department of homeland security that would have jurisdiction. but i have heard talk of an outside panel of advisers being appointed to look at the culture of the secret service. >> host: do they see this as a security concern? >> guest: the retired agents i've spoken to insist first of all this hotel is at the hotel with the president stayed at and there was no security primary here, there were no guns, no equipment in the rooms. there's a potential security
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concern for the senator susan collins of maine said foreign intelligence service could be targeting people with prostitutes, it's been going on for hundreds of years but one of the agents said look bring these women into the rooms of the hotel no different than the housekeeper coming in. they are not going to leave stuff lying around, so in that sense there shouldn't have been a security issue. >> host: are there rules out in agent acts of duty in another country? >> guest: there's a code of conduct. it's interesting i don't have clarity on whether they patronized prostitutes. there is in the military, there's the members of the milledge river implicated somehow on this. there is a military, the 2006 order that prohibits prostitution. the secret service was prohibited to go to conduct, but that is an interesting question because a was apparently prostitution is legal in some parts, so that maybe the defense by some of the agents. and of course we are also hearing this morning some of them are saying investigators i didn't know these women were
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prostitutes. >> over 6800 secret service employees according to the secret service, the special agents about 3500 administration folks, about 1800 then in the uniformed division it's about 1300, and yet with the actions of 11 men over shuttle everybody in this agency as far as peter is concerned. they're just in agony over the in paris as one put it in the disgrace. the last thing they want to do is be in the news. they are professionals and these are people that are willing to take a bullet for the protect these. so right now it is overshadowing their image of the question is will be able to rebuild and get past this. >> host: the actions of the secret service, the latest ken dilanian of the "los angeles times" national security reporter joining us to talk about it. if you ought to ask questions, republicans, 202-737-0002.
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democrats, 202-737-0001. independent, independent phone co. and for those that want to join us on twitter, it is c-spanwj and you can also send us an e-mail at journal@c-span.org. the first call was from minnesota. danny on the independent line. you are wrong with ken dilanian. go ahead with your question or comment. >> caller: i guess i'm sitting here as a retired person, but i can remember my younger days. after all, they are young men and the of the natural desires and wants and needs or whatever, and it's if the married that should be between their wives and themselves and it's not anything to do with the public scrutiny on what they've done or what they did down there. they were down there having a good time, but they still were down there to have a good time. so, i guess that is my comment. thanks for c-span.
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>> guest: i've heard that perspective. the counter argument to that of course is that this was before the presidential visit. these guys were down here, the staff in advance and insurance care if the presidential visit it's one thing that yields the party when the president is, as many agents said to me. they will have a few years but to have gone this far before the president got there when they were supposed to be working, down on the taxpayers' time and the other issue is of course the public embarrassment this has caused. nobody would have wanted that to happen. some pretty much everyone agrees the bad judgment. >> host: maryland. republican line. >> caller: hi, good morning. how're you? okay, one thing is 11, what was it coming 11 guys?
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>> guest: yeah. >> caller: 11. 11 of me and my friends couldn't spend a million dollars and one evening having a party if we tried to. the thing is when we have a little drink or, you know, do what we've got to do, we don't send our bill to the united states taxpayers, so that is my comment on that >> guest: that is a good point of clarification. there is no evidence the taxpayers are paying for prostitutes are paying for the -- we don't want to complete this with a gsa scandal. i mean, these guys were down traveling on the taxpayers' time because there's no evidence they subsidize. >> host: the names are greg stokes and david cheney as far as the names are concerned with the column on "the new york times" has this looking to take legal action on the secret
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service personnel and the american government because she said an agent can act for their expletive to describe her as according. the legalistic culture in colombia. you know, he seems to be because she was sealed and call the names for the legal action, who knows. we are not familiar with the columbia law. >> host: oregon, hello. >> caller: how are you doing? >> host: well, thanks. go ahead. >> caller: i'm just tired of people calling these scandals. they are not scandals. it's a total of use of power. everything we do, we consider it a scandal. it's not a scandal it is an abuse of power.
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you are using our resources for our personal gain and that is an abuse of power. it starts from your city level, to the county level, to the state level all the way it to the federal level and have the secret agents and that's all it is, that's an absolute abuse of power. >> guest: we don't believe the taxpayers' money was used but he's speaking to a larger issue which is this scandal really has the potential to undermine confidence in government at the time it's at an all-time low and that is one of the unfortunate things. they try to clean up their image the the of the sort of required specialism and this is well regarded by other law enforcement agencies guyana this is really hurting

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