tv Matt Richtel An Elegant Defense CSPAN April 18, 2019 3:19am-4:24am EDT
descending order. number one, late in the book you will find the chapter truly, should i put them under my nose. in the first reason, i am beginning this reading with a song because the song i wrote a few years ago represents my own misconceptions about the immune system which i will explain later as we get into the talk. the second reason, cspan is here and i understand that they require a medical related acoustic song. so i felt i should honor that. the third and real reason, i hope when i am done despite what do you think you will give a warm round of applause is because the guy who inspired this book and who you will hear about shortly and he was a very good friend, lived a major lake
adventurous life and he was not happy unless the top was done and he was rocking out and crushing the country. so jason, this is for you, don't pick your nose. feel free to sing-along we get to the course or any other time. ♪ are you ready? ♪ leaning close ♪ and i'll tell you tell ♪ about the one who got away ♪ not a for sure well ♪ and started with a little dig, scratch just to pick don't receive ♪ ♪ but nasal excavation got too big, gooey archaeology ♪
♪ that nearly crushed the town ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ now with fingers not with toes ♪ don't pick your nose. >> here comes a guitar interlude she is playing the guitar and not her nose ♪ ♪ the massive sphere slips out of you throwing at a furious pace. is not rocket ♪ ♪ you can see from space ♪ is a runaway booger ♪ that nearly crushed the town
that day ♪ >> course here we go ♪ ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ don't pick your nose not with fingers not with toes ♪ ♪ not your sisters or your pros ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ it's one for the ages for your soul to keep ♪ ♪ if you're looking for redemption let's see how it goes ♪ but handkerchief ♪ almighty ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ you get a runaway booger ♪ or sales for dinner ♪ it nearly crushed the town ♪ that day ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ don't pick your nose
♪ not with fingers not with toes ♪ not with sisters or burros ♪ don't pick your nose ♪ [applause] take that fox and cnn. [laughter] >> so, later on i will tell you about the controversy over nose picking but first i want to tell you about my childhood. that is your cue. first i want to tell you about my childhood. this is my little league baseball team and i am in the front room and their two people
in the important part of this picture. this is jason and his agile. they launched this book. when i was growing up jason was mr. everything. he was all-state baseball and all-state basketball we swapped the slide please susan. this was his graduation date and high school. we stayed friends, he was an unbelievable character and guy in life was pretty rich for him except for one big blemish. can you go back and slide please susan. when we are in 11th grade, joel who is a titan in the crowd and wearing the yankee hat, he died of cancer. it really threw jason for a loop. fast-forward 30 some years, this is only a few years ago from
now, jason is in his 40s. the very age his dad joel got cancer. jason got cancer. it was hodgkin's and it's eminently curable by cancer standards. but if you gotta have cancer this is about want to have. jason did not manage to survive all the key most in radiation but rather he survived on the side of his cancer. he was wayward, his life did not stand tracked the same way as when his dad was around in the midst under missed treatments. about three years ago, 2013, get 15 pounds of lymphoma in his back and it was doubling every three weeks and his doctor, an oncologist in denver said jason i love you, man buried but it's time to go home and die. we also goodbye to jason and jason went home.
he said what about that one drug in the last meeting with the oncologist. that was in immunotherapy drug. you've heard a lot about them now. it was an off label drug at the time it was not marketed for what jason had or even sold for raven available in any way they managed to get a dose. a couple of doses later his grip and woke him up, it was two weeks after he got the home to hospice. can you switch aside. she said get out of bed jason. your tumor has disappeared. these are pictures of what happened to jason's tumor after he'd been to home to hospice, 1w weeks, and mobilized, you get the picture. this is the point where i picked up my pen and i said i'm good
buddies with this guy and i'm a new york times health and science reporter, forgive mailing language. what in the [bleep] just happened. what is immunotherapy. people began to write about that. but what is the immune system, what is this thing inside of us and how have we gotten to the point where we are tinkering with it. cancer is one of the world's leading killers. this is not a cancer story. nor the story of heart disease or respiratory disease. accidents stroke alzheimer's, diabetes, flu, ammonia, kidney disease, stroke, hiv or
diabetes. these are things that kill us. this is not the story of any particular disease or injury is the story of all of them. an extraordinary link that binds them. the glue the divines the whole of human health and wellness. it is the account of the remarkable discovery of the immune system particularly over the last 70 years and the role the system plays in every facet of our health. i was gonna read a little bit more but i think you get the picture. this is the system that defines health, wellness, well-being, happiness. over the next couple of years i went and destroyed every misconception that i had built up over a lifetime of the system that is inside of us. i began with the most basic idea even married to a doctor who is
a wonderful educator and her family and i totally listen to all of it. no laughter? [laughter] let me try again i totally listen to everything she says. [laughter] and then i had a lot of misconceptions that many of us share. let me see what's next. note to self reading, interlude did that. what comes next, movie reference, side note --dash so i began with the misconception that the police and the immune system was a zealous force keeping everything out of our bodies that would do us any harm. and to some extent it serves a purpose. but the most basic thing that i
learned, i sense thought of in the context of the movie the matrix. everybody remember that? remember in the matrix, if you've not seen it i'm going to give stuff away. it's still worth seeing, great movie. but i cannot put an image on account of the lawsuit thing. he is surrounded by a world unseen to many of us. the most essential basic thing that i learned about the immune system comes predicate to explaining how it works and what it is, that is that we are surrounded by an invisible world at this moment at the surface by your chairs on your jacket, certainly on your shoes. there is virus, parasite and organisms.
if this immune system had been the way i conceptualize it when i began my journey is something that seeks to attack alien, we would have scorched and have nuclear winter. in fact the immune system is quite different than i conceptualize in one way that i want to defined to begin with. really what the immune system is is a calibration device that is aimed at assessing how to get along in the world and the least violent way possible. what the immune system tries to do is cooperate with all those ones and zeros, all the bacteria and virus and parasites that surround us in our water, food
and be as cooperative and harmonious as humanly possible because, when it must dole out violence, when it must go to wae through. way to the cameras. you're adorable. when it must go to war. when it must act as a police state, it is so pronounced and so profound that it is more dangerous than almost any passage pathogen that you will encounter. i have come to think of the immune system as a love child, ballet dancer, it has immense power to surveilled, spy, to look inside your body and do terrific damage but it tries to do so by treading as lightly as human as possible. can we go to the next slide.
i want to tell you a little bit about some of the characters in the book. in order to describe this massive system, i will not begin to do justice is 15 minutes, i hope the book does it some justice. i felt that i needed to bring in not only jason, he represents only a single kind of perspective. the perspective he lends to the story is the one where the immune system was insufficient. jason's immune system for variety of reasons we can discuss or you read in the book could not rise to the challenge of fighting cancer. but that is only part of the conversation. i mentioned that the immune system can get out of whack very easily, it's a police state that must hold itself in check, but when it does not we run into characters that are two
characters that are unlike jason and the immune system was insufficient, they are characters in this book, who if you prefer a goldilocks metaphor, there immune system was too much. each of the women profiled in this book suffers from autoimmune disorders. their stories, our harrowing and commonplace. i was unaware until i got into this book and until i got older and began to see rude people around me suffer when it comes to autoimmune disorder, how prevalent this is. is prevalent more than it's ever been in part because we are aging. i am seeing it more for that reason but it's in particular, far more prevalent in women than in men. it is a topic i go into in the book and i think -- can you go to the next light. i am really struck -- when we
get to the q&a they asked me to it limit it for the moment but we can talk about why women are more susceptible to autoimmune disorder but i was really struck by how much women have suffered in as well as men have been invisible. and i seek to bring light to that topic and how the autoimmune disorder happen but also why they can feel so invisible. they can feel invisible for two reasons. one, this is how -- about these upper couple reasons. this is a woodcutting of a woman who was deemed -- she was deemed hysterical. over the ages we've heard that women were hysterical. it's in your head, it's extremely excruciating to go to a doctor and have a doctor say, i am sorry there is nothing inside you alien that would be
causing this. therefore, it must be in your head. therefore does not follow in this case. just because it's invisible does not make it any less real. this is your body attacking itself. the other thing i finna appear, this is a public notice in search of a werewolf. the first name were metroi rheud condition. they look like you are disfigured from the bite of a werewolf. jason immune system did not work enough. these are women where it is been overpowering. this is what linda's hand looks like even now. she was a professional golfer. she is in fairly well permission and this is what her can hand look like on a typical day. she sent me a picture of
inflammation. the last character i chose in the book is probably the most marvelous one of all. i mentioned one with too little, too would too much. you're looking at a man with an extraordinary, extraordinary immune system, meet robert half, so extraordinary that his immune system and the national institutes of health studies it now to understand why it is appropriate. what is the evidence, on halloween night 1977 robert half got hiv. he was infected. they later went on and did the forensics to discover that. he hardly had a symptom and he certainly never had aids. he's an elite controller. he does something very few human beings are able to do and that is carry one of the most devastating plagues that is ever hit humankind. it is an particular devastating,
hiv because it attacks the immune system itself and it does so with a thing called a retro virus, you can read about in the book that is so nasty and mean in mutates and it kills and kills and kills and bob is. so many people, but this is bob not so long ago with his husband, he is with us today and i hope you will enjoy reading about him, he teaches us a lot about the immune system. note to self, sidenote periodically make eye contact. [laughter] i mentioned what the immune system is, i mentioned this act of balance, i began to renew characters. i want to tell you the most astounding question that most astounded me that struck me as so profound about the immune
system and it is this, as it bounces with the world, how in the heck can it be prepared to face the myriad different threats that we make confront in the living world believe it or not the immune system you carry and you is pick your belief system, scientific, divine and no less than miraculous. it has an answer to the following problem. i will reduce that problem. you see how handy these are. in their big not like the small notes of people key.
[laughter] a huge challenge is these organisms, the immune visit system faces are highly variable. fact. and viruses weekly. it can multiply every 20 or 30 minutes. some viruses faster. each act of reproduction creates an opportunity for change. a mutation, moving around of genetic sequences that can turn a virus or bacteria that our body has figured out how to fight into a virus or bacteria that our body does not know how to defend itself against. the human reproductive cycle gives to new generation every we survive an organisms that change as so much more rapid another way to think about it, the bacteria can divide so quickly that left unchecked it can take over our entire body and 40s.
but our own cells divide relatively so slowly such that they create about 16 new ones from each cell on a given day. math is working against us. so how could it be that a single human body could be prepared to deal with so many threats including ones that might not even exist yet. think of it, our immune system need to cope with rapidfire mutations from reproducing pathogens or protein -based life form from outer space. this is amplified by more simple math. oh sorry i contact -- this is ample fiber more simple math. we have a number of genes. in the 1970s that was thought to be around 100,000 in the human genome. since then we have learned it's smaller, perhaps 19000 to 20000, how can we possibly defend herself.
"god had two options jason's cancer, doctor told me. he could turn us into 10-foot fall the bulls or give us the power to fight different pathogens" why pimples? white blood cells are made up with your immune cells. clearly, you are not in leisure between you are the ages of 14 and a half with one large purple. he favors a divine explanation. evolution, whatever your explanation. it found a different solution. it is quite marvelous with the immune system does. something unlike any other genetic material in our body to be prepared to face almost infinite number of solutions. that is a question that plagued me. once the immune system gets
developed in this way that can begin to recognize a whole bunch of different opportunities the next thing that happens is there is inside your body a myriad of cells in many molecules on those cells could have extraordinary specialized functions. this was a quote, the b cell in the t cell, you surely heard of these. just to give you a sense of how recently we argued over this. it wasn't maybe 50 years ago, 40 years ago when it the noble prize winners involved in this, and their discovery he said, when he would tell people about the b cell and t cell they would tell him, they don't have to do with the immune system they are the first and last letters in -- are you with me?
[laughter] i just want to give you a sense of the extraordinary depth and function that goes on in the body. these are transmitters that make the internet look like the slowest lease until least effective munication system that ever existed. within milliseconds it may go through your body. i made an attempt in the book to take you guys a little bit deeper these are essential terms and want to give you an example. teddy said earlier the only thing i have to apologize for is
occasionally i would have to write a pep talk to the reader saying, stay with me this stuff is complicate it. but one of the hardest parts of the topic is the vocabulary. you will discover in the book a bunch of vocabulary. all of these terms represent incredible functions that your body is doing at the subconscious level to protect you. let's stroll a little bit further. should you pick your nose? let's come back to this. i wanted to end, i will pause here and we will prosper some questions. with the preface and more concluding thoughts. i realize i have covered a lot of ground to try to give you a bit of an overview of the book
but the reality is the deviance systems complex and it would be hard to do justice to the breath of it without keeping you here for longer than you'd like to stay. so that is one thing. the next thing, i want to give you some concrete solutions and then i will highlight two of them the no's picking piece and the stress piece. maybe we can posit have questions and anything you want to ask to the extent i am aware i will tell you and if i am not i will defer to somebody in the audience. so, should you pick your nose? one of the things i discovered, and some of you may know. there was an article that is been circulating a lot. i wrote a few weeks ago in the new york times about the hygiene hypothesis. it's poorly named to some extent. one of the things that researchers realized was returning to the image of the ones and zeros of all the inputs that are around us are immune
system benefits enormously by interacting with those viruses and bacteria with those parasites. most of them will do us no harm. many of them will live with us innocuously and if you would do us harm. but in any case, our immune system learned goes to boot camp by interacting with the natural world. for a while, this started at the hygiene hypothesis when it was observed that people who are in overly sanitize environment got more allergies. but it turns out that the hygiene hypothesis had more recently been expanded into what some call the old france mechanism. that really, what you need, when we sanitize our environments we are not merely blocking the
problematic pathogens but we may also be blocking all the friendly or other microbes that help inform our immune system. so should you pick your nose? i asked the question of a couple immunologists for this reason. not to justify my behavior explicity. [laughter] but i want to say this in all seriousness. i believe watching my children and other children and many adults that there is a frequent urge to scratch in this area of the face. i asked scientist, could that actually be a part of an evolutionary, biological approach to informing your immune system? one very well healed immunologists said we need to study that question, we don't know the answer, we have taken it for granted because for many years that represented the input
of noxious pathogens. so can i tell you tonight and maybe an open question. let me tell you about stress, the book outlines -- this is not a magic bullet book, eat certain celery and you'll never have a problem again. white avocado on your head and you'll cease to bald, this is not that book. it gets into the more basic science of the principles that underlie solutions. therefore listed here, you will see the science. i want to highlight one because i think it is worth putting a fine point on the dan age where we live. it has to do with stress. stress has a really immediate profound effect on your health through your immune system. to understand why is quite simple. i want to picture yourself in the savanna 100,000 years ago.
picture yourself just a lot hairier and running from a line, in the moment your body is doing a lot of resource shifting. it is shifting the resources to acute survival in its shifting resources away from some of these immune functions that are essential to your everyday health and so essential they are going around around-the-clock. because what? if you have to survive a lien, the head cold can wait. but what happens in society, we are blessed in the society. in this version of society that we are in now we are not typically facing liens or anything that can amount to it. we face floods of threats but they can feel on a biological level as potent and powerful as a the whole bunch of obligations
that i had very quickly after i got the stomach flu which i'm just coming out of. it is no surprise to me. i know all the rules, i had to rest, i had a nap more than usual. [laughter] thank you for not laughing. i just want to emphasize, the book has more science and it but the chapters play together very deeply in the adrenaline you create has a very direct effect on limiting your immune system and when you don't sleep you do not turn the adrenal signals off either. can i have one more slide. here is walk away line number one. i want to emphasize another big key take away. if you read something that tells you to boost your immune system
i would look at it like this. or whatever your version of outlook is. you do not want to boost your immune system. you want to support your immune system. these are two decidedly thanks. a boosted immune system is a just regulated immune system it's joint pain, fatigue, fever, exhaustion. really think twice about that monster that is gained currency for no good reason in modern society. the other walk away line, i won't tell you how the story ended with jason. it was quite dramatic. but i want to tell you that one of the things the immune system teaches us is that we are not meant to live forever. it is a system that is aimed at not foremost preserving the
individual but preserving the species. it was an enormous revelation for me as my reporting went on. i will not reliever the science behind that and if it comes up in conversation we can discuss it. but the immune system in its own way, while it is protecting us for certain period of time issuing the death over the sake of our species. this is an elegant defense, i would love to take your questions and i thank you so much for listening. [applause] yes? >> can you talk a little bit about -- i don't know if you did any research on the effects of emotions on your system, particular trauma, i know you mentioned stress but more particularly trauma that has not been dealt with and manifest physically customer. >> do you kids want to come out and say here? the question is about the impact
of stress, trauma and specifically trauma on the immune system. i actually will tell you that i'm going to be cautious and not speak to directly to it because i don't know about trauma. se but i do know that trauma can lead to things like anxiety and depression that you have a very direct effect on the immune system and sleep. i cannot speak to the connection of trauma. se in the human system but i would suspect that these things are linked. when people are lonely you see the immune system trouble. when they are depressed you see the immune system go to root dysregulation. let me give you one quick study. there have been traffic studies done around stress and test taking. remember taking your final
question -- in herpes. remember how herpes works, it's a nasty and beautiful virus and its relationship to the immune system. herpes is probably one the most humans collectively carry and it can be held in check by the immune system and its held in check by the ganglia which is the base of the brainstem. the cell bodies of the nerve root of your brainstem. nearby spinal cord. the ones that call down into your mouth when you are stressed or traumatized or depressed, those are held in check by a healthy immune system. when your immune system weakens, quite literally and somewhat disgustingly the herpes crawled
down into your mouth, one of the things that researchers noticed in testtakers when they got stressed around test taking time in herpes would manifest his lonelier students would have a harder time with it. so there is evidence that connects but i don't know -- you would know better than i because the psychotherapy that you do. but that does connect to depression and anxiety and loneliness i would be able to testify to the connections there. >> to know anything about the connection to autoimmune diseases customer. >> they are only starting to look at the connections between autoimmune disorder and how it connects to these various to the issues that you're describing. the reason is we've only begun to understand autoimmune disorders themselves. they're so complicated that getting at the cause and effect
has been exceedingly well. any other questions i can't answer? [laughter] yes i'll be here all night. >> what's the relationship between the whole gut biome in immune system customer. >> fortunately this one i can give you. the guy sitting behind you, he is a friend and tennis buddy of mine. he made a suggestion to a guy at caltech which is one of the world's leading bio experts and help me understand the microenvironment is the main character in the chapter on the subject. let me tell you a little bit about the micro biome that is not as an initiator.
it is the biosphere of bacteria that lives inside of you largely in the gut, about half of your body cells or bacteria populating most of your gut. remember i mentioned that we are not at war with those bacteria's around us. so far from the immune system side, the bacteria certainly don't want to do any harm for us. we are there hotel, tent, youth hostel, go down the list. we are there home. they want to cooperate with us. a word of caution about the micro done under brian. just like i met, we talked about autoimmunity the micro biome research is maybe the most embryonic research of any field that is going to blow up in the extraordinary. it has the potential to tell us as much as we have ever known about human health.
but, when you think of the collection of organisms in your gut, all mixed together, billions of different cells, teasing apart the cells in the mechanisms is exceedingly hard. so if someone tells you that they know the answer to the micro biome question, they are not telling you the truth. but this guy at caltech, among a handful of the brother people can tell you some really profound things -- kids, kids, speak up. we cannot hear you. what researchers have discovered, remember the micro biome once the body to live. and remember the immune system has a terribly difficult task in dealing with all the pathogens and other microbes in assessing what to do while it turns out that the micro biome remarkably enough is sending signals acro s
your gut lining that we thought was so sealed that we call the immune privilege. nothing got in or out. but messages are going across from bacterial cells telling sya whole bunch of things, but i want to divide them into categories. they are instructing the cells in your immune system to either ramp-up or slowdown. that is the basic answer to your question. there is a relationship we are just understanding but we know it is going to be exceedingly potent in a healthy gut is essential to your overall health in the immune system running through. i want to pause on one statement. remember i said that it is sending signals that might say attack the immune system but it might also say, stop.
i want to make clear in this conversation, i think i've done in passing but i want to put a fine point on it. a big part of you to molecules your muse system are designed to put the brakes. maybe half of the molecules are designed to stop it. because you've seen what happens when he gets out of control. we would not be here today if it were part of the immune system to put the brakes on. questions? >> i'm a person that always gets the immunity booster. and i read the book and i understand exactly where you're coming from when you say don't boost your immune system but i'm wondering is there anything that actually would do that and are there some people that actually do in fact need that that are already behind again ? >> yes, let's set aside abstracts that we know very little what country despite what some people may claim.
i had the world arguably immunologists whose name was tony and you will read about him in the book. he essentially runs immunology at the national institutes of health. i would not be surprised if he did not know his name, i wouldn't have known his name before the starter. if i say his name around any researcher they fall down as if springsteen is walking by. you know who springsteen is? thank you. we don't know exactly to tell you what to eat and what to not eat or power don't empower your immune system. we are not at that point yet. but there are things today that will boost your immune system and they are both extraordinary
and also dangerous. the reason jason he took a drug that unleashed his immune system. his cancer has been traditionally thought. what we did, we try to fight the pathogen itself, the mutation itself. by pouring taxes into the body you're talking about throwing into orange into your body. i hate people saying that because another people that have gone through and it's not delicate way to describe is a horrific process. but what is new about the way we are trying to fight cancer goes
to the very question that you asked. can we boost the immune system? the way we think about it now, we, society thanks about it or has begun to think about it is rather than attacking the tumor with toxins could we actually cause the immune system to do what it was built to do or evolve to do in the first place customer can we take the brakes off that it attacks the tumor as intended. that is beginning to work in an untold way. the winner of the nobel was james allison, he wrote in the book that if you give a certain kind of molecule to a mouse then at the time into a human, you can affect -- i will oversample fight, attached to the molecules in the immune system and cause them to attack which they had attacked before. in jason's case, the rates have been put on the immune system.
i'm happy to answer why that happened but the drugs are able to pull the brakes off in a boost the immune system. it comes with tremendous risk. we boost immune system to invite all the things that can happen when you get an over zealous. >> in a particular tumor they'll find the mechanics of the immune system that will attack it but insufficiently so and amplify that. is that something dashes that the mechanism we will be seen as a new therapeutic model for the future? >> i think the models are going to take as many shapes as there are innovators as creative medical people. what you're describing is a combination of two things.
one is personalized medicine rear understanding individual in his or her relationship to the disease. i'll make a comment about this london patient was cured of hiv and a second period the other thing you're describing which is frankly, fundamental for the moment. we are beginning to see these molecules and what they do we bring it to tease apart in this person and we know in general that this one does this. in this note got blocked, can we monkey with the relationship between this node in this tumor cell specifically. one of the challenges us there are economies of scale to doing that on a personalized level. there are people, and i know them in the room, friends of mine in the business that had been at genentech, those are the kinds of solutions people are kind to trying to solve.
can we make it economical to do it on a more personalized level. when you do it on a broad-based level, when you boost the immune system or in the case of autoimmune disorders. we are also putting the brakes on the immune system in the same way but when you do that you can invite infection and all of the troubles that come along. so the more precise we get the better that will happen. >> what are your own behaviors changed going to the process? >> a few of my own behaviors have changed. i sort of knew about the things that i mentioned, sleep in nutrition and stress. i have become more habit driven around those things because quite literally i can watch the one-to-one relationship between things i now know to be going on in my body in the science that
backs up why those things are happening. i will tell you, i have gotten less german phobic. my wife and i have gotten lester mccormick. one of the reason is because the training of the immune system. and i realize that frankly, having periodic head colds or your kids having them or the occasional flu, it's actually not that bad for you. a case can be made, i realize none of us has any time to be madsick. illness is a part of health. it's very hard to except in the moment but the other place i would say were my habit have most concretely changed all the enough is around the handling of raw meat. i understand this to be part of a really heavy area of possible transmission of higher concentration of knox's pathogens then you would
otherwise face meaning in a at any other environment. our kitchen when i cook with meat or poultry looks like in infection control. like i'm doing missile out when i turn on the sink. i am being careful to wipe down the counters, part of it has to do with a series -- in the new york times that i ever saw and wrote much of, all of last year having to do with drug-resistant and her buttocks, drug-resistant infection. i would encourage really good hygiene around raw meat. it's simple but it's true. he does do it a lot, says my son. as my wife last. >> i have a question around biologic priority. the body does thinking in order that will most sustain it.
so the immune system under ordinary circumstances has a very high biologic priority. in the idea that seems to be so prevalent in our society as you're saying i'm going to go to jamba juice for the immune boosting thing. which is probably not immune boosting at all. and people are so credulous everything to do whether you do this or that or the other thing. you can start for six months but your immune system has a high priority. so it is going to give up other stuff perhaps before gives up that. >> can i speak to the point dashes or no question? she made a really interesting
point i thought about this a bunch in the course of writing this book. and how for instance we got to the point where we are squirting coop all over our kids anytime somebody touches a banister and why we are so worried about that. i think a lot of our habits around health derive around a natural place. i looked somewhere from a quote about ritual and watching. thank you for coming by. everybody say goodbye to eric. good seeing you. -- eric is in the book so that we should honor him. i found a quote that talks about ritual handwashing. you can see in multiple religious and cultures that some don't eat pork, some don't eat beef, he look at many practices that were born out of an
understandable lack of control over environment that not only we did not control but we did not understand. one of the things that is interesting about that. we find ourselves in and i find it very fertile ground as a journalist, is helping to educate, load myself and educate about places where we have not only learned but maybe began to over correct. you can think of a million places where industrialized processes have come about for very, very good or understandable reasons. you could include, processed food. getting more calories to more people. but we have seen the side effects of obesity come up and it's required, reorientation around the new set of facts. it is quite understandable that for many years we believed the
reason we were getting sick was because our immune system was stronger. it stands to reason the same way you might look at the sky and make assumptions about what stars are. the more we learn, the more we learn. but one of the beauties of the age that we find herself in is we have a chance to correct where we have overcorrected. that requires a more nuanced relationship with the world around us and it does take time because economic forces get in invested in marketing messages that have worked. a very good example is in a product. in a biotics are vastly overused by about 30% the cbc would tell you in the united states. but they were sold very effectively for very long time as easy things to print for
pharmaceutical companies. because when the economic forces get involved and begin to connect to a message it is hard to undo the sink those things. >> they talk about which one should you take for probiotic and we can improve our memories from an abstract of jellyfish. i don't know if jellyfish have a nervous system. [laughter] i am a pharmacist. some people say, i don't want to take drugs, and they come up with an arm load of supplements that they have no idea what isn't it. and i don't want chemicals in my body, everything is a chemical. so it has gone off the rail. >> i just want to point out one other area, where you see. for those who have not been able
not to take a good well researched vaccine. i don't want to pick a fight with anybody here tonight, but we can ball outside. once you understand how the immune system works and why it works the way it does end o ande care that goes into the vaccine, it is an extremely potent way to head off the following scenario. remember i had not gotten into this i will do it briefly but i want to explain one of the reasons back seasons or so important and why an effective, effective. inside of you there are two indian systems. they rushed to the scene of an infection or splinter and there's a whole bunch of cells and quite literally looks like a
car wreck. then there's a second immune system that comes in and that is the adaptive immune system and it is built up of those very sophisticated details that are precise in being connected to molecular lay infection that you are facing in one's generic and one is precise. first what happens is the body must decide what is the nature of things i'm confronting and then they must find the proper so. i just want to say this, that takes time. when you are facing very
dangerous pathogens, smallpox, polio, other things, you do not want to wait the five to seven days for your response to read up, find the right so and do what it is capable of. i then, you may well be dead. and this with a vaccine done well provokes the immune system into generating or building a blueprint for that factory before you ever faced the deadly pathogen it's not just for child's life at risk. it's other children in the classes that could be at risk if people stopped taking vaccines. anything else? i just want to thank you guys we had the privilege of having booktv so thank you for being a great audience. thank you c-span for coming.
them and is praying for them. 20 years ago the columbine high school shooting was one of the deadliest high school shootings in american history. friday 8 p.m. eastern we will look back and provide reflection on the tragedy. >> at that time, columbine had never happened. the parents nor the school counselor looked at the issue of a violent paper as something that is indicative of the possibility of some real deterioration of thinking. charles graeber details for scientific advances in the fight against cancer. his book is "the breakthrough" immunotherapy and the race to cure cancer. he spoke at the savanna book festival. this is 45