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tv   Muhammad Yunus A World of Three Zeros  CSPAN  December 27, 2017 6:33am-8:02am EST

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emissions. he sat down for an interview. this took place at the new york public library in september. >> good evening.
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director of public program here at the new york public library known as five from the new york public library. i'm delighted to welcome you. last week we had the great pleasure to discuss the state state-of-the-art tick and programs including late of the season in december of conversation with naomi klein. that he believed the change in polluter world. they happen to know each other well. i'm thrilled to welcome the 2006 nobel peace prize winner, mohammad yunus and the author of the world of three zeros, the new economics of zero poverty, zero unemployment, and zero carbon emissions.
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the book you assign after his conversation with jeffrey sachs. i'm also thrilled to welcome jeffrey back to the stage. last time he spoke was in 2009 with a conversation moderate her by charlie rose. in 2007 he spoke for the first time here with newt gingrich. it's always a pleasure to welcome him back. i don't know why applause there. but somehow i cannot quite believe that did in fact happen, but commented. here we are. tonight, i like to thank andrea and whitney who helped to make this evening happen. as always, my gratitude for the generation of the support of
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life from the new york public libraries, i'm dearly grateful. many of you know for the last several years of us might guess to give me a biography of themselves in seven words. interestingly sometimes i get two words, sometimes a tour 11, even at times i get seven words. in the case of mohammad yunus i got three words. micro- finance and social business. in the case of jeffrey sachs i got seven words. teacher, researcher, advisor, advocate, beggar for its dg. please welcome them both. [applause]
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[applause] >> now, we have proof there is progress. 2007, newt gingrich, 2070, mohammad yunus. [applause] : from a ridiculous to the sublime. i'm very excited to be with you and thrilled to talk about your new book, we were together last week at the united nations, both sustainable advocates we are both in that business as well
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begging for some attention to this. your friend a book called the world of three zeros. i thought it was a book about u.s. politics at first. but it is far more uplifting. the new economics of zero poverty, zero unemployment, and zero and carbon emissions. how do we do it? give a glimpse. >> basically it's the question the way workers be more concentrated more and more. there is a concentration of wealth but many people are not aware that is getting bigger and bigger for a smaller number people.
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it's worrisome because it creates a ridiculous kind of world. you can call it an economy anymore. in the past in our textbooks and so on we talked about the champagne class there's so much of wealth first such a small percentage of people. and i feel like it doesn't really even fit into the picture is basically a growing thing. it's like a huge mushroom getting more huge and controlled by fewer pure people. the stem that comes out so this
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is not acceptable way and distractible way the worry thing is that mushroom is continuously getting bigger. this is sort of a ticking time bomb. they cannot continue like that. the pent-up anger at the bottom some will explode and you'll see the politics and social relationships with people, you'll see it in the daily life of people, and really i was shocked by the brexit, almost like that kind of thing happening say we don't want anyone from eastern europe to commit. they're taking our income in our jobs, people at the bottom are complete because they don't know
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that they are struggling, losing jobs. the blaming outsiders. they're not looking at the real subject, that created brexit with unheard of situation where they should be getting together and today there islands distinguishing from other european countries. although be inside. until the real subject which is the economic machine that you build the language sucking up
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everything in its passing on fewer and fewer to people. so looking for what are the ways to solve that problem. so talking about distributing to the poor who would be texting them because when you control all the wealth you can troll the power to. it's a concentration of all of the power. so you control the power from the government. so you're asking government and you will make sure that there are 101 ways to explain that. >> and here we have a cabinet filled with billionaires
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planning their next tax cut. >> so that is kind of depressing situation. luckily year's the missing perception of human beings. also the selfless interest, selfish interest.
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if you think human beings present both disinterest than the economic world -- so sensitive presents when it became more and more significant. and it turns into greed. it turns into avoiding all the other. so i would say bring in this senseless interest into the marketplace and say that we could do this to solve problems. simply to solve problems in the common feature, none of them met have created to make money for me or anyone else.
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we'll see more more of them and then we can start solving problem only : social business, getting came from my own experience. now we have 9 million in bangladesh then we see their children we help them to go to school get an education though i don't have a job what you do, what is the solution. then they started say why are you looking for a job, i'm not a
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job seeker, job creator. the syndicate your mother, if 9 million illiterate women can start a business with lots of 30 or $40, while these education and all this knowledge you want to wait for somebody else, why don't you just go back to your mother to learn from her. so now we create this and asking people to come with business ideas. if you don't have business ideas going talk to your mother. she is the in-house expert to tell you you can make it ten or
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50 times bigger because she didn't have that capacity. some of these young people are coming. and then the second one is directing human beings. said human beings are not born to work think that the born to be a problem solver we are hunters and gatherers, this is her history. we did send job applications when we're in the caves. so i said that's her history. if you put this into the picture, suddenly the question doesn't look as it does now and
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create a world of completely different all the problems that you see with poverty and unemployment. unemployment is its own work to begin. if you're not looking for unemployment there is no unemployment. someday years later when three zeros or publish. >> we have to get to the third zero. >> they talk about the huge problem, course it's a huge problem. it's not just big companies to do it they have to do it. the pc will buy things which are
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greed like file my own choice i can buy this or if you're not quite sure what they've done i would stay out of it. [inaudible] i want to make a life for myself in a way, doesn't have any other life. so i'm okay but someone in some other country like bangladesh could be washed away with the feds and so on and talking about their climate strategy and it's not possible to see what they were -- so we can do that. also the same time we can see it
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in a number of social businesses and justifications. the same time they do that in bangladesh to simply be a, we create a business and start selling we tell the villagers whatever money spent every month, give that money to us. several years back we became the largest energy system in the world because nobody else is
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doing it. so it is done in a way that it makes sense to people is really paying for the kerosene. the there's other things that you can do, every country it grows. only 2% of force are left in haiti, this 2% will disappear in the future. twenty years or 25 years 25% of the force there.
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it may not bring money right away, but you are not insistent it can be done in a sustainable way. this if you take off your glasses with dollar signs than he can see the world. the moment you put it on or take it off you see enormous opportunity to sell problems. >> you reminded me when he talked to these wall street folks, i'm sure there's some here, i went to a hedge fund conference that i found to be amazing in this mindset issue because there is a clever money
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manager on stage discussing how his portfolio works. he was talking about foreign policy in crisis between this country and that country. for me i was getting into the this story and wondered how we would get the diplomats there and maybe it would be a crisis and he said therefore it's absolutely necessary to short the -- and no matter what it came down to dollars. and it takes a certain kind of genius like that. on an economist, you can't to that. so, you mentioned that you have a venture capital fund for social business, how does that work, puts money in? how do something like this get
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started? this sounds like a wonderful idea but it reminds me a little bit of the very famous line of gandhi when he was asked what do you think of western civilization and he said, it would be a good idea. so, when you think of selfless economics, be nice, but who is going to do it? how would something like this work? is this, i beg for a living so i'm happy to beg always, should we be begging nor is there a systems approach, how could something like this not only take off because clearly you started a lot of social businesses and we meet people all the time who want to do
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wonderful things, but it is not often not simple to find the resources my wife, sonja we beg for community health workers and people are able to say no even though when you tell them is saving lives and crucial. so how to do it? >> this is another part of the book, looking for the answer, when they're talking about the social business nobody's interest if you're not making money, i said well, it's because the only thing ever heard was making money your mine is about making money, you don't understand anything else, but if you take off those classes then
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you can see there is another thing. making money and is making other people happy, if you see that it will come to you, i'm not asking for you to come and help them move on with your life, saying you'd be changing yourself saying something is one thing when big businesses are paying attention they get suspicious, maybe something will happen.
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>> what did i do wrong? >> is a wonderful problem. they're not alone and that in any country you'll see that proportion of half-and-half. we are looking for what problem we have gone through many options. live finally the ideas to create a special kind of deal and create the company but in order
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to solve the problem how do you do that? you put all the micronutrients. [inaudible] to make money to start at a many frills so that people can be attracted to that, and asked to pay a higher price. so we created that and we still want to reduce the cost of production we did as much as we could. but the marketing strategies in the cities of the supermarket the work it price, and we make a
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lot of money at that. the we would use this money so as the cost of production and we would engage the women in the villages to go door to door. so that it would become very popular. that's one model but it led to many other things. other countries became like soup. like middle school food they provide the soup another country in columbia libido is a sugar cream -based drink sugarcane is
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sweet so why don't we use this idea, make it fortified vanilla and the servant in schools and children try to drink they would be drinking this water. anyway, so this is the fortified vanilla that doesn't cost much. were using this is a technique so this is a social business idea. many like a fry a canadian company. a family-owned company. what can we do? i didn't know much about it, if you need to french fry anywhere
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in the world. 60% of the market we cover in the whole world so we worked with them to create a special business in columbia so farmers get more out of them. it got into their head, started seeing the is. never saw this opportunity they are. 6%, they don't pick up.
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it does not fit as well. now that we begin social interest, trying to help people, we decided to do social business in france, and create this one implement, and hire unemployed young people in france, to make potato soup. so this became very popular. 50%, right away. for the simple reason they are in shape. and on the other side -- and
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this bonus is livable. another supermarket, they play for it. >> very interesting, to underscore with, it was about looking for profit. it is the opposite search for profit, the cost of
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competition, a crazy experiment, healthcare systems and all the other high income world based on private motive and half of it, and the same exact services delivery, paying thousands of dollars per person per year, a crazy thing, it is a run on a noncommercial, it is run on making the market work better, and the mindset is definitely part of it if you have the capacity to exploit
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market power which companies do. it is an illustration -- >> not only for that. >> going across. >> this new social business company making a small packet ready to cook business. and you know the shape. there is no way you can hate them anymore. >> i hope everybody is taking notes not only on how to cook soup but also critical thinking of all the missing -- >> indices making the world. and right away. and we started the small
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program, and never working in this country and it works beautifully. and 20 grounds in the united states and other cities. we have over 100 million thousand farmers, all women and they received nearly $1 billion, 100%, 6% and so on. to know this is happening, all the branches -- one of the things we tried to do, these people don't get healthcare. even after obamacare they are disconnected from the system because the system is not
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carrying them. social business, healthcare system, everyone is taking care of each other and have full systems in place. if it is a systemic level, have the health care program, no reason, healthcare is provided almost posthumously, if you bring your technology, the possibility of this, the commercial interest will not make it happen. can become a source of the healthcare system, all the healthcare possible for that and this is delivered at home as we talk about artificial intelligence to remove people from work, if you put artificial intelligence in the healthcare program you don't need the sensibilities of access. it is a question of your mind,
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which direction you are looking at. that is what i am trying to explain. the focus of looking at this, realizing that i can bring all the creative power and business power to sample this problem. that is why i keep saying it is possible to have no poverty and unemployment, so what i was explaining, it is not something you can convince, i am not convinced, personal -- i was asking you because i am not familiar with this. i asked what kind of business you do. do you like french fries? 60% of the french fry we supply, and in that french fry. those companies, the most
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companies, business ideas to solve problems and initially a small one and it can grow now because it is a business. most people's problem. >> >> and -- evil side, and and a lot of businesses have no idea
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what is needed, what is happening in their society. i went to a not-for-profit, i won't mention who would wear it, the big change of health providers to the cfo, talked about a way to address, in the environment of this hospital complex. not a private hospital. a lot of medicaid patients, we are not interested in building up that line of business but that is the hospital in the neighborhood. >> the technology, all these problems can be handled -- how to make more money for
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shareholders, you run your business, they make the shareholders more money. social business and how to create business to solve the problem. >> you started some of those. how are you doing? >> years before meetings and contacted by one of the leading universities in the country. >> either university. they want to see that kind of thing in a business school. they are looking for ways to change it. young people with positions, all i can do is get a job and
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serve the company and a good home and car and so on but so much power with technology in their hand, they can do anything they want as big as they want, and helping to become richer than you were yesterday, and been taught so our education system has to be designed with all options on the table, identified or office, and to accept all human beings the way i am sitting poorly, why do i say that? i see it again and again, any bank, millions all over the
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world, it started with us, heartbeat and heartbeat, familiar with the business world, and and in the beginning, what are we doing in schools? inculcate those kinds of feelings, people are looking for that. hire institutions doing that and looking forward and social business competitions, global competitions, don't even have
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the money for this. the power behind this, a bright idea, many people say this is -- and a simple story. on both sides achieving this in bangladesh in 2005, and half $1 billion in the company's bank account, done under half $1 billion, this is but we waited and waited and started writing him letters, give us some time. >> been there done that. >> they cannot do the investment in this company because it is up front.
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shareholders give you the money, violating the mandate, the letter to shareholders of 3000 before any general meeting, did very well, a company in bangladesh, total business company to solve the problem, half $1 million, and and to invest, up to you, not the exact words, 90% of shareholders, 35 million needed on half $1 million.
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it created the second problem, employees all around the world, protested very strongly, do you consider yourself a second-class citizen, to participate in bangladesh and never thought about it is if you don't matter. the company was forced to write a letter to the employees, 30 million europeans so 65 millions. >> now what to do? >> talking about not having it. confronted with another problem so created a social business funds, out of this funds, many social businesses to the fund. keep coming from the shareholder and employees every year. if you raise the question in a
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proper way, people come up, money is not the problem, problem is here, what to do with your life. if you resolve that question everything else is solved. [applause] >> can micro finance be part of the channel for financing? >> sure. >> social business can repay a loan the idea is it is social in the sense it is not distributing dividends in a not-for-profit company. >> social business, we wanted to make it social business totally but one third of the company shares owned by social business. all this money when you ask where this money is coming from
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for all the dividends coming from the phone grows into all this investment we are making. there are many -- and to take care of the cadillac solution. it comes to the perfect thinking position and the breaking point, creating more and more to collect this money. setting up the next one so we have four hospitals, four hospitals paying investment, in social business returning the money, you can't take any dividends, simply get your money back so when you get your money back. >> you do pay back the capital. >> and the investment money and its own money. the breakeven point is an important point after it comes back.
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to create another one. four hospitals, all of them in hospitals to the back, all this goes to creating a second hospital or third hospital for the hospital so i city of hospitals out of the same investment so this is part of it. >> how does it relate to islamic finance? it has some similarity? >> i don't know. >> no interest idea that you pay back but there is no interest being paid back so it has a certain -- >> don't go into it. >> amazing. so what is the next step? >> to let people -- >> you guys are the next step. >> they are here to go back and tell their children, be a job
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seeker, be a job creator, you have two options. you can be an employee, work with someone or you can be on your own. the message we don't given our families or even in our education system. a pretty powerful message and create appropriate financial system. did not make it happen unless somebody provides investment money as a startup, a young person in new york city with the brilliant idea, that i want to start a business. the security will be called in to cut it up because of a crazy guy asking for something. that is the financing system we have because that financial system gives money to people who have lots of money, make more money. doesn't go to the bottom.
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half the population has the do with finances. they are on their own so the critical point. >> how do you run a social bank or venture capital? by what criteria? how do you judge a good social business because you have a credit limit, what are the criteria? >> when we say young people, forget about jobs, you are on your own, look at your mother etc.. then business ideas, coming with business ideas, two principles we follow, nobody would object so don't worry. may not get the money, nobody
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-- a personal, start a business or their idea or a business plan that doesn't sound right. it is not a rejection, it makes you able to start your business. the second principle is nobody is abandoned. then venture capital, attract everything from it, and start again. they have a part of this so don't be afraid of that and with you all along until you are successful and you once more money we will give you more money. then after doing business you are coming up, but when you come up, one idea you would
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like to have that may be a social decision on this, is not something to perform right away. you came from the system and oblige your self so this is what is being done and the money goes up and we are performing very well, 2000 young people with this money and every month nearly 2500 young people get funded from the social business funds, becoming bigger and bigger every day. >> where is it based? >> investment. >> most is by letter. >> i said why should it be? because of the system we built, look for a job. i cannot figure out why and
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energetic young energetic person at the prime of his life would fit isil. somebody put a spell on him, the system has created such -- i have all opportunities to do things on my own because that is what i have taken a way to education into a broader economy and have to have a job, john is something else, i can do anything i want, if you have the right financial system or social business, if you put money on the table nobody will be unemployed, give me the money, i will start it and not everybody will jump at it, 10 of them if successful, i can do better, exactly the way it
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happened, they are reluctant and when they saw, someone took it, you are doing it better, everybody can. this is how the system works. and bringing it in an institution, the whole problem of the capitalist system because of the failure of institutions. when it comes to poverty, it is not created by poor people but the system. 4 people are as good as any other people, nobody is going to do that so you connect them and they are as good as anybody else. higher than anybody else.
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>> has anybody started this in the us or europe, an uptick? >> when i came this time i came here, you are invited to a restaurant, i don't know. this is a social business in new york. >> that is how to get muhammad yunus over to dinner. >> with my daughter and my friends, a beautiful restaurant. how did you get this idea? we traveled together to haiti when talking about that, a financial expert, young lady, it in the concept of social business, what can i do? creating a social business restaurant, it is very popular
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now and just beginning and beautiful so it is not me pushing around anybody, but traveled to haiti and got excited about it, come up with that. if you take that as small as you once, if you take three unemployed young people, create a business to solve this it is not a big deal so who are the people being employed by the system? x prisoners. have young x prisoners, change them and a whole restaurants, very good food and everybody loves it so she thought about what she can do so to create a
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business to employ three people and be sustainable is not rocket science which anyone can do it which everybody has money to do such a thing. unemployment doesn't come that way, what should i do? it is the human issue, if i can't afford it i will take 5 friends and move together, three people out of unemployment, i can do 30 people, this is just a repetition and a tiny little thing, now global sentiment and continues, 100,000 borrowers planning for the next year they announced reaching to half 1 million in the next we 10 years, the next we 10 years is half 1 million and the total
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amount, over 10 billion. and how much money you need, $10 billion and their consolation is $250 billion. can you find it that way? why should it be? we are stronger, why should anybody be thinking with this $150 million coming from reaching $10 billion loans, $250 million. everyone should be running after you, never done anything else, and people in every direction so that is the challenge. you create that example and a different society and it can be done. once people see it can be done everybody wants to join in. >> no doubt there is a
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contagion to trigger and give people ideas, maybe this is what sustainable developing goals, because it gives the idea, here's what needs to be solved, here are the kids that need school. this is a crazy, millions of kids and social business to get to school, obvious healthcare -- >> so much easier. >> bringing electricity to households, these are very solvable practical problems. can i change the subject? two weeks ago, you emailed me, i was grateful, and many other people, a terrible political crisis you are observing in me and mark --myanmar. you brought a lot of attention. i thought it would be good for
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people to hear from you, to understand what this is about and why it is happening and what we should be doing. >> another instance of that crazy. this country is led by nobel peace laureate. what a terrible thing is happening. >> i have an even crazier country. we are not led by a peace laureate but we can't even imagine how that happened. >> suddenly a stream of people towards bangladesh, everything behind dead bodies, and delivering so on next to the market. can't believe this is happening. the only crime they committed, living in this country for generations, they happen to be muslim, they want to throw them out. this is it. they were citizens in this country from the birth of the
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country when the country was created, no problem at all, like anything else, it does any civilized country do that? in 1982, military junta, you're not a citizen. before that, a government minister, in the political party, very influential people. that is okay. you did that but they started to say you cannot live in this country and try many different ways but on 5 august did something terrible and people start running for their life, and an enormous number, every day 15,000. >> what triggered this? >> banning house words and so on.
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>> because to give cover or undecided? >> only statement she made, i don't know why these people are leaving this country. the whole world knows -- the united states made a clear statement this is a textbook case of ethnic cleansing, secretary-general made a statement, genocide going on in the country so every other world leaders saying that. the council condemned that and nothing happens, out of desperation, i get my friends together and raise it to the security council and happy you did that. >> you ask, i will sign but we
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were watching horrified, not really understanding. >> you are seeing it from a difference, i am right there. i speak the same language, when they are interviewed on cnn, seems like i'm the only one who understands their language but this is crazy, couldn't say anything. >> burning down the villages. >> dead bodies floating, every day, how many dead bodies. so this is the situation. they simply deny they have anything to do with that. why don't you just come over. come to bangladesh and if you feel people are coming fair, as much there country is your country and whatever happened i
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will take you back. otherwise there is no solution. they will try to attack and you open up a pandora's box of peaceful people living there, you never heard of them and suddenly aggrieved, have to protect themselves, to people who most of the people are women and children. what happened to the men? still don't know what happened to the men. women and children. did she respond? >> we don't know why. >> did she respond to you? >> i tried but no response. >> we will keep trying. we talked to the secretary-general and leaders in the united nations. my message was this has to be
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resolved quickly because it is more complicated and explosive and a civilized region because this is not going to end easily. there is a lot of tension. >> ladies and gentlemen, let me turn to you. we have time for some discussion and there is a microphone in front and all i ask you is to come up to the mic if you are interested. tell us who you are briefly. if you could make a comment or question, the only requirement is be brief, don't hog the mic but other than that you are very welcome. please.
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>> my background is in finance and risk management. i met muhammad yunus if i could remind you for the sake of the question, this is another bubble. i met you in the earthquake in 2005, 10,000 people had died. it was an interesting experiment, all the work we did delivering food, prosthetics, new homes. i met you at the circus and you gave me a hug which i still remember. the other thing, testing your hypothesis on the social business, since we met. i you should consider what the outcomes of that experiment where. many aid specialists, all this work you have done is informal
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work, it is not creativity. the only work recognized is if you go to a school here and get a degree and you work for three years at usaid that is formally recognized work. the rest of it is not creative. your argument to these people who have their own vision that jeff is talking about of being able to connect, you need local monitoring of these countries. the example you are giving is fine, people will absorb it in one way, can you help me mediate that drift? the way you are looking at it is if you include people like me you will keep getting surprises where it is getting worse. >> i have a piece of advice for you, don't go to washington, that is a general piece of
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advice. >> i came to the earth institute and wrote an email and have no connections of my meeting with you. >> a quick answer to that. when you do something new you are swimming against the current so you don't expect everything -- you have to be patient to make it happen. you need a lot of passion and stubbornness to make it happen so it is not easy. it takes a lot of that. you connect with other people to get some strength, where are the places with specific responses? >> when i was a little kid, 4 years old, i met you in
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michigan. if you remember my uncle, my question to you is there are a lot of people in bangladesh of international stature and a threat to their authority, they took over the bank from you. my question is will you ever get into politics in bangladesh? >> no way. >> what is your role? >> not anything, i'm not holding any position with incoming banks, we work together for a lifetime, 40 years. they are all close to us. >> it is quite similar. i am talking about the
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government's role, how can this be a good strategy? >> we tried to explain let people do it because we have a history of government messing things up. it would be good for the government to keep a distance and the role i define for the government is become a cheerleader, somebody does something good you applied them and they do good work but don't try to help them. in the name of the help they do it in a strange way, taking command of you and so on but it is synonymous and you can do it your self. let government weight to see the cabinet and the government does all social distance because they don't always give charity for everything. they can create their own
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social business, venture capital for unemployed people blues not only unemployed but even employed people you can cut into that, doing something else. if you have an opportunity, go into doing business so those funds, social business funds and all those kinds of things. the real energy is for the young people and young people with technology, design and make it happen. >> would you have the space to do this in pakistan? >> a lot are lingering on the basis of technology and there are different ideas. >> thank you for being here. my mother is --
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>> you know everything. did anybody meet me when you were 3? >> old park michigan. >> i grew up, economics or memory university on the street and very familiar with their work, dealing with social business, you're very familiar with that and i am planning to lead finance and go back to bangladesh to the world of social business and you very much and i wonder, i wonder for -- lived in the us for ten years to go back to bangladesh and try to start something and be part of something whether you have concrete advice, and what are your thoughts for
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someone, if anyone a bride wanting to go to bangladesh or another country to be actively involved in that space, what are your thoughts or advice? >> don't expect just because you came from the united states all of a sudden everything is happening, very frustrated. all that frustration continues so that is the most important thing, everything will go against you. if you are in the right spot everything will begin at the wrong spot everything will come your way. >> let me give you one more tip. how many people here know sustainable development goals? this is a random crowd of course, random cross-section of new yorkers, raise your hand. how many are going to learn
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them in the next hour? all the rest. sustainable development goals, we are advocates for the secretary-general. these are the goals that are 193 governments agreed on as being priorities for the world for the next 15 years. that by itself should tell you the world agrees on basically nothing but did agree on these so it is a good start. the second point is when they were adopted they adopted the speaker that morning at the un was pope francis, that is another good signing, that this is a good thing, really a good thing and pope francis said this is our moral responsibility come all 193 world leaders said yes, we are
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honored. i mean it is a serious suggestion, these are things we ought to do, the one i have been spending the last few days on every day, every hour, scg 3 which my wife and i work on intensively, help for all, you heard about social business in the health sector, education for all, it is to ensure that every child on the planet can get at least a secondary school education and yesterday i met with a wonderful woman, bridges international which you may have heard of, and education in geo, it is a not quite social business, for-profit business but doing a wonderful job in
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the slums of nairobi, it is on helping kids that would have no chance for school to get access and they were working on the price point, how would you provide a quality education at $4 per child per month because that is what households could afford. you have to be really clever, she is a phd from berkeley in anthropology, her husband is an mba in education economics and they are very creative. the point i want to make is we have a set of problems that really needs solving urgently and i believe they are an important orientation and if you carry the calling card others will somehow know
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something about them and that is to carry that. so one thing to about, look down the list, what really grabs you when you go home, then you see lots of problems, lots of gaps, lots of things that need solving. the core of professor muhammad yunus's incited solve problems, don't just sit there, solve problems and the sustainable development goals help to encapsulate what those core challenges are? >> thank you. >> an honor to be with you. i am in government, in admission to the un as an advisor and i work with the united nations, i have two
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questions for both of you. we should give power to individuals, we should be more educated consumers, when we decide what to choose we should be aware and making decisions for the environment, i see a danger, don't use the a danger when we put the responsibility on individuals when in reality the cause is the bigger industry and companies currently. it is what happened with michelle obama, talking to the food industry and we should take the sugar out of the food and improve our health, let's make people run, do more exercise and that is going to work and if we tell individuals it is their responsibility is important we educate individuals and people should learn about this and you should be aware but it is letting the industries and big companies be like it is on you now,
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individuals, don't have to do anything about it. >> talking about the roles individuals can play doesn't mean we are taking over roles of the government or business and so on and so forth. that is where things have to resolve in legal issues and compliance issues, if we do all those responsibilities to the government and businesses and people remain silent, say it is everybody's job and the consumers are not just people from the business, the same person who as a consumer performing his or her duty happens to be with the company too so brings personal safety into the company too. is it not a separate group just
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because i happen to be a consumer or a father or mother or son or daughter doesn't mean i'm not involved in that so all those people with families and personal life, hopefully inside the company to make it happen. >> if i could add a couple thoughts on the american political context, our system is so corrupt is out of control and if you ask why trump bold out of the paris climate agreement if it weren't for the corruption he would never have probably heard of the paris climate agreement because the guy doesn't know very much. what happened? the telltale sign was the week before trump pulled out he got
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a letter from 22 republican senators that said pullouts. if you go to opensecrets.org, one of my favorite websites which attracts who gives money to whom, these are 22 senators on the take, they are paid for by the oil and gas industry. if you take scott pruitt who is the jerk at epa, that is a technical term, i would like to speak, he has been on the take of the oil and gas industry all his career so complete irresponsibility. what do we do? this is why the us is in the situation, not because the american people don't know, some don't, but 70% of americans in every survey say invest in renewals, people know
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the climate is being wracked, you have to be absolutely under the control of somebody's big money not to have watched the last two weeks, the life and death issue we are facing. this is really what we are up against, that is the question, what to do about it. i there are many things, and mohammed's answers and everybody, every sense of this has to be brought to bear. one idea i would love to get going, maybe we need social business to do it, figure out exactly how to do it, we have two brothers in this country people know about, the koch brothers, they fund lots of nice things in this city by the way, they fund the biodiversity all of the american national
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history museum so there's a museum after they destroy all of it. honest to god. they owned the largest private oil and gas industry in the united states, they are terrible polluters and they are the most irresponsible people in our country in terms of big money being put down to buy the republican party, to stop any kind of action on climate. i learned one thing but i don't watch enough tv so i was in the studio watching tv and advertise how good they are which is a good sign because it means they have consumer businesses so we can boycott them because they really like money these guys. $50 billion each, they have the glasses on, they have
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everything, just one walking $ and they own georgia-pacific. georgia-pacific is the pulp paper company, they make tissue paper, toilet paper, they make things that get close to our skin. why don't we stop buying that stuff? [applause] >> that is part of the responsibility. we got to get organized. we haven't gotten organized. there was by the way a shareholder resolution of exxon mobil, this last board meeting passed over the objections of the ceo that called on the company to report the risks to its shareholders of climate change stranding the assets of the company because they want honest financial reporting so that is another way to go after it is responsible investors,
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responsible consumers, political protest which we really need to step up our game so we don't have these maniacs that are wrecking the whole world and i believe another wave is going to start coming, lawsuits, lawsuits, lawsuits with any lawyers here, sue exxon mobil please, make class-action cases because look at the damage this company is done with their lies, deceit and now people are paying with their lives in the caribbean islands, destroyed in the warming climate and more intense storms and so forth. the answer is we have got to do anything, we have to keep oriented and make the difference of good and evil, keep the sense of responsibility and when social business can do it we got to do it that way because that is self-help getting in there and
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when we need to use the law or politics or consumer boycotts we have to do it that way. [applause] >> muhammad yunus, jeffrey sachs, good to see you both. don sent me to say hello to you. i am laura burns and my question is -- >> you are going to tell me where we met? >> at the un. >> thank goodness. >> what tools and words of wisdom can parents give their children to lead lives of service, lives with creativity, what can you tell your child to help them keep going when their business doesn't work for the first time? >> one thing parents can do for
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children to help them out what kind of life they would like to have for themselves so they can come and decide on their own, not that you should be a doctor, or like this or ceo, instead of that, what would you like to do state-by-state by state but as long as there's an education process this question has to come back again. what is the purpose of the life you have chosen for yourself? you have to have a purpose otherwise you just lead for a day, doesn't make sense so we have to have a purpose and a creative purpose you want to do for yourself, why you are here. a very short period we are here so you want to achieve that. at the same time, young people
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in school and at home, design the world they want to create rather than the world that is given. the world is not given, the world is created every moment, what kind of world, and imagination, not just this little bit of change here so they sees this is the direction to take the world and how do you do that? prepare your self to make it happen. remind young people, the most powerful generation in human history. because no other generation ever had so much power. because the technology you have, you have this power, make sure you use that power. if you don't use that power it will be taken away. ashamed to have it and you
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never use it. encouraging people to realize they are powerful and should encourage it, make sure you have power to make the things, to see that they should do so this is what parents can do. >> wonderful, you heard it from muhammad yunus. thank you so much. . >> the second session of the 115th congress starts next week. .. >> the c-span bus tour continues
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50 cities tour in january. on each visit we'll speak with state officials during our live "washington journal" program. follow the tour and join us on january 16th at 9:30 a.m. eastern for our stop in raleigh, north carolina, when our "washington journal" guest is north carolina attorney general josh stein. in 2016 congress passed insuring patient access and effective drug enforcement act putting limits on the dea's authority to prevent the manufacture and distribution of prescription drugs. senate judiciary committee hearing look into the law's effect on opioid abuse and addiction. witnesses representing law enforcement, drug manufacturing and pharmacists testified. senator chuck grassley chairs this three-hour hearing.

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