tv Thank you for Being Late CSPAN December 18, 2016 10:45pm-12:01am EST
it's s said that they were not only dieting but they were disfigured from the lack of care. this is the context that they start talking about civil rights in the prison, human rights in the present. many of them have also come from streets that had been very active, particularly in 64 and rochester in 64 and they began to ask for help initially through the system writing letters to their state senators and banking the commissioner to do something. what was done is a great deal of repression and anyone caught with a letter asking for help with mean you were throwing your soul for indefinite periods of time and it is in that context people start talking across
fit so we are very excited to be able to use the spacious comfortable setting for the author talks like the one this evening. fowhat a treat to have tom friedman with us. anyone familiar with his columns in the times in previous books does how great an explainer just about everything he is. few people can master the complexities and write about them as clearly as tom can. he says at the start of his new book he went into journalism because he loves translating from english to english and that's been very evident in his work. thank you for being late for civil forces that he vowed us defining and affecting our lives
the forces of climate change technology and globalization. he discusses how the accelerating change is engendered by these forces are reshaping our lives and how we can cope with them. iin thinking this through towars the end of the book he looks at the community in which he grew up in st. louis park a suburb of minneapolis for the lessons that connected with others and were trusting and succeeding. he of course had a storied career as a journalist dating back to high school in minneso minnesota. that's when the passion for journalism was sparked in in his interest ithenhis interest in tt was a ignited he focused his studies on the mediterranean and middle east so it seemed only fitting that soon after becoming a journalist, he ended up in
that part of the world. it was the night of president that first set to beirut and after he moved to "the new york times" it wasn't long before they sent him back. it led to the book from beirut to jerusalem relocating to washington he was a science rather quick succession. 1995, 21 years ago he took over the column and has been at it ever since. it's in the diplomacy and video
of globalization, the environment, finance, technology and a number of other issues relevant to how the world works today. the previous books have exhibited a wide range of interest as well as the same engaging conversational writing style that has characterized the columns. he writes for the general reader as we are about to hear he pictures his talk as a general listener so ladies and gentlemen please join me in welcoming tom friedman. [applause] >> last time i was here, my daughter was here and my son-in-law is here.
[applause] >> thank you all for coming out and not being late. i'm going to talk tonight about my book to give you a general overview and then we have microphones in the front and we are looking forward to your questions. the title of the book, "thank you for being late. it comes from people in washington, d.c. over the years as a columnist and someone would be ten, 15, 20 minutes late. one day i just spontaneously said to one of them actually, thank you for being late.
because you were late, i've been eavesdropping on their conversations. i think people watching in the lobby. fantastic. and i just connected to ideas that i've been struggling with for a month. so, thank you for being late. people started to get into it. they recognized what i was doing and it was giving them permission to pause, to slow down, to reflect. my favorite quote in the beginning of the book is from my friend. when you press the pause button on a human being, it starts. it starts to reflect and reimagine. this book was my attempt to
press the pause button on myself in order to reflect, rethink and reimagine where we are. the book began with a pause. where i stopped and engaged someone i normally wouldn't have it ended up to a sequence of events producing this book. i lived in bethesda maryland and i juseither take the subway to k so for me that means driving down broadway blvd. and i parked at the public parking garage. i did that almost three years ago now when i started this project. i parked and picked a red light into dc and i come back and give the ticket to the cashier. he looked at meand said i know who you are.
i thought gets me ou it gets mef here. [laughter] a week later i took my subway ride to the timestamp ticket cashier's booth. this time he said what you read my blog. i thought my god. the parking guy is now my competitor. what happened so i said i will check it out. he took a piece of cashier's tape, ripped it in half. i went home, called up on my computer.
it turned out he was ethiopian and wrote about the politics from the point of view on his website and started to think about this guy and wondered who he was and what his story was. i eventually concluded this was a sign from god i shoul that i d pause and engage him, but i didn't have his e-mail so the only thing i could do wa was pad at a parking garage everyday. i said i wanted your e-mail. that night i gave it to him, wrote an e-mail. i basically said to him i have a proposition for you. i am ready to teach you how to write a column if people tell me
your life story. he basically threw a couple e-mails sent icu proposing a deal and i like the steel. [laughter] so he asked that we meet near his office at the coffee house in bethesda and i presented him with a six page memo and he told me his life story. it was the first time i ever put all this together. i once taught a course at my daughter's college but we reflected what it was about. it was the political exile but they were too slow so he decided to start his own and now i feel
empowered. what an amazing world that he can get his voice out there that way. we went over it three times, three different sessions. i explained to him the news story is meant to inform. the column is meant to provoke. either that heating business where the lighting business, that's what i do. if i do both i will produce one of several reactions. i never looked at it that way, i
never connected those things. it was what i felt the difference don't have to say. any of these reactions. to produce heat or light i explained to him requires a chemical reaction. you have to combine three chemicals. the first is what is your value set. what is the worldview that you are trying to promote, neoliberal, libertarian, what is the value set that you are trying to promote and how do you think the machine works the the machinmachine is by shorthand fe forces shaping more things and places and as a columnist i'm always carrying around a working
hypothesis of how the machine works to take my values and pushed the machine and if i don't know how the machine works, i either won't push it or i will push it in the wrong direction. all my books have been one take or another on how it works. last, what have you learned about people and culture and how people and culture affect the machine. if you do it right you will produce a column that produces heat or light. the more that i explained this, the more i thought to myself if that is wha what a column is ab, what is your value set and where did it come from, how do you think the machine works and what did you learn about people and
culture? i decided that was the book i wanted to write and that's what thank you for being late is all about. so i will focus now on the core engine of the buck how the machine works today. i think what is shaping more places and more ways as we are in the middle of three accelerations one of them is exponential in the three largest forces on the planet all at the same time. i call them the market, mother nature than moore's law quarry -- claimed over 50 years ago says the speed and power of microchips will double roughly every 24 months. while it's probably 30 months
now it's basically held up over 50 years. if you put it on a graph, it looks like a hockey stick. mother nature from the biodiversity law into their population growth if you put that on a graph it looks like a hockey stick. and last, the market is the globalization but not your grandfathers globalization, digital globalization. all the things that are being digitized and globalized. we are in the middle of free accelerations all at the same time and they are all interacting with one another. it drives more globalization. more globalization drives climate change and solutions dot they are all whirling around
each other and i think that is what is shaping more things and places in more ways. now the whole thing really is moore's law and that is the second chapter of the book. the second chapter is what happened in 2007. 2007. what is he talking about? here's what happened. january, 2007 steve jobs unveiled it at the center in san francisco beginning a process whereby we are puttin putting in internet-enabled handheld computer into the hands of every person on the planet but that isn't all that happened in 2007. facebook came out of high
schools and universities and became available to anyone with an e-mail address and a company called twitter that was launched a few months before with a company software, the most important company in your life that you never heard of named after the founder's created the foundation of data by creating an open-source platform that made a million computers work like one computer. in 2007, a company launched itself the biggest open source software repository in the world with roughly 15 million users. got an idea, no problem.
go to the library, pull it off the shelf, fix it, and prov imp, put it back on the shelf. it's one of the most important companies in the world today. that isn't all that happened in 2007. in 2007, google came out with something called android and bought a company called youtube and came out with the kendall. ibm started a cognitive computer. in 2007, three roommates in san francisco thought it would be a cool idea to rent out air mattresses to some guys coming to a design conference and they started a company called air bmb. ever see the price of sequencing a human genome, it looks like this. straight down. up here it's $100 million.
down here, 12 million. of the year that it goes over the cliff, 2007. something called flacking started. look at the graph of solar energy. in 2007 it's something we called the cloud. going back to the beginning will get the first state, 2007. three he decided he had to come back to work. it turns out in 2007 it was the single greatest technological inflection point since gutenberg invented the printing press and
he completely missed it. when the physical technologies took off on the moving sidewalk at the airport and all of our social technologies, the learning systems, management systems you need it to get the most out of the acceleration and they all basically froze. think about this in the context of 2007, 2008 let me digress for one moment. in the 50s, 60s and 70s if
you were an average worker with an average education, high school or above, you could get something called a high wage middle skilled job. i quoted a congressman from minnesota who said back in the 60s and the 70s you needed a plan. if he were an average worker you needed a plan to fail because there was so much wind at our back and even white collar work that you could get from a high school degree my uncle that only a high school degree worked at a bank in minneapolis in the 60s and technology starts to accelerate in the 80s, 90s, early 2000. what do we do to help them compete? he didn't improve education, we gave them credit cards and home mortgages.
a lot were able to sustain themselves and their huge expansion of credit and by rising up the values of their homes. 2007 and 2008 happens. they are now white-collar and blue-collar jobs at a pace we've never seen before and people lost their homes because of the 2008 crisis. the shock produced a wealth of very dislocated and angry people but i digress. basically what happened and what's produced 20 of seven is the fact it wasn't just microchips, actually all five
parts of the computer were in moore's law. microchips are exhilarating, software, network. the storage was accelerating and sensors were accelerating. they all melted into something we called the cloud. i never use the term the cloud because it sounds so soft, so cuddly. like click a song i've looked at clouds from both sides now. this isn't a cloud in it as a supernova the largest force of nature, the explosion of a star although this is an accelerating supernova and it basically has two things that came together.
i was on the stage in 2005 to tell the story of the massive collapse of fiber optic cable that happened as a result of the bubble and bust we made fiber optic cable so cheap, we accidentally wired the world. i gave the moment a name i said the world was flat because the collapsed the connectivity and he could suddenly touch people he couldn't before and we could be touched by people that could never touch a .. and i wrote a book called the world is flat. i wrote this in 2007 and then i stopped. i had it figured out. 2007 as my broker said to me a bad year to stop sniffing glue. [laughter]
i basically stopped. in 2011 i wrote another book with my colleague and i started including that i have missed something because they realized when i ran around the world telling people the world was flat, facebook didn't exist, was there was a sound, the cloud was in the sky. four g. is a parking spot or prison and skype was an error. all of that happened between 200-54-2011 and only when i wrote the book did i understand
it all came together in 2007 and the produced that but another price collapse by this time it wasn't the connectivity it was a collapse in the price. we made the computing and storage so cheap we could make the complexity fast, free, easy and invisible. think what you can now do with one touch you can page a cab, direct the cab, pay them and rate them. massive amounts of complexity has been abstracted away and it's happening everywhere. it's like h. kean's from solid to liquid, putting leverage on everything so when you make the
complexity fast, free and easy for you, you get an incredible release of energy that changes the power they are now living with. it changes the power of one. what one person can do to pay as today asa make or break his phe. he completed out to 20 million people. it's changed the power and machines can now think. in february, 2011, the world changed. of all places on a game show, it was called jeopardy. they had the all-time champions
into the third contestant sent by his last name. he passed on the first question. the question was it's used by a dealer in a casino and one on the foot of a horse. he said if his unique voice that is a shoe. the world hasn't been the same since. the computer figured out dot what year was america born at figured out a pun festered into human beings. it changed the power of the fl
flow. today barack obama says marriage is pin any human beings that love each other. think of how quickly the ideas flow and melt away and plastics changed the color of many. of these four kinds of power are not just changing the world. they are reshaping five realms. first is about the acceleration and the second part is about the five are being reshaped and how i think we need to reimagine them. the workplace is being reshaped, politics is reshaped.
let me go through a couple of those to give you a flavor of what i'm talking about. how we turn artificial intelligence into intelligent assistance, intelligent assistant and intelligent algorithms so people can learn faster and governance marker to live in the age when there is a change in the pace of change. one of the hardest things for the human mind to grasp is the power of the exponential and that is what we are in the middle of. my friends wrote a wonderful book and liked to tell the sto story. they said how can i reward you and he said i just want to feed my family. he said i'd like you to take one grain of rice on the first
square. just keep doubling it and my familand my familywill be fine. >> the new double something 63 times the number you get is like 18. we just entered the second half with a doubling start to get really big and you start to see really funky stuff. you start to see really funky stuff. the power of the exponential is so hard to demonstrate intel decided to give the users of some feel for this.
the engineers on the back of the envelope basically said what is a 1971 beetle improved at the same exponential rate as microchips and they calculated that it would go 300,000 miles an hour. that is the kind of exponential that we are in. when i got out of college i wanted to find a job and when my girls got out of college they had to invent a job. this will increasingly be true. my chapter on the workplace is how he turned artificial intelligence into this assistance and algorithms. the examples i gave our the policies of at&t living on the
edge of the supernova competing every day with verizon and telekom and t-mobile. very interesting to understand what their policies are. they begin the year with a transparent speech about what world he thinks they are in, what the competitive environment is like and what skills you will need as the employee this year. we will thrive this here and you have got seven of them but you are missing three. then they partnered with the online learning platform. then they came to the employees anand said heand as if he gets 0
to take all these courses under one condition. you have to take them on your own time. if you take these courses, our deal with brad is at when the new jobs open up, brad will get the first and then we won't go outside. the new social bargain is very simple. if you want to be a lifelong employee, you have to be a lifelong learner. they have a wonderful severance package but brad will not be working at at&t anymore. this social contract is coming to a neighborhood near you. intelligence assistance, the example i give, qualcomm has a
campus of 64 buildings in san diego and a couple years ago they basically retrofitted a bunch of the buildings with sensors on every type of every electric socket and computer. the janitor is walking around within ipad. the light bulb goes up and they know, leave a door or window open, they know and they can also find the repair person is. they've given the janitors and intelligent assistant to enable them to live above the line. think what that does for the dignity of the person. they now have an intelligent
assistant enabling them to operate at this higher level. intelligent algorithm, the partnership between the college board and the academy. this crowd looks like roughly my age and demographic. we have kids in college or high school. i know what you did, you hired a tutor to get your kids scores up and have to pay some college kid $200 for two hours to lift them above the line. if you come from a family that cannot afford that you are behind a double from day number one.
they partner with the academy and create free preparation online. now brad takes his exam in an 11th gradthe11th grade and getss back and it says you did well but you have a problem with fractions and right angles and it takes them to a website devoted just to the fractions and right angles to his weakne weakness. have you thought of taking this in your senior year, then there is another link that will take him to the college scholarships. it's an intelligent algorithm last year 2 million american kids got free sat prep for this intelligent algorithm.
what you find but you never know from the campaign is the idea to take down the banks that people are actually doing amazing stuff to try to help people live at this higher pace of change. but it is a real challenge. i will talk briefly about my chapter on how we need to reimagine politics. we are not just in the middle of one climate change. we are in the middle of a change in the climate and also the climate of technology and globalization. we are going to three climate change is that once. you want resilient because things can get disruptive and you want proportion. you don't want to be curled up in a ball.
how do we produce a resiliency and then i knew a woman who was 3.8 billion-years-old, her name is mother nature and she had been through more climate climae is then anybody so i sat her down and interviewed mother nature and said how do you produce resiliency and propulsion when the climate changes is the first of all i do this unconsciously in a brutal way that i incredibly adaptive if only the adaptive survive in my world. try 20 different species and see who wins the most pluralistic systems are the most resilient. third, i do believe in the circular sustainability.
very sustainable. she said i am incredibly entrepreneurial whenever i see an opening in the nature that empty eye fillet perfectly adopted to that. she said very patient you can't build anything gracefully and without time or speed the growth of the tree where the gestation. i believe in ownership. in the balance it own that balae and it's highly resilient to the invasive species. the republican party lost ownership of the ecosystem and donald trump was an invasive species. that is exactly what happened by the way. last, she said i believe in
solutions. i'm very hybrid there is nothing dogmatic about me. last i believe in the law of bankruptcies and return them to the great manufacturer in the sky. what i did in that chapter he ce basically argues that political systems that most consciously mirror would be the most resilient and then i took it one step further and i said what is mother nature were running in this election was whether her party be a? reflects my own politics because i think we should have a single-payer healthcare system.
at the same time, i would abolish all corporate taxes and replace them with the carbon tax and a small financial transaction tax. we need to get entrepreneurial to pay for the safety net that we will need over here because the world is going to get to fast. but the two go together in the politics if you are for the radical entrepreneurism. that has got to go. that is not sustainable which is why i believe all of them are blowing up and that is what is happening whether it is in the uk or europe or here they were designed as responses to the industrial revolution, the new
deal and the civil rights. you have to respond to the political party today how you get the most out of them. let me close by talking about some ways my favorite chapter in the book is called a god in cyberspace. it comes from the best question i ever got on the book tour. the man stands up in the balcony and this is god in cyberspace. i said i don't know. i've never been asked that question before.
what a complete idiot i feel like. so i got home and called my rabbi. [laughter] one of my real spiritual teachers at the time. i met him at the institute in jerusalem. i called him and i said i got a question that i've never gotten before. is god in cyberspace and he said to me in our faith and tradition, we have two concepts. one is biblical and one is postbiblical. ..
connected but nobody is in charge what does that mean? in means that you get fake news and the phase -- the phrase of the year is post truth that you can say anything about anybody so much of our lives are moving into a realm where we are all connected and no one is in charge. therefore values, what each one of us believes more money negative matters more than ever especially when no you to be a superpower maker and breaker the world is good for makers and is good for breakers one so for those two reasons that value "the golden rule" matters
now more than ever what every single person believes so why give this talk at the commencement address and they said to the parents i know you're thinking you pay 200 grand so your kid can get an engineering degree and there is a knucklehead preaching "the golden rule". is there anything more need? there is one thing more naive. that is thinking we will be okay if we don't scale "the golden rule." we stand at an intersection the human species i would
argue has never stood at before and in 1945 we entered a world where one country could kill. with had to be one country i'm glad it was ours. car one person can kill all of us at the same time could fix everything we never stood at this place could fix everything to educate every person on the planet what does that mean? in means we have never been more godlike as a species. we have never stood at this intersection before if we
can bring that to the realm of cyberspace now matters more than ever. where do values come from? places like this. coming from strong family is and help the communities. i am not inexpert don strong families but i've not inexpert dog that but i am an expert on healthy communities. it amazing little town outside of minneapolis called the st. louis park up to grow up in the same neighborhood we all grew up in the same neighborhood roughly the same decade and a half this was not a
neighborhood in the upper west side one high-school supper in minneapolis. and in minneapolis in the early '50s basically the jews were in the ghetto with the african-americans. they would go to the one suburb so basically in a three year period they all moved to one suburb called st. louis park 100 percent protestant and catholic scandinavia and jewish white scandinavian if israel had a baby it would be st. louis park. [laughter] to produce a freaky exposure of energy from the:brothers you'll notice or unable to
put car outside a pharmacy in mexico the name was our local drug store and the story of how we got to know each other. community of trust my friend also says trust is the only legal performance enhancing drugs there is stressed in a room you have people applying the golden rule. it was not easy but we did it. then i come back 40 years later to my same high-school which is now 50 percent white 10% tuition. 10 percent hispanic and a small african american contingent so now the
inclusion challenge is so much more challenging. isn't that the story of ameritech's this story of the world? i left 50 years ago to discover the world by cave back and found the world had discovered st. louis park. so i will conclude by talk tonight so i wanted it if you play this song when you opened the book is by a brandy carlisle and the main refrain is i wrapped her lover around me like a chain but i was never afraid it
would die you can dance in a hurricane but only if you're standing in the eye. so i believe right now these acceleration of the whims of a hurricane. we just elected a man who wants to manage by building a wall providing capacity build the i in great energy for a mitt -- fragment for me that is the healthy community and the struggle globally going forward between two people and i am voting for the eye people.
[applause] >> it is time for some questions. >> i am uh college student here with great interest my question is what you think the most meaningful and important things of your career to educate in the context of right-wing - - writing quite. >> that's a good question. next question. [laughter] when i have learned most to me the most important lesson
to be a journalist, people sat want to be a journalist is good if you can type fast i when secretarial school in london with a certain they could grammar in english but there is something they have to have i believe, you have to like people. you have to enjoy hearing the things that they say and do it and people can tell. if you like them they will open up and share what is on their mind. one of the criticisms is i talked to cabdrivers the
might may not have been so surprised because talking to another human being is a form of data and people forget that but the editing you need to be a good journalist is be a good listener but yet there reason is much or important important, and it is amazing luck people will but you say to them if they feel that you respect them it is amazing when you can say to people not just waiting for them to stop talking but to see how many journalists don't understand that. because if you don't respect them you cannot tell them it is dark outside and if you do they will listen all day.
[applause] >> so much of what you said resonates personally as i operate a solo consultancy by myself and i manage global trade m. biotechnology and around the world from my desk i am the epitome of and diverse inclusive of entrepreneurial and the people that i talked to and listen to in my everyday but the biggest were lack of this was my home town in each right -- d.h. right they were told one job for life so there is this location, do we
leverage the divide quick. >> that is a powerful question thank you for sharing. first of all, let me say i worked on this book longer than i ever have i felt like i had a butterfly net and every time i got close it would move so i interviewed the head of intel's three times and each time the founder three-time is. like going to the press i was sending paragraphs. is this still correct? so i know how fast in when i say volume tumbled adult
have the answers but to this is what it has brought me number one we have been here before. when automobiles were first introduced you could be hit from any direction so we here at one of those moments if horses could have voted there never would have been cars people are hurt to know why exactly who they are in their protest people that benefit are too busy getting the benefits so when it comes to the factory worker i don't have a simple answer . i wish i did when the change of the pace that i know i
was in central iowa and man said i know all of these voters have here they all wanted to me 1965 again. the most important line is the word again. i am understand that. and i have nothing but sympathy so i don't have a simple answer but my macro answer is not one that anybody wants to hear that in a fast-changing moment the schedule get those signals to attract the most high rask at the same time educating every betty as much as you can then let the
miracle of america have been i was at the conference in september and there was a woman there and she was tagging sharks for twitter. your kid goes off to college and says once to tag sharks. your job in did not exist five years ago. but that is what scares me about trump. sanders stand what produce him because it was addressed to his voters. to san already is coming from but with a 25,000 person factory that 2500 people and 500 and robots.
the modern factory just as to employees. that is where it is going. so let me share with you what i learned in this book and it was surprising for me. but what stood out everywhere with that human to human connection. they studied people and they ask them are you happy and they called out the group whose said yes.
and gallup determined they had to things in common. to have a mentor who had interest and there is such a message from most big retail companies today then the millions of applications. between them and the job applicants to know how to operate a cash register? if you pass the test then we have thousands of people with nephew go to the website the upper right corner is a button. it is pressed more than any
other on their website. coach what to wear to my job interview? what will the first question be? everywhere i turn it was human to human this is from the pages of my book. i asked the surgeon general what is the biggest with hesitation it is not cancer are disease but escalation that so many people are experiencing that great pathology. the most technologically connected generation in human history. this only reinforces the
point that the connections that matter most with the human to human. and technology has so much to offer to be more secure. then the potential to lead to so many people out of poverty to make it possible to fix everything. but we will give the best of the technologies of real let them distract us to inspire the human energy. and with all of that you cannot download. to the praise from the un mentor the handout from the neighbor or the handshake from rival or the stranger
cannot the cold stare of a wall. could you imagine how many jobs there would be with the human to human connection? it is such an important question. there is the company and a day pained by number. lever thought there would be an industry? that maybe people were so crazy that they would teach painting? but if you put the ball up against us. thanks for your questions.
[applause] >> is this the action plan for individual citizens for the anti-diversity anti-climate change? >> i will go all-out. i spent 15 months trying to prevent trump from winning then was focused on content change that is the one thing that is irreversible to turn america away from global leadership. one. [applause]
but if he goes against that is the all allied war ended is a pivotal moment have a call and in "the new york times" / 1/2 to find a way to resist this. i don't think people will. there will not take this sitting down. >> to connect? resist? you have to do what the other side does very well. to gerrymander the district and got control of the
congress and then they could dominate the legislative process. all the people who feel differently get organized. i am actually not a big facebook or twitter user because they are both forms of activism. they will say they tweet about it. really? that is like the milky way galaxy. exxon mobile is not on facebook they're not on the chat room fobs there their with bags of money. so get into somebody's face all of the on-line stuff has soaked up be activism.
>> in 2013 you spoke at a seminar. one of the last thing she said there was a forecast and basically said it would be in chaos. little did we know that david b. getting progressively worse. but how has that changed? bottles of not just the middle east and the 50 years of chaos. >> i have to confess i can ruin any dinner party laugh laugh i have a chapter of
to educate you at your university of moscow or in wichita or israel will rebuild the army. china was not in the wto but in the age of acceleration all of that is. now clementine is hearing these countries with those deficits now lie just did a documentary on this for national a geographic and globalization is now in the world trade organization.
and that the souvenir store to buy a him something to remind her where the honey was. the pyramid ashtray. one a stuffed camel if you squeeze that haunt it will halt my honey doesn't have that. [laughter] if so i go to the cash register and it says made in china. now look country have world the way to make your hoking hope camel cheaper then you can ship it.
so they are cracking in this is just the beginning because they cannot handle the acceleration. caravan homes in and that to the park no basement no foundation. like a tornado going to a trailer park starting in west africa through india and the borders that our straight lines. but the divide between order and disorder tell your daughter is not to grow up to be secretaries. and you have your heart set on agriculture. [laughter]