tv Daniel Bolger Our Year of War CSPAN February 22, 2018 11:43pm-12:49am EST
privileged to hear from two vietnam veterans who are comrades and brothers chuck hagel and tom haeckel both volunteered to go to the war and fought in the same army infantry unit. from middle america to the vietnam war and then home again. as we observed we are privileged to hear from the two eyewitnesses. retiring as a lieutenant general commanded troops both in afghanistan and iraq earning a five star medals in combat action badge as a contributing editor for the magazine and the author of eight other books. he currently teaches history at north carolina state university. he was the secretary of defense from 2013 to 2015 and beforend
that, a u.s. senator from his home state ofeb nebraska. during the vietnam war, he served in combat as the army and earned two purple hearts in the combat infantry badge and vietnamese gallantry. after graduating from the university of nebraska at omaha he worked as a staff assistant, cofounded vanguard cellular and served as the head of the administration and became president and chief executive officer of the uss zero. he was the author of america the next chapter. tom haeckel was born and raised in nebraska. he earned three purple hearts, bronze star and the combat infantry badge. he graduated from the university of nebraska at omaha as the school of law and after working as a public defender to nebraska she taught at temple university
there are orders to germany. of course the vietnam war was also goingn.n. on so did you evo to germany? >> no, i got to new jersey in late november and when they were getting ready to pick up, we were the first class in our arsenal designed to bring them up from the soviet union through the passive germany. i decided if i was going to be in the army and served my country at a time then i want to
go to vietnam. tom will tell his story, but he did the same thing. i said i want to volunteer to go to vietnam and i recalled vividly in the orderly room there was aut startling silence. they put me in the back of the room and said come back here and they brought in a chaplain and a security officer because immediately they thought something was suspicious i was running away from a crime or some didng was wrong. i stayed and got new orders and went back home for a few days and went to california to process for the vietnam. then about four weeks later, i ended up in the fort dix new
jersey and remembered the two and a half ton army truck and remember driving by i saw this poor guy he had a little trail with a rifle which i'm sure was empty, walking around with this outdoor light glaring on him and i felt i can't do that and i'm supposed to go to germany as well and i have this thing about cold weather to begin with. i just couldn't do that because of our group was told we would spend about six months living out the maneuvers in the snow in germany and then go to vietnam
which turned out i ran into a couple of i my friends who did o over and i turned to them and vietnam. they were just getting over there so i went and volunteered to go. they didn't call any security people, they were happy to do that and keep in mind i'm 18-years-old or something like that and it got in my head. i remember seeing a movie about brothers, they can only have one there and the rest can go to a noncombat unit. i thought i will go over and they said no problem, just get a hold of the red cross when you get there. so i went over and went to the assignment center.
you probably all knownd about this. obviously it didn't work. >> to follow up on that, both of them were drafted, but in each of your cases it wasn't the standard draft. what action did you take? >> i had been to three colleges. not an academic career to be emulated. they said we will give you six months to come back and then we have to take it.
i said i think it is a waste of time a for any respectable institution to go back. i am not getting anything out of it. i will volunteer for the draft, but i want to go right now. they looked at each other and said there's actually a bus leaving in two weeks. so i got there and that was it. >> you were still in high school. >> i took my physical and i got the same letter. they said i wasn't going to sit around all summer with his opinion over my head so i said i will just go now.
i was in the army i think five days after high school. >> i mentio mentioned that becau always hear people say the army today is a long journey also true that here you have the vietnam veterans who were basically volunteering even though officially but records show there was one other opportunity if you want to comment on what happened when the potential was recognized. i wasn't particularly interested in it because. i wasn't sure i wanted to take
another year and the other thing that kept going through my mind was the fact that our dad was in world war ii and they spent quite a bitbe of time. he was enlisted and came out of technical. i don't know maybe there was some romanticism. i didn't know how that was all going to work. i'm 18-years-old, not too bright, sitting there thinking i learned very quickly they have a better life to lead.
it's a 52 week program, so i am thinking by the way, both of us havean to ghad to go through add infantry training to be able to then go to the officers. so no matter how it shook down we were going to be trained as infantry which is fine. basic training lasts so long and have them lasts so long. i thought this isn't a bad deal, so i went along with it until i finished in entry training and goty the group together to kick off f.
keep in mind the 52 week c-span doesn't count against the first two years. >> so, two brothers both volunteered for the army and volunteered again for the infantry. >> i think at one point they didn't want to put in the infantry. after the initial screening they recommended you for another specialty. i've seen the records. if you saw my record, you would understand why. one of the jobs was pizza maker,
cook, things like that and when i refused to go he didn't know what to do because my orders were already cut. and they cut new orders for germany i would still keep about 20 going at a time. >> your comment about work, they were raised in nebraska which was the geographical center of the continental united states and in a very rural area. both the works from a very young age as i recall. >> he was mine and i was seven when we got our first child together at a s grocery store sacking potatoes and ice. all of this is manual by the
way. you know how the social security system works. i was looking at mine the other day and i started paying into social security when i was 8-years-old. and i remember the job it was at aa drive-in, i was a car hop and i wasn't tall enough to get off thehe window and stand on box to take the order. i look back as to why they would have taken the social security up because i probably only made enough money to buy a hot dog and that was it. so we worked all of our lives at
every job i think they had. >> dot work ethic would help you during your military service certainly. so both of these gentlemen arrived at the vietnam. chuck got there in decembe deced tom got there in january. initially coming you were both in theis same division of the ninth infantry division but it's a big division, mike 20,000 troops, but not the same unit. .. u
and give some historical reflection on what really happened about that it's still being debated and so on. that really did define our service, and it defined everything. >> absolutely and it defined the war. the turning point in america politically in every way. >> and for the rest of your time in publicc service it kept the picture from that time. what was that picture? >> well tom knows about this. tom was not with me at the time that this happened but when i was in the senate and i think you have met him, tom i got a letter one day from a retired armyet colonel in wisconsin whoi remembered his name.
i couldn't put it allt together but a very nice letter and he said senator i don't know if you remember this or remember me but we ended up in the same company and we were in the qunai's unit of army personnel -- carriers. he said i took a picture with my little camera and i was behind your tracks of the ammo dump which was the largest in the world blowing up and he said i'd like to come by when i'm in town .nd give it to you so we set up the time he came by when i was in the senate and had a long conversation and he gave me an 8 x 10 picture of his little brownie schematic picture. look like an atomic bomb going off.
it just was astounding and he autographed it for me and i have kept it on my wall the rest of my time in the senate and the habit at my office at gallup as well so it's a reminder and tom and i have discussed many times again the significance. >> and the scale of the destruction. for chuck hagel's unit at the time they were in and around the city of saigon the end the largest city in south vietnam in the capital of south vietnam. people still living there call at saigon. i was in a replacement unit and they came and instead how many of you have an infantry in the west and put us on the perimeter so we were involved in it and trying to keep them out out the
base. it was a huge base and after a couple ofin days that's when i t orders to go to the calvary and up there it was just as crazy. >> most people if you bought the ken burns special or you are familiar with serving in vietnam or new people who did the north is the area that was right next to the so-called demilitarized zone so all the north vietnamese regular troops filtered down through that area. the marines have a lot of courses up there as well. it was a tank unit. major fighting at that time was occurring where tom pagels movement was then places like caisson. that whole area was all under attack.
>> you both sent in a request to serve together. whatever happened with the red cross idea that you could get a country to send chuck on. me.hey never got back to >> this is one thing where it helps when you are in author and decades later you can dig up the actual paperwork so here's what i found. there is not only regulation within the department of defense that the former secretary of defense hagel would know about but it's also a united states law passed after world war ii. some of you may have seen the movie the fighting sullivans are of heard of the five sullivan brothers from iowa. they'll enlisted in the navy and served u together on the light cruiser uss juneau. the uss juneau was torpedoed by the japanese off of the island of guadalcanal and many crews were lost including all five of the sullivan brothers. it wasan sewed devastating for e sullivan family and by the way
her are navy in world war ii named theo destroyer the sullivan. there's an destroyer today called the sullivans so they have been memorialized throughout our country'sut histy history. lawmakers after the war said we can't let this happen again so they passed a law that became known as the sullivan rule and this law said that two close family members cannot serve together in a combat zone involuntarily. that last part is the key part. both hagel brothers have asked to serve with each other guess what the sergeants and officers said when ii got there? does the sullivan rule apply? no. set that aside. >> i didn't>> know that. >> because you volunteer to do it and i might add ladies and gentlemen what was really unusual about chuck and tom they didn't just serve together in a
20 thousand person out there, they were in the same rifle unit with 30 or 40 soldiers altogether at the same time so they really serve closely together. when your brother showed up what did you think? >> i was concerned on the search and destroy mission for four days and they pulled me back in the base camp. i asked what's going on my first thought wasas tom. i remember explicitly the captain saying sun if we wanted you to know and that was kind of the order of the day. i said okay, so i waited in my tent in a a few hours went by in the next thing i know i look up and tom walks in and the rest is
history. >> exactly right and the first sergeant sergeant said if your brother ever did decide they would put-- him right eye your site in a platoon. what are they tell mother about that? >> i always signed tom's name. >> i think mom felt that we were going to be over there in that war if those of us wanted it this way they had better be there together. >> i think that's fair to say. >> chuck already mentioned this it was a mechanized unit which means to say they had small
things that look like a tank. they had tracks of the soldiers were in the back being carried around and they have machine guns on top and that unit was basically a response to a reaction force. anything that was really a hot situation had to go very quickly. they had a siren and play for everybody to mount up and go but many of the operations and all the roads around saigon were of course booby-trapped and ambushed and their outfit had the responsibility to clear them and clear the area around h the. so it was tom a fateful day for you two gentlemen on the 28th of march when he rolled out on .osition
what happened? >> well we were on a search and destroy mission and tom and i like we often did walk point. >> ladies and gentlemen when he says what point that means a long column of men and the first two dies are the hagel brothers. mom didn't know about that. i think tom and i just felt and i think our platoon leaders and company commanders felt we could do a pretty good job of matt and we could do it better than anybody else. tom was the best i truly ever saw. he saved me, he saved the company many times. i could read ad map pretty well
and a compass. today when you ask somebody about a compasseb -- talk about shooting in that -- were you talking or what did youh. mean? you relied on your compass. it's not that way anymore. anyway we made a pretty good team and on this particular day we had been up one point most of the day and if you are on point you are shopping a lot especially the point guy which would be normally tom and i'd the right there behind him with a compass and a map that but you are usually with a machete because you are walking the roads all the time. the company commander wrote me out of the point position to give us a break and it put
another few guys up in front of us. we were crossing a street and we tried to always stay off theec road because the booby traps were everywhere. the point guys which tom and i had just been hit a tripwire in the water and there were claymore mines in the trees, mines that are filled withth pellets with high explosives that can do some pretty rough damage. they hit all those bright guys and they hit tom and me. that's what happened on that day day. i always look for his name on the wall, robert summers the point guy who was killed and then they had to get the
severely wounded out and the helicopters had the common drop the basket down to the jungle and the jungle is very dense. you don't know if the snipers wouldpe open up. you could be trapped with a helicopter and. we eventually got the severely wounded out and then we had to get out. >> you are both woundedd now. >> it was getting to be nighttime and as the old saying goes the night belongs to vietnam. you didn't ever want to be in the jungle at night. without protection and so on. we had to get out of there. the company commander asked tom and i to get us out so we started to move again after the
wounded were taken out and the one kia taken out and so on. we got a few steps into it and tom stopped and coughed and sob grenade hanging in a tree. i didn't see it but he saw it and we were able to get around and we finally got out. >> even in the middle of the afternoon it's dark. >> the triplen canopy. >> both brothers earned a purple heart and the only way he can earn it is the hard way that day and to this day tom when you go through the tsa at the airport airport. >> tom has a little shrapnel in him. i have a couple pieces of my w
chest. we went into the field hospital and they dug stuff out and unfortunately it was significant but that -- not that significant significant. so they got the stuff out of me but i've still got it couple of pellets still in my chest. when i take in mra have to tell them because those things show up. but it has never given me any trouble. >> mine got out to. it just took a while. it worked its way out. >> 50 years later. >> even though wounded both of these soldiers went back to their unit. the thing i might also mention is chuck and tom were young men at this time. they are not experience with 10 years of experience but the role they describe, that point role
is normally in today's army would be done by a relatively experienced sergeant. they became sergeants but they became sergeants in combat and really had to take charge of the other young men who were with them because if you are willing to do it and you have the skills. they went back and a month later what happened when he went into the village on the tracks? >> i think they got intelligence we were sent out to sweep the village to find out and we swept the pillaging came back and the traps and apcs and the personnel carriers and since we were at the first tracks out we were the last track in and of course since they are tracked vehicles you can't doo it 360 turn. beginning were the first ones
out and everybody came back to the tracks and loaded back up and then they did a 180-degree turn to come back in. all the other tracks got past it but since we were the last track we ran over a mine. chuck was the most seriously injured. >> taub was injured. i thought tom was dead actually. he was a radio operator of a .50 caliber machine gun. it obviously disabled the track in a fire broke out because those tracks were full of ammunition and they would glow. i was on the side so my face was burned bad and so on. i started looking at everybody else. tom was slumped over the .50 caliber and yet lead coming out
of his ears and his nose and he was unconscious. so we got him off the track because snipers were everywhere. tomai said there was a track way ahead of us. we were all alone and fire started to break out. i didn't know if he was dead or what happened to him but we got him off thee track and that's when they took us out by helicopter that night to the field hospital. >> chuck's face the guide was buckled on this side. gross. >> so again the second set of purple hearts were for both brothers. the second time wounded in u.n. back to your unit. in fact when you went back you were all wrapped up. you look like mummies.
my face was all bandaged and i had to put salve on and tom had to help me. i've often thought about it how many other infantryman would have come to a different conclusion about taking care of me. he would have to read the image me every day because i got infections in my face too. they had to put salve on my facebook tom did all that. he was the medic and he was pretty seriously hurt. we were in the field hospital for a couple of days. >> i remember it happening and i remember being in the hospital. i remember being checked it out. >> we mentioned the tet offensive. the vietcong was the second waive of attacks in may. soldiers come you guys called it
many tact but it was heavily focused in saigon so the call went out again for their outfit and company b their company to intervene. both you guys were on that mission as well. >> that's right that tom had the bulk of that because i was at the dnc zero. >> it was totally different than anything i is certainly experience or a unit of experience. we are always out in the field in the jungles that this wasdi inside the city of saigon and street to street fighting. it was just chaos and you have people shooting at you from every different direction and you can't see where most of its coming from. if you ever have an opportunity to go to saigon believe it or not it's an incredibly beautiful city. so much architecture from the
french colonial. macs are you have multi-story buildings with balconies and what have you and they would have machine guns set on them and it was absolute chaos but it worked out. >> he cut a few parts out. >> he was awarded the bronze star for valor and wounded a third time. the mission that they gave him was battalion commander who was shot down who happen to be the brother-in-law of generalen westmoreland who is colonel frederick van dusen. he was killed and they were him from thecue saigon river. tom played a pretty big role.
>> absolutely and that's one key thing to remember is westmoreland they think these generals don't have anybody. the country was involved. >> if you remember westmoreland had just gone back west and clay abrams had takenr over. westmoreland came back to lead the search himself for his brother-in-law. they couldn't find his body. >> they did eventually recover him and tom was involved in that that. >> they found his body with 300 people in a helicopter in the bottom of the river. >> one of the things before we go to questions i would like to get d your gentleman's perspecte on things back home affected
soldiers of fodder for there. 1968 was a very divisive year for united states through in the most tragic events happened in memphis tennessee when an assassin killed dr. martin luther king, jr.. that reverberated over vietnam. what was the effect of that? >> first of all there was this certain amount of segregation in the army then that was apparently against the law but more self-segregation. in our unit we never had any problems. we had have people from every ethnic group servingp, together and everybody got along. part of it is because of the nature of the unit relying on each other. there is no place for prejudice and racism and that but after the news came that dr. king was killed there was a separate almost automatic immediate
separation of races and literal different sides of the camp. we lived on a fire support base. there was a lot of tension and a lot of anger floating around and of course what that does to a unit, you don't know if you'll have the same buddy you had before so we were lucky enough to have an officer and african-american officer if you want to talk about that. >> tom framed it exactly right. the racial tension was palpable because we had officers locating in and out a lot mainly because they had been killed or seriously injured. we got a new company commander as tom said.
he was 21 or 22 years old african-american lieutenant from chicago. he grabbed hold of the racial issue straight up and said no more. we are going to integrate the tents again no more black pants, white tents. we will be unit and we will fight together and take care of each other and he truly exhibited leadership that i have rarely seen in a very difficult situation that was threatened by both sides of the equation and he faced them down. to this day tom and i have found him over the last three years and reestablished her friendship. tom and i both feel that he is an individual that we have such immense respect for over theo years. it was a tough time as tom said. it was difficult.
>> a lot of units didn't have the good fortune we had to have him and there were stories of people shooting each other and throwing grenades. >> this was that it time when america was becoming more divisive. kennedy was killed and the democratic convention was really coming apart. that was being reflected certainly in these 19 in 20 euros kids having to fight this war that they didn't understand and that america wasn't supporting. you are going to bring out every ugly dimension of the society when you've got that. this is one of the reasons of and tom and i have talked about this many times, the vietnam generation the kids who were asked to go over there and fight if you back up and look at all acquitted themselves pretty well
in a very difficult time and handled it and i think it. magnificent way with all the other problems that they had to deal with besides the fact they were in the middle of a war. i often think to contrast that time with what we have been going through in the last 15 years with the wars in iraq and afghanistan that we are still involved in. one good thing that was a massive mistake to ever get involved in those two wars but one good thing that came out of that i think is that now american society can look at the people who are sent to fight a war separately from the war. you can be against the war and still support the troops and think about it in our situation here you have young guys and in fact when i got out of vietnam
after the suspense of my e tour event when i got out i had to wait a year to legally buy a drink or die was that young. i got to it. >> you couldn't vote. >> that's right, couldn't vote at imagine you are involved in a war and you have a combat role and everything you hear, we didn't have a lot of access to media and everything you hear from united states is how the worst evil in you are abb killes killers. there going what am i doing withh my life? any day i could get killed in what am i doing it for because all the people backk home you hope would support your efforts and respect you fort, it, but it was totally different. from what i see there's a lot of support for chips coming home, as there should he.
>> because of your sacrifices and those who fought alongside you. ladies and gentlemen we have questions in their microphones on either side. if you want to ask a question of the hagel brothers or myself, to the>> mic. >> i was curious as best as you can recall any political aspects you were calling what i mean by that is in a troop or a patrol you've got people that are very young experiencing life the best that they can predict the people above them telling them to do things that are life and death that are very young the best they can and you have the aspect of life today everybody has needs, wants and desires. what were the dynamics of reading in a group like that all trying to protect yourself and protect them and protect each other but from a political aspect from a combatat perspecte
if you can call or recollect on that. >> i don't recall having any in-depth political discussions and one of the reasons i think is keep in mind how old we were. i was basically an ignorant 18-year-old kid. i barely graduated from high school and i didn't know anythingno about international politics, diplomacy, affairs economics or anything like that and i don't recall getting into any serious political discussions liberal verses conservative. >> let me elaborate. if i do this i get an award and it gets me out or anything like that.. >> i don't remember. first of all if i do this i will get an award, that never crosses
your mind. >> you don't really compete for the purple heart. >> there and a lot of people standing in line. >> i think tom is right. i saw some things where there were some people fabricating valorous actions which didn't occur. i'm not sure that was unique. i think it happens in every war. >> the guy at the bottom -- so i think tom is right on that. when you are in those situations as tom said you are young and many of the young people we served with, they could hardly
read. it's all about survival and taking care of each other. that's what you a are. and you are not too interested in anything beyond that. you just want to get men and do your job and get out. >> the world is so narrow and defined by your life situation in keep in mind how close you are when you are in a unit like that. we slept together, ate together, did all personal functions together. there p was no privacy whatsoev. you are probably closer on a day-to-day basis than you have ever been with your family. when you go to the restroom at home you close the door. there weren't any doors and there weren't any restrooms. you did everything together so you got to know each other in and out and that's good on one
hand but on the other hand with something happens. >> any other questions? >> i want to thank you both for your service to our country. [applause] for secretary hagel i wonder did your service in vietnam read -- lead you to your political career ended that have a bearing on it or would you have gone down that path? >> i don't think my service in vietnam directly led me into a political career. it affected my thinking surely
because what is politics about. accountable responsible leadership and i think everybody now knows we didn't have that in the vietnam war. it costs thousands and thousands of innocent lives. sure i was affected by that experience and i don't think it directly led me to that. i was fortunate that i had a pretty good career before god in the senate but i always had an interest in politics and always felt and tom knows this, if things were aligned family business opportunities may be in the right way i would be very interested in doing something in politics but i couldn't finish my life without that too.
i'm glad i did all of that and it's tremendouslyin rewarding ad a tremendous privilege but it helps me to have that experience experience. it defined a lot of my thinking especially when i got to be secretary of defense. i always came at everything from the bottom up, not the top down. it doesn't mean i'm right or wrong or doesn't mean i'm smarter than everybody else but that was my experience and i try do see it that way. i tried to do it in the senate. it affected me but it didn't direct me to politics. i think and i hope, i hope it made me a better leader. >> there has been some polling
that talks about the divisions in the country being similar to the vietnam era and i'm curious about how you see that and if you agree with that and what you think the reasons may be and what are the things that are dividing us now and how do they compare with what was going on during that time? >> yes. if you look at the history of our country and there has always been dissent and specifically when it comes to issues of war and peace they are always protest movements. you can go back to the civil war in the draft riots, world war i and the isolationist, all of this but americans always seem to come back to equilibrium. but it was different with the vietnam generation and the vietnam war in particular pics first of all it came at a time when he had the civil rights movement which was no small thing historically. one thing for sure that i think defines that his death was the first time from my reading of
history and i could be wrong on this that a massive number of citizens lost faith in the institutions of government and the leaders of government because they would provide to for so long that they didn't trust anybody. it t think that is a hangover. the last election is a good example of keep in mind these are people who were our age the highest group of people who vote and our children's age. it seems like we have lost the government institutions and leaders and rightfully s so. we have been lied to for so long long. i think institutions and a lot of regardless of what you thinkk of president trump i think a lot of the vote for him was a vote representing that.
we distrust our institutions and we distrust the government, both political parties and we are angry and we just want to smash it. anyway i think the chickens have come home to roost because our current politicians too often, i don't trust them either. i think they continue to lie back to h us but we have allowed ourselves to be lied to and we elect them all the a time. they have forgotten that they work for us. we are citizens and we run the show. their responsibility as citizens. they work for us but for some reason as a society we have laws that. we just let it go on so consequently a lot of distrust in the governmental institutions and the political system and again both parties can be tracked back to a beginning point in the vietnam war. it was so clear after a while especially with all the archives and the material that's been
released where society and it troops were blatantly lied to about the vietnam war, the causes of it in the attempts to stop it, all of that and so many people lost faith and have not regained it. >> i think tom put his finger on the break down of the trust and i think it has produced a political environment we have today with the deep and wide divisions. i would add one additional point to that and that is on a broader scale i think we are seeing a new world order being defined and built. the world order that is different from the 10 years after world war ii that america essentially led their allies and building creates a world order
of the last 70 years. it's been pretty good for most peoplele. no world war iii, no nuclear exchange. more economic opportunity. the problems that world order faced can't do everything are the trouble spots in the world today and how that relates to american politics isis confusin. everybody in this room i suspect most people watching on television was born, they were born during world war ii or after world war ii. what does that mean? it means our world has been a world that america has dominated and that world is shifting and changing. it is presenting a lots of new dimensions and dynamics and
challenges that we have not ever had before. i think tom's point you had that reality. doesn't mean it's bad or good either way. it's how you respond to it in how you adjust too it but you ad to the fundamental what tom is talking about where you break down the trust and confidence of your governing institutions as a society, you were in trouble. it's not just government. not just politics. gallup does a poll every year they have for the last 16 years. they take the 15 major institutions in this country and they asked the question of confidence and trust. the military over the last few years is they only one that is anywhere near up of the 50% line. i think this year was 76%. the only other one is small business because everybody likes small business. they are a man and woman in your hometown he can trust them but
everyone else big business, lawyers, politicians, pharmaceuticals, media, organized education, organized religion are down and of course the politicians in washington are down in the single digits. when you have got a situation mike that you have got a real problem. you have got a real, real problem. again when you add that to the real challenge is out in the world that we have got to adjust to whether they are economic issues security issues terrorism issues alliance issues whatever if you have a government that is not functioning and we pretty much had it dysfunctional government when we can't get past budgets for perforations fills one of the most basic responsibilities then you will have what tom referred to this tremendous outburst and reaction
out there in the populace that things are really bad and goings wrong and it breaks down the structure which is not dead. i think tom's quip though when we started his right. i prefer to believe that i'm always an optimist ii guess buti don't think i'm up blind optimist. i'm maria was two. the duke balance out. america does self-correct and tom used the term find an equilibrium. we always have and we always will and the reason is we are we are a nation of laws we have a constitution and we have a people that make up our society that are so much better than what they are seeing today and i think the leaders who represent our institutions are showing. >> on that note a greatt conclusion. thank you very much to both the hagel brothers and thank you
>> in her public informed of government, elections virtue is needed more than in any other form of government because the people themselves pick their rulers. >> we had delegates from all the high schools in st. louis. >> all i know is that our school some kids just don't like people. >> what i think is the individual accounts. how are you going to get to know a person lets you meet them? with the supreme court ruled that segregation was illegal these children were ready.
>> and klepper berryman continued to drop for the washington evening star for the next 42 years. his cartoons appeared almost daily usually on the front page of the paper very prominently place. he had quite an illustrious career. our main veteran flo groberg is the first foreign-born recipient of the medal of honor since vietnam war. in his book "8 seconds of courage" he writes about his childhood in france, his adoption by an american family and his combat experience in afghanistan. this is 45 minutes. >> it's my pleasure and honor to invite to the