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tv   Hearing on Coronavirus Racial Inequities  CSPAN  July 10, 2020 4:31am-8:30am EDT

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minorities as the pandemic continues. this runs four hours. >> the committee is meeting to widenedhow covid-19 inequities in education, health, and the workforce. .his is a remote hearing ask general rule, i will that microphones, including those of members and witnesses, be cap muted to avoid background
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noise. members are responsible for on muting themselves when they wish to seek recognition. somebody is not muted right now. can you check to see if you are muted? required tobers are leave their cameras on the entire time they are in official proceedings, even if they step away from the camera. hearing, theremote committee chair is officially closed. members who sit with their devices in the room must wear headphones to avoid feedback, echoes, and distortion resulting from more than one person on the platform sitting in the same room. use are also expected to social distancing guidelines including the use of masks, gloves, and wiping down the area in the hearing room.
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questions, if the witness is also in the hearing room, it would help if you mute while the answer is taking place , because the answer is picked up by your mike and that echoes back and there is usually distortion. the rollcall is not necessary to establish a quorum in official proceedings conducted remotely. when there is, the clerk will call role to make clear who is present at the start of proceeding. i will ask the clerk to call the roll. >> chairman scott. >> present. >> misses david. >> present. present. >> mr. courtney. >> present. >> ms. fudge. >> present. ms. wilson. >> present. >> ms. bonamici.
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>> present. >> mr. turkana. ms. adams. >> present. >> mr. design yay. mr. nora croft. >> present. >> ms. jayapal. >> present. >> mr. marelli. >> present. ms. wild. mr. harder. misses mcmaster. >> present. >> ms. schreiter. >> present. >> ms. underwood. >> present. >> misses hayes. layla. mr. levin. >> present. >>
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ms. omar. mr. trump. ms. stevens. >> present. >> misses lee. mr. castro. misses fox. >> present. >> mr. ro. mr. thompson. mr. wahlberg. >> present. >> mr. guthrie. mr. burns. mr. grossman. ms. stephan. >> present. >> mr. allen. >> present. >> mr. smucker. mr. banks.
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mr. walker. mr. coleman. mr. klein. >> present. >> mr. fulcher. mr. watkins. >> present. >> mr. wright. mr. mus are. >> present. >> mr. johnson. >> present. >> mr. calorie. >> present. >> mr. murphy. mr. van drew. >> present. >> chairman scott, this concludes the rollcall. >> excuse me, susan wild present. >> does anyone else want to note they are present? [inaudible] david sharon, ms. underwood
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-- hello? >> mr. chairman, it's congresswoman fox. i just want to note that congressman thompson was here and stepped out for just a moment and also that we have several members at misses bar's funeral today. kentucky people as well as other states. so there are several absent because of that funeral going on right now. that is certainly understandable. thank you very much. pursuant to committee rule seven c, opening statements are limited to the chair and ranking member and witnesses. i now recognize myself for the purpose of making an open statement. first, following up on the
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ranking member's comment, i want to express my deepest condolences to our colleagues mourning the loss of loved ones. our thoughts and prayers are with representative omar for the loss of her father, representative bonamici for the loss of her mother, representative barr for the loss of his wife, and our friend jim sensenbrenner for the loss of his wife. we are living in tough times for everyone but i know that these are particularly difficult times for those mentioned and we just want to wish them strength and peace. we are with them during this difficult time. today we are discussing how covid-19 is exacerbating inequalities in labor, education, and health, and the steps congress must take. a mountain of evidence has made it clear that to effectively
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respond to this pandemic we must address existing racial inequities in education, the workforce, and education. bias andion, racial chronic underfunding of schools serving students of color produce consistent achievement gaps. we know that our k-12 public schools have a racial funding gap. that is the difference between funding and school districts serving students of color compared to school districts serving predominantly white students. positionedg gap has students of color to fall even further behind their peers. black and latino students are less likely to attend schools that have the capacity to establish high quality distance learning programs. they are also less likely to have the basic technology such
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as a computer, high-speed internet, and as a result, latino students are expected to lose nine months of learning and black students are expected to lose 10 months of learning due to the pandemic. white students are expected to lose only six months. addition, states will face a $615 billion revenue shortfall due to the pandemic. as the committee discussed last isk, public education usually one of the largest expenditures and unless the federal government provides immediate relief for state and local governments, it won't matter whether funding for education will be cut, but how much those cuts in education will be. while wealthier districts can fall back on property tax
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revenue, low income public school districts will have to rely heavily on state funding. school districts that predominantly serve students of color, severe cuts in education will come at the time of greatest need. consequences of these shortfalls are already evident. nearly 750,000 public school employees have lost their jobs since march. in colorado, the state legislature passed a budget that cuts a billion dollars from schools next year. workforce, outlook is similarly concerning. black and latino workers face significantly higher risk of unemployment. although the rate of unemployment for white and latino workers has lowered, rates for black workers have increased in recent weeks. among those who remain employed,
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workers of color are more likely to be employed in occupations with the highest risk of infection. of black and latino workers can work from home compared to nearly 30% of white workers. disparities,ese workers of color have been disproportionately affected by the department of labor's refusal to issue enforceable workplace safety standards to protect workers from covid-19. workersk and latino disproportionately work in low-wage jobs. congress has not raised the federal minimum wage in more than a decade. the longest period of time in its history. weaker labor laws have eroded union membership and workers
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collective bargaining rights, which have left essential workers vulnerable to a deadly virus. the most profound consequence has been the pandemic's devastating impact on the health of people of color. african-americans have been dying from covid-19 infections at about 2.5 times the rate of white americans. the death ratey, for latinos in the month of april was about 22 people per 100,000 adjusted for population and age. native american communities are suffering disproportionately. the navajo nation surpassed new york and new jersey with the most infections per capita. this follows the pattern of past diseases. with these challenges and
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education and workforce issues, disparities are rooted in structural inequality. people of color entered the pandemic with structural problems including health care discrimination, housing instability, food insecurity, and limited access to transportation. left of budget cuts have limited funding of rural and community hospitals and communities of color, leaving families with few options. access,of increasing the trump administration has been actively working to take it away in the midst of a public health emergency. a texas lawsuit threatens the entirety of the affordable care act. these efforts -- excuse me. these cynical efforts
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disproportionately impact people of color. if theseefforts -- efforts to strike down the law are successful, the uninsured rate among the african-american community would nearly double to 20%. hispanic of uninsured individuals would grow. but we are not here to talk about the problem. we are here to discuss solutions. the heroes act which the house passed last month would take important steps towards addressing racial inequalities. education, the legislation dedicates nearly $1 trillion of relief for states and localities to help reverse painful cuts to public schools. proposingrther by more than $100 billion in additional emergency education funding to help cover the cost
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of cleaning supplies and other open,es required to purchase educational technology, sustain special education, and have colleges and universities maintain their institutions. osha toes act directs issue an emergency temporary standard that would require protections for workers at highest risk for contracting covid-19. it also expands access to emergency paid leave to nearly 140 million workers. inle paid leave provisions the coronavirus response act took important steps in the right direction, too many workers including many health-care workers were excluded from those protections. the heroes act puts family and medical back into family and medical leave by dramatically
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expanding the circumstances in which workers can take 12 weeks of emergency pay, but we will not force workers to choose between a paycheck and the health of the people around them. act expands health care insurance coverage for covid-19 testing and treatment, provides full coverage for the cost of premiums and furloughed workers, and increases the investment in health and nutrition for community support by including $1 billion of special funding and an additional $1 billion for community service to help address poverty. invests the heroes act 75 billion dollars in testing and contact tracing to help contain the virus. this includes $500 million to recruit and train contact public through the workforce systems and community-based organizations.
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provisionsy, these represent a major step taken by getress to help our nation through this global healthcare crisis. as we confront this unprecedented challenge, we must accept our responsibility. act, we will be experiencing recovery that offers relief to some, that leaves many low income communities and people of color to face long-lasting or permanent setbacks in education and access to health care. this has stained our country's legacy for too long. i look forward to hearing from our witnesses, who will share the scope of the challenge and policy considerations to get us on the right course. i'm pleased to recognize the ranking member for her opening statement. thank you.
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>> thank you, mr. chairman. i also want to extend my to those who suffered the lost of loved ones recently. our prayers go out to them and their families during this difficult time. mr. chairman, you've heard me express my concerns about these virtual hearings, but it bears repeating. they fly in the face of 230 years of congressional and legislative precedent. these events undermine what our founders intended when they created our representative republic. americans are stepping up to help combat this virus while their elected leaders in the house stay home. it is shameful. -- and mr. chairman, ant so you know, this is entirely remote hearing -- it is not.
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a number of my republican colleagues and i are participating from the committee room in washington, d.c. and i encourage you and all other members to return to congressional precedent and hold our hearings in person. turning to the topic of today's virtual hearing, the coronavirus and related state imposed shutdowns have caused devastating job losses and unemployment rates not seen since the great depression. schools were forced to close their doors abruptly and switched to remote learning overnight, which impacted 97% of our country's students. but let's remember that prior to the covid-19 pandemic, the u.s. economy and market were strong. real gdp increased 2.3% in 2019 in 2018. in february, the unemployment rate was at a historic low.
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5.4% inemployment was august 2019, the lowest ever recorded. hispanicber 2019, the unemployment rate was 3.9%, also the lowest ever recorded. and in june 2019, asian unemployment was a record low 2.1%. at the beginning of 2020, workers in the bottom 10% of income had higher average wage growth than those in the top 10%. by january 2020, low income earners saw a 15% increase in pay since the president took office. however, we know that americans including minority communities have felt the negative effects of these unprecedented times. the centers for disease control and prevention estimates that
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blacks and hispanics account for nearly 40% of covid-19 deaths in the u.s. minority communities have also been impacted by pandemic related shutdowns, with the rate of black-owned businesses falling 41%, hispanic businesses falling 32%, and asian owned businesses falling 26%. policieshe progrowth enacted by congressional republicans and the trump administration benefited workers , employers, and families before the onset of the pandemic. reopening the economy responsibly and ensuring public health are not mutually exclusive. we can and must open america again while taking into consideration the recommendations from our public health officials. jobsmonth, 2.5 million were added to the economy. thatnificant indicator
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reopening the economy safely is the best way to help all americans get back on their feet. the wall street journal reported that new layoffs are being offset by employers hiring or recalling workers to allow more businesses to reopen. the white house and cdc have issued guidelines for reopening america again. which includees three phases from public health officials are intended to help state and local leaders make timely decisions about reopening the economy and getting people back to work while protecting lives. state has started implementing phased reopening plans, allowing non-essential businesses to reopen and operate safely, allowing employees to return to work and americans to resume daily activities.
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the pre-pandemic economy ushered in under the republican led congress and the trump administration benefited workers, employers, and families alike. lows,ment was at record including minority unemployment. low income earners saw a 15% increase in pay and 7 million jobs were available and ready to be filled. to achieve pre-pandemic economic conditions that enabled americans to flourish, we must continue forging a forward-looking path to help minority communities recover and prosper as they were prior to the pandemic. mandating further top-down federal laws and policies as
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proposed by house democrats will only compound the challenges that all americans currently face as we continue to combat covid-19. witnessesthank the for participating in this hearing but i hope in the future we can have all our witnesses testifying here with us in washington as we work in person on behalf of hard-working americans. i yield back, mr. chairman. >> thank you, and i look forward to that day myself. to all other members who wish to insert written statements, do so by submitting them to committee clerk electronically in microsoft word format by 5:00 sunday, july 5. i will now briefly introduced our witnesses. professor,s senior fellow and associate professor at morehouse school of medicine, and past president of the american health association.
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valerie wilson is the director program on race, ethnicity, and economy at the economic policy institute. she is an alumni of hampton university in my district. is president of the foundation for research on equal opportunity. mr. john king is the ceo of education trust and former secretary of the united states department of education. witnesses forthe participating today and look forward to your testimony. that we the witnesses have seen the testimony and it will appear in full in the hearing record. pursuant to committee rules and practice, each of you is asked to limit your own presentation to a five minute summary of your written statement. let me remind the witnesses that it is a legally to knowingly and
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willfully falsify any statement to congress. during your testimony, staff will be keeping track of time and will use a chime to signal when one minute is left, and when time is not entirely, a more obnoxious chime will occur at that time. please be attendant to your time and when your time is over, please wrap up your testimony and mute your microphone. if anyone is experiencing technical difficulties during your testimony or later in the hearing, stay connected on the platform and make sure you are muted and use your phone to immediately contact the committee i.t. director, whose number has been provided. we will let all witnesses make their presentations before we
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move to a number of questions. when answering questions, please remember to un-mute your microphone and mute when you are finished. we first recognized dr. jones for five minutes. >> thank you, chairman scott and ranking member fox. , covid-19 hasd had a tremendously disproportionate impact on the health and well-being of communities of color. compareht now, if you the death rates from covid-19 by racial ethnic groups, black folks are dying at 52 per 100,000. american indians, 36 per 100,000. per 100,000., 28 asian folks, 26 per 100,000. and white folks, 26 per 100,000.
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timesack americans, 2.3 black americans are dying compared to white and asian americans. why is this? communities of color are more likely to be infected with the virus and more likely to die. they are more exposed and less protected. burdened bye chronic diseases. this doesn't this doesn't just so happen . we are startled by what we are seeing with covid-19, but this is equally distributed, there would be no way we could slice and dice our communities and see any differences in terms of infection. what this indicates is that
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opportunity is not equally distributed by race, ethnicity and the name of the system that causes this differential distribution is racism. racism is a system for structuring opportunity and assigning value based on race and the social interpretation of how one looks, which has three impacts. it unfairly impacts on communities and saps the strength of the whole society through a waste of human resources. some people would assert that racism doesn't exist and if it did, it is not systemic but an individual character flaw. i actually use lots of allegories to explain how racism exists. if somebody wants to ask me in
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three minutes, i don't have time in my opening statement but is somebody -- but if somebody is wondering about the dual reality allegory. getting back to what we need to do. we need to act. saying that racism is the basis of these differences is not an excuse. it is a call to action. i have my own ideas for action. but you are doing such a great job. i am providing you with three tools to guide future action to analyze how you should go. we need to ask the why, to get to the what. if you don't have the right answer to why, then the what will never result in improvement. the first tool is to question how is racism operating and looking at elements of decision-making in policies, structures, practices, norms, and values, which are elements of decision-making structures
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comedy who, what, when, and where. who is at the table and who is not and what is on the agenda and what is not. how are decision-making values , the hawaii. after i outline, i will go back and say how that helps us with covid-19. the second of the three tools are three principles for achieving health equity. recognizing that health equity is assurance of the condition for optimal health for all people. it includes valuing all individuals of populations equally, recognizing and rectifying historical injustices, and providing resources not equally but according to need. application of those principles can guide further action. the third tool is something many of you may not have heard of. although you are the most erudite and connected folks in the country. that is the international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination, which is an international antiracism treaty
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that was adopted by the u.n. general assembly in 1965, signed 1966, united states in ratified by the u.s. senate in 1994. under which, we have present-day obligations. one of the obligations is to submit a report about every six years to a u.n. committee, which we do. the last report was submitted in 2013. the committee reviews that report and then sends back its concluding observations. the most recent -- i hope that was the short one. i never heard the short one. >> you have one minute remaining. >> ok, i did not know if that was the short one of a long one. -- the short one or the long one. i will just point out that we
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have the concluding observations provided to us in 2014 highlighted concerns and recommendations around racial profiling, around the disproportionate incarceration of people of color, around health disparities, achievement gaps in education, residential segregation. so how is racism operating with regards to covid-19? in terms of the who, what, when, where, the structural stuff leading to educational opportunity segregation leading , to occupational segregation as we are more on the front line jobs. in terms of policies, we are less protected in terms of ppe , in terms of paid sick leave. in terms of family and medical leave. in terms of practices, locations of testing sites in early policy requiring doctor's orders and the like. racism denial in this country puts the onus of the
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disproportionate impacts on people's behavior and not recognizing that living in chronically dis-invested communities, poisoned, no access to fresh fruit and vegetables is related. finally, values as reflected and standards of care. thank you for your attention. >> thank you very much, ms. jones. dr. wilson. dr. wilson: thank you for the opportunity to testify. i want to discuss evidence of the racially disparate economic impact of covid-19. and solutions that will avoid prolonged effects of the
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pandemic on racial disparity in the economy. there are three main groups of workers in the covid-19 recession. one, those who lost their jobs and face economic insecurity. two, those who are essential workers and face health insecurity. three, those who are able to continue working from the safety of their home. latinx, native americans, and low income workers are least likely to be in that last group. the first group of workers in the covid-19 recession as those who have lost jobs during the pandemic. the national unemployment rate in may, but13.3% this masks huge disparities by race. as of may comedy hispanic -- as of may, the hispanic unemployment rate was highest. the black unemployment rate was 16.8%. asian was at 15%, and the white unemployment rate at 12.4%.
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black and asian workers were the only racial and ethnic groups whose unemployment rate did not improve. the unemployment rate of all groups remains higher than the previous overall height of 10% in 2009. the second group of workers in the covid-19 recession are essential frontline workers. in the near term, these workers have been protected from job loss, they face greater likelihood of contracting covid-19 while performing their jobs. black workers are overrepresented in this group, making up one in nine workers overall, but about one in six frontline industry workers. they are also more likely to be uninsured and less likely to have paid sick leave. economic insecurity magnifies the current economic damage to workers and families. in the united states, a long history of racial exclusion, discrimination and exploitation have linked economic inequality and race. the black unemployment rate is typically double the white unemployment rate. this difference cannot be
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explained away by differences in education, even for workers with college or advanced degrees, black unemployment is significantly higher than the white unemployment rate, including at the record low rates reached pre-pandemic. among the employed, black face -- at all paid -- face pay gaps at all pay levels and levels of education. research has shown us has grown over the last several decades and have grown most in college-educated workers. lower incomes, less savings, and higher poverty rates among blacks and other people of color relative to white households. such long-standing racially stratified social and economic structures require that we center the needs of those who face the greatest economic insecurity, improving the effectiveness of any policy
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response while narrowing disparities. many of the policies needed to address immediate needs are included in the heroes act and other legislation that has been introduced since. i will mention a few as i conclude. first, the robust economic recovery is directly tied to our ability to secure the health and safety of communities and workplaces across the country. osha must exercise its authority to protect workers by enforcing emergency standards that address worksite health and safety risks associated with covid-19 and workers who voice concerns must be free of employer retaliation. we must develop a national system of testing and contact tracing in underserved communities to provide employment and accurate access to testing and other services necessary. third, since loss of employment also means loss of health insurance, federally funded comprehensive health insurance with full coverage for covid-19 testing and treatment as well as paid sick leave and family leave
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are essential. continuing crucial unemployment insurance provisions will help avoid more serious and persistent damage to the economy. the expiration of expanded ui and other support provisions automatictied to triggers, measurable and reliable indicators of recovery from all communities as opposed to arbitrary expiration dates. this and more will be needed to rebuild a better than normal economy with more widely shared prosperity. thank you for your attention and i would be happy to answer any questions. rep. scott: thank you very much. mr. roy? mr. roy: chairman scott, ranking member fox, members of the committee, thank you for inviting me. the foundation for research on economic opportunity is a nonpartisan think tank that
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focuses exclusively on ideas that can improve the lives of americans on the bottom half of the economic ladder. i welcome the opportunity to discuss our work on how covid-19 economic lockdowns have widened racial inequities. my written remarks show more large-scale view. i will touch on how lockdowns have disproportionately affected minority owned businesses. i will touch on how school closures disproportionately harm minority students and parents. i will discuss covid-19 mortality by race and ethnicity and how states' failure to protect nursing homes has harmed vulnerable seniors of all races. in late 2019, the black unemployment reached the lowest rate in history, 5.4%. today, the black unemployment rate is 17.8%. in my testimony, i detail how disparities between white and nonwhite unemployment rates also
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reached the lowest levels in history prior to the pandemic, but the economic lockdowns have brought those disparities back to levels seen a decade ago. compared to whites and asians, blacks and latinos are less likely to work in white-collar occupations where working from home is feasible. instead, they are seeing their jobs and hours slashed. black-owned businesses have also been hit far harder than white owned businesses. it is estimated that black-owned businesses experienced losses of and versus february april 32% for hispanic owned businesses and 17% for white owned companies. put simply, racial and ethnic disparities are worse when the economy is worse and especially during the government-mandated shutdowns of the economy that we are experiencing today. as you noted, mr. chairman, the 's school closures disproportionately harmed children from low income families. that is because the families are
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far better equipped from low income ones to provide their kids with opportunities to learn outside of school. poor children are less likely to be able to take advantage of virtual learning because they often lack high-speed internet access. more than 30 million low income children receive free or reduced price lunch. school closures affect parents, especially single parents who are unable to work if that means leaving their children home unattended. the good news is that it is possible to safely reopen schools, as a forthcoming paper will show. other countries have done it while protecting public health because children are at extremely low risk of death of severe illness from covid-19. one rising concern is how it is affecting different racial and ethnic populations overall. the latest data from cdc indicates blacks have a larger share of covid deaths than they do of the population, even when adjusted for the fact that covid is more prevalent in cities where minorities live disproportionately. mortality rates are higher in native american communities,
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especially arizona and new mexico. what may be surprising is that whites are also dying of covid at higher than predicted rates. hispanics and asians represent a lower share of covid death than would be implied by their geographically-adjusted share of the u.s. population. the likely reason is that morbidity and mortality from covid-19 is most common among the elderly. 81% of all of the deaths have occurred in people 65 or older and whites are the oldest racial group in the u.s., a median age of 44. asians have a median age of 37. blacks, 34. hispanics, 30. we should expect to see higher fatality rates in whites relative to asians and hispanics due to their age, and we do. african-americans are relatively young, but we are still seeing higher mortality among blacks. some are from a with the -- summer -- some of you are familiar with the research on the tragedy taking place nursing homes and facilities.
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within that 0.6% of the population, 43% of all deaths from the coronavirus. nursing homes are residential facilities for medically vulnerable seniors who have challenges with daily activities. residents are disproportionately poor, nonwhite, and enrolled in medicaid. the nursing home tragedy has a bronze lining, because it means that the risk of death from covid-19 for the rest of the population is considerably lower than we may have thought. we can use that information to reopen the economy safely and reduce the harm we are imposing on hundreds of millions of americans of all colors. thank you. rep. scott: thank you very much, mr. roy. secretary king? >> thank you so much, chairman scott, ranking member fox, and members of the committee. thank you for the opportunity to testify. this hearing takes place in the shadow of massive global protests against police violence
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seeking to ensure that black lives matter is more than just a hashtag. the murders of george floyd, ,reonna taylor, ahmaud arbery and rayshard brooks remind us yet again that systemic racism and the legacy of slavery infect our institutions, public discourse, and daily interaction. our education system is fraught with racial inequities that existed before covid-19. far too few black and latino children have access to affordable, high-quality preschool. black children, particularly boys, are disproportionately suspended or expelled from early learning the pandemic has pushed the early childhood education sector for blacks. over 65 years, after brown v. board of education, district lines and school assignment policies still segregate k-12 by race and class. districts with the most black,
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latino, and native american students spend almost $2000 less per student per year than districts with mostly white students. students of color are less likely to be assigned the strongest teachers, less likely to be having access to counselors, less likely to be enrolled in advanced coursework, and less likely to be subjected to exclusionary discipline. the higher education sector doesn't reflect america's diversity. not one state or public college publicone state's colleges have or graduate a representative share relative to the state population. the burden of student debt falls disproportionately on black students who are more likely to borrow and more likely to default. covid-19 has exacerbated these educational disparities. during the necessary school andures, black, latino, native american students
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disproportionately had less access to online learning, more -- teachers unavailable to assist in online learning, and more emotional stressors. in response, we urge congress to take the following actions. first, congress must support and strengthen p-12 education. to address devastating budget shortfalls, over 70 stakeholders have called on congress to allocate $500 billion for state and local governments, including $175 billion for k-12 education and $50 billion for higher education. this must include a strong maintenance of effort provision and add a equity provision so states and districts can ensure the most vulnerable students retain critical support. congress must allocate dedicated funding for broadband extension to support stents learning, to extend learning time to tackle significant learning loss from the pandemic of an tackle resources to address
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nutritional, emotional, and mental health needs. congress should refrain from permitting blanket waivers to key civil rights laws and protect the historic interpretation of the title i equitable services provision. the federal government must promote diverse schools, require data to be disaggregated by race, and uphold civil rights. congress must enact equitable reforms to higher education. they should extend provisions in the cares act to next year. offer equitable, targeted debt forgiveness in recognition of the recession will make repaying student debt impossible for millions of borrowers. to counter widespread losses of financial assistance, congress should double the pell grant and simplify the fafsa process. it would increase enrollment and limit debt for students of color. but there is more congress can do including expanding pell access to incarcerated students and undocumented students, increasing investments in hbcus
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, supporting diversity and education programs. improve outcomes for low income students and education improvement programs. improve outcomes for low income students and students of color. [indiscernible] thank you for the opportunity to be here today and i look forward to your questions. thank you very much. i think all of our witnesses for their testimony. under committee rule 8a, we will now question the witnesses under the five minute rule. i will be recognizing committee members in seniority order. in order to ensure that the
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five-minute rule is adhered to, staff will keep track of time and use a chime to signal when one minute is left and when time is up entirely. they will sound a short chime when there is one minute left and a longer, more obnoxious chime when time is up. please wrap up your time when your time is over and re-mute your phone. experiencesr technical difficulties, you should stay connected on the platform, ensure you are muted, and use your phone to contact the committee's i.t. director. as chair, i will reserve my questions to the end. we begin by recognizing the gentlewoman from california, ms. davis. rep. davis: thank you, mr. chairman. secretary king, it is great to
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see you, sir. what issue -- one issue that goes underappreciated in higher education is that of campus climate. colleges, as we all know, were built for the so-called traditional student population, largely made up of recent high school graduates from affluent families. we know that today's students are more diverse and often older , the first in their family to go to college or from communities that have been poorly served by our colleges and universities. not to mention early education. the protests for racial justice that have emerged across the country further underscored the need for our education systems to address systemic racism and ensure that students of color are well served and supported. recently, the president of johns hopkins university revealed that in 2014, they discontinued
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the practice of offering students preference and admissions for having family members who also attended the university, often called legacy admissions. in the article, he recognizes this was not an easy step to take. but the shift has allowed space for pell grant eligible students to enroll. secretary king, can you further explain some of the inequities associated with legacy admissions in higher education. >> [indiscernible] rep. davis: mr. secretary, i think we are having -- intervene? can you
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>> i believe -- bouncing off your microphone and causing a bit of echo. >> is that better? >> it is not. the communication was good at the beginning of your testimony. can you mute your microphone, then unmute it again, just to try and see if -- >> ok. in the interest of time, jump offline. this may be something we need to reset. rep. scott: have him call in the audio, the phone. >> yes. mr. kaine, if -- mr. king, if
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you could please use a phone and call your audio again. 415-527-5065. >> let me know if you need the access code.
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>> 6979932 is the access code. follow the prompts in the affirmative. can you speak again? think you are on mute. >> can you hear me now? >> now, if you will use your phone's butte capacity. sounds very good. thank you for your time and consideration. >> sorry about that. in response to the question on the issue of legacy admissions, what we know is that the legacy
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advantage translated into as much as 45% increase in the likelihood of a student being admitted compared to a similarly-situated student who doesn't have the benefit of legacy preference. the consequence for our selective admission universities is that low income students and students of color aren't -- are at an enduring disadvantage and are dramatically underrepresented on those campuses and institutions. it makes sense if universities are true to their commitment to a diverse student body, to eliminate legacy preferences. to really ensure that students of color are fully represented, more istive admissions, needed. race needs to be taken into consideration in admissions policies, financial aid needs to be provided so that low income students can have access to those institutions.
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more work needs to be done to recruit a diverse faculty in a positive climate for students and specific efforts need to be made to recruit students from high school that serve large numbers of students of color. eliminating the legacy admissions would be an important step to improving diversity on the campuses in the nation. >> thank you, mr. secretary. i think we all have to ask the question about the federal role in that. it may be encouraging and we also know that early admissions plays a bit of a role as well. would you agree with that? >> yes. for many institutions, the early admissions practice advantages those students that have the most resources. when you think about access to school counselors, we have some states where there are 500 to 600 students per counselor. students are not able to take advantage of those early admissions processes.
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>> thank you again. how can our institutions lead the way in dismantling and addressing the harm done to communities of color, even in a covid world where students will be off-campus? what new approaches do we have to think about? i believe i have one minute left. campusesd media step, need to make sure students can access higher education. low income students are at risk of not having devices and internet access. there is a congressional effort put forward to dedicate resources for higher ed. i think that is critical to make sure students can take advantage of higher ed this fall. much.nk you very good to have you with us. >> dr. fox, do you wish to be
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recognized? >> yes sir, i do. >> you are recognized for five minutes. >> prior to covid-19, our country had record low unemployment across the board including for black, hispanic and asian workers. what economic conditions resulted in these low rates before the pandemic, and congress considers additional policy prescriptions for how areg the pandemic, negative economic effects of the pandemic different from previous economic downturns such as the 2008 financial crisis? >> i will start with the second question. when statesif and and localities reopen economies, there will be relatively rapid rebound of businesses that did not run out of cash.
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the average small business has about 30 to 28 days of cash on hand. for those businesses, who knows how many will rebound. unemploymentound, should recover rapidly. that is my hope on that. whenred to the recession there were underlying problems with the economy, particularly inflation in housing prices, we see something that can hopefully be quickly solved. in terms of your first question -- remind me what the first question was. what --x: >> drivers of low employment right. something that was going on
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since the great recession of 2008, the biggest in the last several years has been tax cuts and the jobs act of 2017 and regulatory changes which allowed manufacturing jobs and other industries to hire and expand in allowed employment to rise. when employment rises, it is lower income workers that are disproportionately -- i do not think there were any of those proposals here. as you stated in your written testimony and research, long-term shutdown is untenable, we have no choice but to reopen covid-19ly even though research on treatment continues. state lockdowns and whether it is whether to combat the coronavirus and reopen at the same time, and what effect this will have on communities.
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>> the most important thing to understand about covid-19 is a disproportionate impact it has, not so much on race, but age. due toall deaths covid-19 are in people over age 65. happening deaths are in the 0.6% of the population of nursing homes. standpoint islity not affecting younger people. there are isolated cases. in general, the probability of dying from influenza is greater in young children than covid-19. an opportunity to reopen schools. we have to take care to make sure vulnerable teachers and school and staff are protected, and children who live with the vulnerable, grandparents and members of their household, they are protected and have resources to learn outside school.
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other countries are reopening schools, and that is important for this committee to consider. foxx:, could you explain further the impact of the actions of gaza -- of governors who force nursing homes of covid-19 patients discharged from hospital, can you talk and whichdeath rate states have experienced have the highest deaths? >> in my written testimony, i have detailed data on the share of overall covid-19 deaths the percentagend of nursing home and long term care facility residents who have died of covid-19.
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the worst state is new jersey. 11% of all residents of long-term care facilities in jersey have died of covid-19. new jersey is one of the states like new york, michigan and others that forced nursing homes people with active covid-19 infections who were being discharged from hospitals, and i contribute it significant way spread of covid-19. rep. foxx: that is the same state where the state health director took her own mother out of a long-term care facility before she enforced thebefore so allow those people back in. that is one of the most shameful things that has happened in this country. thank you. i yield back. the gentleman from arizona.
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>> thank you, mr. chairman. i appreciate the witnesses being here. about achievement gaps, people are talking about opportunity gaps and inequities in education. have opportunity gaps become more apparent as a result of covid-19. what will happen if congress does not act with the level of for some in communities of color, and the pressure to
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intensifies, the consequences of that on the ?ommunity at this moment, what we know funding isore of from state and local dollars. those state and local budgets have taken a huge hit from covid-19 economic crisis, and that will translate into significant cats to the school district. school districts are preparing around the country for 25% cuts in state aid. it will have a devastating impact. that could mean approaching to money and jobs lost in the
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education sector. layoffs of teachers. the elimination of programs, particularly those that serve the most vulnerable. happens,now if that districts will be less able to do the practices that public health requires to have the states reopen. toneed congress to step in prevent those cuts, and additional resources. thank you. in your verbal testimony, you mentioned the impact on small and the negative impact on people of color.
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that is so important to the recovery. [indiscernible] these small businesses disproportionately affected, is it appropriate and necessary for --retary mnuchin [indiscernible] tot will give us a framework see what impact that money is having. those figures figure should be released publicly? >> i do. making sure the
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money goes to the greatest need. >> one of my concerns about the way that ppp was designed by congress is it favored medium to large businesses over small businesses, because if you are a one or two prison shop, you do not have the resources to draw that money down. the money ran -- out. the smallest businesses did not benefit as much as they needed to. >> thank you. i yield back. thank you. the gentleman from tennessee. he is having trouble.
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he is one of the members at the funeral. .> mr. thompson you are recognized for five minutes. >> sorry, mr. chairman. he is having a problem. the gentleman from michigan. >> thank you, mr. chairman. we certainly express our condolences. going back to statements that wean about the heroes act need to understand it is a messaging piece with no expectation that it would ever pass. it is cynical to keep bringing it up as legitimate.
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major citiesason with terrible health and education outcomes are in long-held democratic controlled government. even in my boyhood home in chicago, the challenges are there, but it has been the efforts of long-held democratic leadership that always complains about not having the outcomes we want, and yet the policies are the same. i think it is time to stop republicans who have been evidently pushing real change that works and brought about economic growth in this byntry only impacted covid-19. until we stop opposing educational choice for minorities, the complaints ring hollow.
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we know covid-19 is much more lethal for those over 65 years of age, like myself with certain chronic conditions. we have a sobering figure that shows nursing homes and assisted living facilities are the hardest hit victims of covid-19. over 40,000 seniors have tragically died under this care. what percentage who live in long-term care facilities, and how does that compare with the share of covid-19 death? >> as i mentioned in my testimony, 0.6% of american residents live in assisted
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living facilities, and yet represent 43% of all deaths from covid-19. >> unfortunately michigan was a handful of states, about five states with the governor issued an executive order forcing nursing homes to admit covid-19 positive patients back into facilities. it is reported that this was contrary to recommendations from homes leading nursing association. how did this policy create such a dangerous situation for seniors, and what should be done to address challenges nursing homes face? >> there is no doubt governor whitmer's order to force nursing homes to accept patients with active covid-19 infections worsened the state of nursing homes it comes to covid-19 fatalities. we mentioned one third, what the state's reporting of one third of all deaths from covid-19 are
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coming from covid-19 in nursing homes. the integrity of the data is not clear because michigan is one of the last states to report the data. they were the third to last date based on our work. they also have had a big outbreak overall. 3% of all people in long-term facilities have died from covid-19, one of the highest in the country. it is a real problem. what concerns me about michigan is that michigan refused for many weeks to disclose the nursing home vitality data until they were forced a nursing home to report that data. week or weeky the and a half ago that michigan , but itving that data was underreported. what can be done to address data
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shortcomings coming forward to ensure we have the best information to make crucial policy decisions. nursing homes are required to report fatalities to the federal government. andonly starts on may 5, only applies to nursing homes and not assisted living medically for less vulnerable seniors. we will not get complete data, but that will help. the lives ofotect people living in these nursing homes. we have to have strict policies about visitation from relatives, strict policies about testing staff and making sure staff cannot go from place to place. and better oversight about infection control. a lot of these were not designed to protect against infection. >> i yield back. >> thank you.
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the gentleman from connecticut. thehank you to all witnesses were being here today. i am surprised to hear mr. value ofismissing the the provision for state local assistance, perhaps he missed it, but a couple of days ago the u.s. chamber of commerce came out in favor of congress acting to provide assistance to state and local governments. they are joining jerome powell, the chairman of the federal reserve who is highlighting that in terms of fiscal stimulus required, like the best efforts of the federal reserve. group has strongly endorsed the provisions of the .eroes act to bolster states that is not because these individuals or groups have been hijacked in a partisan way, this is about math and the erosion
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and collapse of state revenue that is happening across the red and blue it will require congress take this measure up. the senate is moving toward bringing some version of fiscal stimulus. it is what the federal reserve is calling for. another measure of the heroes addresses another part of the fallout from the coronavirus, which is the corrosion of health insurance. in your testimony you noted the fact that 30% higher than the the 2009 recession, the impact that is having on employer-based coverage. can you talk about that in more
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detail? >> a couple of my colleagues about 16.2 million workers likely lost their employer-provided health insurance. going into the crisis, workers tocolor were like likely have employer-provided health insurance to begin with. they are also less likely to be insured from their employers. by providing coverage to these importantt is also for communities and workplaces to get everyone back. >> the heroes act requires states basically reopened their
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exchanges for the enrollment pe riod, and it is a 100% subsidy for cobra. people losing their benefits layoffs have some continuity of coverage, is that right? >> yes. page 10,r testimony on you alluded to the fact one of , doimpacts of the lockdown you support the cobra subsidy which the chamber of commerce has endorsed? >> i do not think the cobra subsidy program is the best way to improve -- >> we do not have a lot of time. answer.ld be happy to the best ways to improve the individual insurance market. make the exchange is better by funding reinsurance that allows
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theiums to be lowered and aca exchanges, and more accessible to people who need insurance. we need to move away from employer-based coverage. the chamber of commerce once everyone tied to their job, we need where individuals have their own insurance. time --o think in real i will give you an example. a native american casino has 6000 workers employed at the beginning of march. they went more aggressive than the governor wanted. they shut down because of the governor lockdown. they only recalled 1500 workers, there are still 4500 people who starting on june 1 lost their health coverage. having cobra subsidy would extend the coverage and not disrupt their access to doctors.
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ofing the exchange in terms the long game, i could not agree more, but we are trying to protect people in an emergency. i think the cobra subsidy, which addresses a real need that is happening that is proportionally hitting hourly workers.
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thaoint oon siblnd from my
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testimony, we ha written extensively on how to reopen the workplace and schools. >> you may be on mute.
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>> i do not think i am on mute. i will start again. know from what we put out on reopening workplaces and schools, our view is the president's plan is too cautious, particularly with schools that can reopen earlier, and workplaces for younger members of the workplace who are at low risk for serious illness or death from covid-19. in that context -- sorry about that. i will finish the answer for the record. the most important thing we need to do, a number of states have considered and more state should consider starting the fall school year early to make up for lost time from the spring. in other thing we talk about
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is maximizing testing particular targeted and at risk populations that are asymptomatic, like children who live with grandparents or other at-risk individuals at nursing home facilities, because the more we can isolate and trace nursing home interaction, the more we can reduce the spread overall. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i yield back. >> thank you. from ohio -- >> thank you so much, mr. chairman. once again, my colleagues on the others of the aisle live in an alternative universe with alternative facts. it is interesting to me -- i wonder if they're watching the people marching in the streets today. they are marching not because they feel like marching, they are marching for justice. it would be nice if sometimes they would listen to what like people actually think -- that
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is, if they know any black people well enough to have the conversation with them. secretary king, from your experience, what can we do at the federal level to prevent students of color from falling further behind? >> there is a long list. i would start with a few priorities. one is we have to save the child care sector, black and latino students are underrepresented and equality childcare, and without $50 billion to stabilize the childcare sector, we will lose many of those providers. k-12, we know schools are already highly segregated by race. the strength and diversity act would help to address that and help us move towards more integrated schooling. we also desperately need resources, resources to stabilize districts' budgets but also to address the learning loss, particularly students of
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color who are less likely to have all of the things in place necessary to benefit from distance learning the last few months. many students will return to school 9, 10 months behind in learning and will need additional support, afterschool time, extended school year, intensive tutoring to address those needs. they will also need emotional and mental health support, as well, for many students isolated from the relationship of schools which matters so much to them. >> thank you. dr. jones, how can we build trust between underserved communities and local institutions, including hospitals and health care providers? >> first of all, there has to be communication. so i think that the hospitals need to be asking folks in the community, what do you need? there have to be community and advisory boards and the like. there has to be attention in terms of the practice and
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sending people away from the emergency department. so the hospitals have to be unafraid to collect data by race and actually investigate possible differences in their practice by race. and there has to be investment in the community, community health workers, health centers, even if they are not directly associated with the hospitals. there has to be some linkage. it gets to the question of who is at the table and who is not, what is on the agendas and what is not. as you said, so many people think they can figure out what is good for those other people. we need to have the people who are impacted by decisions at the decision-making table. >> thank you. to go further with you, dr. jones, can you talk a bit very closely about the impact of poverty on health outcomes for people of color? >> first of all, it does not just so happen that people of color in this country are overrepresented in poverty while white people are overrepresented
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in wealth. i have been writing so many notes talking about front-line workers tend to be more people of color. that does not just so happen. so we should not take that as a baseline when trying to move people from there. the first thing is it is because of historical injustices that are being perpetuated that we even see an association between social class and race. and those structural factors are part and parcel of structural or institutionalized racism, so even if we have the most successful antipoverty strategies in the world, without the antiracism strategy, we would not take care of that. mechanisms are in housing, in our schools, in investment in communities and businesses, in green spaces, and sacrifice zones, placement of communities of color around known polluting
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industries and the like. so poverty and race are correlated because of structural racism. we need to understand that and have both anti-poverty and antiracism strategies. >> thank you so very much. chairman, i want you to know that i learned a long time ago that if you are not at the table, you are on the menu. black people are sick of being on the menu. i yield back. >> thank you. the gentleman from kentucky, mr. guthrie. gentleman from alabama, mr. burns. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i am very concerned that about a third of the people in my district are african-american and we know that about 50% of the people that have died from covid-19 in my district are also african-american. there is something going on there, and it bothers me greatly.
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i have learned a lot from listening today. i have been doing a lot of research before today. but i think, as a nation, we need to get to the bottom of this. something is very wrong here, and we need to address it. it is also true that a disproportionate number of people in my district who are african-american have been affected economically. the worst thing we can do for them, back in the spring of this year, was to shut down the american economy, shut down society, and shut down our schools. there is no question that african-americans in the my -- in my district were disproportionately affected when their jobs were wiped out. african-american small business people lost their businesses as a result of it. and all children when home when -- went home when they closed the schools, but some children have parents and households that can support them while they were trying to learn from home, and far too many african-american children did not.
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so the best thing we can do here in washington, decides we have -- besides we have got to get to the bottom of what has happened here with the public health issue, is to get the american economy going again. without it, i am afraid we are only going to make inequality worse in this country. you know, a lot of people, and a lot of people in my district, just cannot do the jobs they were trained to do on a zoom meeting from their home. they just cannot do that. when we take their jobs away from them, we take their opportunity away from them. mr. roy, i would like you to discuss the pre-covid-19 trump economy's effect on disparities between whites and minority unemployment rates in this country. >> thank you for the question. as i mentioned in my written testimony, before the pandemic, the disparities between the
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white and black unemployment rates and the disparity between white and hispanic unemployment rates, had reached record lows, along with the overall unemployment rate reaching record lows. so that was something that i think we all should have celebrated at the time. whether we did or not, i don't know. those disparities have come back in tremendous forms since the lockdown occurred. you have all seen the charts from bls that show the data very clearly. and if we look at asian americans, asian americans, for most of the 21st century, have had lower unemployment rates than whites. as a result of the economic lockdowns, that completely changed. now asian unemployment as much, -- is much higher than the white unemployment rate. so that is useful and illustrates how the racial disparities that have been created by the pandemic, as opposed to the structural racism, legacy of slavery and segregation issues, we have been discussing, as well. >> one of the things i have also noticed, mr. roy, is there has
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been an uptick in mental health issues as a result of lockdown. do you have information about how that uptick in mental health issues has affected minority communities? >> it is a huge problem, so many different dimensions. you have people who were already fragile from a mental health standpoint who are being pushed over the edge, and then you have ordinary people who might have median or normal mental health prior to the pandemic who are struggling now. and there is all sorts of ways this can happen. you have people who are in isolation in their homes, not merely in terms of their employment. you have people who may be in a very crowded living facilities, particularly true in new york city were people who live in intergenerational households with maybe three generations or more living in the same space are at greater risk of transmitting covid-19, let alone having potentially mental challenges. and that is disproportionately minority, disproportionately immigrant phenomenon, both in the united states and elsewhere. so there are a lot of things to
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be concerned about. >> last question is this. what is the effect of shutting down schools on minority kids? >> yeah, that is one of the most difficult things to understand from a science standpoint, what we have been so aggressive at shutting down schools. shutting down schools can work with influenza, because influenza does kill young people, but covid-19 is not influenza. it is a very different disease that seems to largely spare younger children. so if you look at countries that have reopened their schools in europe, western europe, in particular, they have done pretty well with school reopenings. we should learn from their example. >> thank you very much. i yield back. >> thank you. gentleman from northern marion -- [indiscernible]
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ms. wilson. gentlelady from florida, ms. wilson? gentlelady from oregon. >> thank you, mr. chairman, and ranking member fox and colleagues thank you for the kind words. thank you to the witnesses for being here for this important conversation. i am concerned about the suggestion that this is somehow a nursing home issue. a couple days ago there was an article in politico looking at harvard analysis of national center for health statistics data, particularly focusing on the disparity in the latinx community. this is what it said, the danger is elevated among younger minorities, latinos age 35 to 44 have coronavirus mortality rate
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nearly eight times higher than white people in that age group, and black people in the same age range have a mortality rate nine times higher than white people. the inequity persists with latinos age 25 to 44 and those 45 to 54 who have a coronavirus mortality rate to be five times higher than caucasians. i am concerned this is an issue, talking about what is happening in nursing homes, which of course is a concern. i want to follow up on secretary king's comment about childcare care and early childhood education. we know the childcare sector already faced series charges, , not justchallenges in oregon but across the country. there was vast unmet need, high cost for families, and also insufficient conversation for early childhood educators. fixing the childcare system is important to children and families, and it is important to the economy, but it is also an issue of racial justice.
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secretary king recognized that the childcare workforce is overwhelmingly women and predominantly women of color. there are many barriers, especially with children of color, least likely to be put in supportive childcare settings. so we have some work to do need . we need to make sure the resources are equitably distributed, and we needed dual focus, to stabilize the system but also vastly improve it. i recently released a report, childcare in crisis, for working families, children, and educators, in which i call for the passage of the childcare is essential act and the childcare for working families act, which represent a critical federal investment in childcare sector that also advances equities. secretary king, how would providing equitable access to high-quality childcare and early childhood education benefit children and society as a whole? and what are the repercussions,
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particularly for low-income children and children of color, if we continue the status quo? >> thanks so much for the question. the nobel prize-winning economist, james heckman, has written on the return on investment of early childhood you can get a 7-1, 8-1 return on investment because students get high-quality early childhood education are more likely to rise from kindergarten prepared academically, more likely to graduate high school, more likely to go on to college, and more likely to have long-term economic success, and long-term health benefits from having participated in quality early childhood education. so the potential return to an investment like the childcare for working families act is quite powerful and ought to be rationale for bold action at this moment. if we fail to invest in early childhood, what we know is that
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we see the achievement gap already present in the kindergarten. kids who are holding a book upside down because they are so unfamiliar with letters. we know there are a lot of folks who will not be able to go back to work if the childcare sector collapses, and that will disproportionately harm low income communities and communities of color. >> i appreciate that. i quote professor heckman in my report for that reason, that this is a good investment that actually pays for itself over time but also really gets our children, who are our future, off to a great start. dr. wilson, secretary king gave compelling testimony about harmful gaps in long-term outcomes for children of color, and you know that the divide has not been bridged. educational attainment is
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enormously important, but why is it the institution to close labor market gaps for workers of color? >> educational attainment is important because it provides mobility. no question that a worker with a higher level of education is more likely to have higher wages and be employed than one with less education. the problem in the labor market is that, at the same level of education, we see disparities in employment, as well as wages. in fact, over the last 40 years or so, the wage gap is actually grown the most among the most educated workers in our economy. so that raises another question of what is going on here, and i think it raises the issue of what we are here to discuss today, the role of racial discrimination and creating unequal outcomes in our economy. >> the federal role in education is about -- [inaudible] i intend to continue addressing it, and i know that is the balance of my time. thank you, mr. chairman.
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>> thank you. gentleman from wisconsin. >> thanks for having me. a little difficult to be on here because it kind of appears in this committee we are supposed to always kind of look at people racially and just not look at people as people, so i have to kind of switch my mindset for this committee. first thing, for mr. roy, today, i do not know if you had a chance to look at it, but after yesterday we had a total of 267 lives lost due to the covid, which is, while not good news, is the lowest we have had since march 23. and i feel good about it because a lot of the so-called experts in the public health field were predicting disasters as states opened up their economy. instead, we have 267 lives, we have i believe now 10 days in a
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row of under 1000 lives lost, so it seems as though the so-called experts have rarely been so wrong. do you want to comment, mr. roy, on the fact that we only had 267 lives lost? i am relying on a website that a lot of people tell me to look at that has been cited nationwide. do you want to comment on the relatively small number of deaths now that we have had so many states open up their economies compared to where we were a month ago? >> yes, all of your points i agree with. there has been a precipitous decline in the daily death rate, and the predictions of what the death rate would look like today after states reopened their economies from certain experts were completely wrong, completely wrong. by the way, we should emphasize that the impact of those experts' advice on low income americans, including minority americans, has been disproportionately harmful. >> ok.
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i think in the future, we should be a little more jaded about the public health establishment? >> here is the thing, it is like cbo estimates. you can have a lot of expertise generally and still get predictions wrong. predictions are not facts. what happened here is you had a lot of people making educated guesses to the best of their ability, we might say, but they were just guesses, yet we were expected to treat them like they were certainty. >> thanks. my own personable weighing in, my little world and individual congressman gets, is there is a growing body of information that the way to avoid covid is have more vitamin d in your body. it is a strong correlation between vitamin d and not getting covid. are you familiar with that sort of thing? and would it perhaps be better
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off rather than analyzing the chance of getting covid by race, analyzing the chance of getting covid by the amount of vitamin d in your body? >> as you know, correlation is not causation. the reason i mention that in this context, we do not know if the better response in people with high vitamin d is due to the presence of vitamin d or the fact that they are outdoors more. if you are outdoors and exposed to sunlight and you are not in closed, confined areas with people who are covid-infected, that seems to be a major factor -- vector of transmission. outdoor infection transmission seems to be very low. but if you're in an enclosed space, like a subway in new york city, for example, or a small apartment with three generations of your family, that tends to be where the transmission occurs, or a nursing home, for example. >> ok. so you would say that a lot of this advice, at least in the state of wisconsin, you're getting advised to stay indoors, lock yourself away -- that was exactly the opposite of the advice we should have been giving people? >> in fact, it is quite possible
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that the lockdowns worsened transmission by forcing people indoors and preventing them from being outdoors more, therefore being around other transmitters of the disease less. >> i want to talk about race, like i said, but vitamin d, is there any difference by race? >> yeah, i do not know the data well enough to comment, so i will leave that one for now. >> some of my colleagues talked about difficulty getting into college racially and such. in the state of wisconsin, very, very -- maybe smaller percentage than normal. i am under the impression talking to people at our university systems, they already go out of the way through affirmative action to try to push more people of color in the universities. is that typical around the
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country? >> you know, it is typical, but i will mention, because this came up earlier in the hearing, i am coming to you from austin, texas, and the university of texas has a very interesting model in which they take the top -- i think the top 10% of students from every high school in the state and guarantee them admission at the university of texas. that allows you to find the high achieving students in every high school even if that high school is in a disadvantaged area. i feel like that model could be used more widely as an alternative to affirmative action. >> thank you for having us, mr. chairman. >> thank you. next, gentleman from california. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i thank you for this very important hearing on how covid-19 has increased racial inequities in the country. the shift to distance learning has exposed the educational inequities many students of color have been facing for
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decades as states open up and grapple with depleted budgets. it is the role of the federal government to ensure equity in every sector. many colleges like the university of california system, private schools such as harvard university, have suspended the use of a.c.t. and s.a.t. scores in the admissions process to help level the playing field. how much is the process reliant on these test scores? >> no question that reliance on provides --the azt provides a disadvantage for students who have had less access to quality k-12 preparation. there is also some evidence that suggests that those assessments,
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the more they are relied upon, the fewer black and latino students will be admitted. one worry i have is folks moved to test optional is that just changing the use of test scores is unlikely to produce the kind of increase in black and latino representation that we ought to see. so it is important that universities also take other steps. financial aid is critical. making sure that resources are available to support students as they come to campus. it is critical that colleges and universities consider race as they make admissions decisions. it is critical that they reach out to high schools that are in high needs communities so students know about the opportunities. so the test optional piece can be part of a package of efforts that would produce more diverse classes. >> do you believe that, you know, we have an opportunity here with s.a.t.'s and a.c.t.'s now being very difficult to attain because it is inadvisable
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to test large numbers of students and congregate settings, and i do not think they have found a way to do testing remotely for student -- for security purposes and the integrity of the test. is there an opportunity to re-examine college admissions generally? >> yeah. what i hope colleges and universities will do is look at their entire admissions process and ask what more can they do to make sure they have a representative class? more low income students, more students of color, more first-generation students. and they ought to also consider the role of extracurricular activities. they ought to credit the students who work in their family's bodega each night the same way they credit playing on the lacrosse team, for example. >> you know, many schools will
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have ap programs. these programs also rely on some form of testing. but i'm worried about those schools that do not have a history of strong curriculum and that universities may be looking and favoring students who come from schools with a history of teachers who can teach these curricula which often are not offered to low-income and minority students. >> exactly right. they are typically underrepresented and access to ap, and it is a problem across schools and within schools. students of color are less likely to be in schools that offer those courses. and even when they are in schools that offer those courses, they are underrepresented really have to -- under representative relative to their population. we know there is implicit bias
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that affects who gets referred to those courses. in some cases, there is automatic enrollment to those who qualify to try to reduce the role of implicit bias. >> of course, i have long thought about how we have an alternative to access to higher ed where the gateways are kind of characterized by testing, different kinds of admissions testing. i have long been interested in concurrent enrollment strategies, such as college high schools -- i would like to think about alternatives such as that. >> the dual programs can increase the likelihood of those students graduating from high school and going on to college. the challenge is the district that needs the dual enrollment programs the most of the ones with the least resources, so we really need the infusion of additional dollars for k-12 and the higher ed institutions that
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serve high needs communities. >> it does take resources to make sure that they have the teachers who are qualified to teach those courses, who know about the pedagogy. the school systems will need support in implementing the strategies of dual enrollment in the college high schools. >> exactly right. and we know that low income students and students of color are disproportionately enrolled in the districts getting the least resources, and that is likely to get worse if states have to make huge cuts as a result of the covid-19 economic crisis. >> you talked about the maintenance of equity requirement. we will not have time. i yield back, but wonderful to talk to you, mr. king. thank you so much. >> thank you. next, gentlelady from new york. gentleman from georgia. >> mr. chairman, i want to say that he had to step out, so
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thank you. >> thank you. she had to leave, but i wanted to call her name just in case she stepped back in. mr. allen from georgia. >> yes, sir. can you hear me? >> i can hear you. >> super. thank you for holding this hearing today. one of the things that i brought up in the last hearing, and i wanted to make sure that we had some feedback on this, is, you know, in 2018, our federal spending was about $4 trillion . then in 2020 that has gone up
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substantially. trillion,about $3 trillion, and48 discretionary up about $500 billion. is simply this. this is to mr. roy. almost $4ent about trillion since covid-19. you have heard mention the heroes act with an additional $3 trillion which would just about triple, more than triple discretionary spending. situationooked at the as far as discretionary -- as far as the spending goes, and its impact on the people of this
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country? liked that, i do not mind doing debt when you have collateral, but it looks to that we are on a downward spiral that will not be good for anybody in this country. can you comment on that? >> can you comment on that, mr. roy? >> mr. allen, it is interesting because tomorrow i'm has dried fight -- testify gate for the house budget may on this topic. how the combination of congressional spending and declining revenue from the lockdowns is going to lead to a massive explosion of the deficit this year. by the way all that does is move closer to us, the ultimate fiscal reckoning which will happen, when we have two crashes federal -- federal spending -- when we have to crash federal spending because nobody wants to buy treasury bonds because the u.s. is
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insolvent. who will that harm? mostly people who are dependent on public assistance, medicare, social security. so the more we destabilize our fiscal situation the more we are putting at risk economically vulnerable populations. >> we have had to deal with the covid-19 crisis. and the next it looks like if we do not do something about it, do believe that fiscal crisis is coming upon us, and rapidly? >> in both directions. who knows, we cannot protect when the fiscal crisis will come, from the debt we are piling on year after year. but we know that it will come because the laws of math and economics, we do not get an exception from those loss in the united states. >> and really the only way to overcome where we are is a strong economy. as far as the workers that were affected, the workers that benefited from our strong economy, three months ago 22 trillion going on three -- 2320
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going on 23 trillion. who benefited most from that strong economy? >> low income americans. the disparity between the white and hispanic unemployment rates were at record lows prior to the pandemic, and those disparities have now widened. the lockdown is driving those disparities. >> as far as the biggest issue, and we have one minute, the biggest issue in my district is people who are on unemployment, including the $600 onus, do not want to return to work and there's a lot of animosity between the employers and the employees about returning to work. have you looked at how this is affecting folks going back to work and rebuilding this economy? >> there is no doubt that the $600 bonus is retarding the recovery, even in those states that have reopened, because
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people have a powerful economic incentive. you cannot blame them for it. a powerful economic incentive to stay on the sidelines. so i would love for congress to revisit that piece of legislation, and reform the bonus so it is more targeted to the people who truly need the help. >> good, and of course the liability question is the other issue we have out there as far as employers worried about liability and bringing their employees back to work as far as lawsuits. >> yes. >> what is your take on that? >> it is absolutely a very important program -- problem. if congress is set to vita safe harbor for people to go back to work and employers to open the doors it would be important. >> from north carolina, dr. adams? >> the heroes act requires osha
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to issue a temporary emergency temporary standard that requires employers to develop and implement an infectious disease plan, to protect workers from exposure to the coronavirus. this provision also makes it a violation of the osha act to retaliate against workers for raising concerns to the employer or to the government about inadequate infectious disease protection. dr. wilson, in your expert opinion, is an enforceable safety standard a necessary step to economic recovery? or what it impede economic recovery? >> i think it is a necessary step to economic recovery. ensuring the health and safety of american workers and communities across the country are a critical step in building
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a solid recovery. we know from surveys that 60% of those who work outside their home expressed that they have concerns about contracting coronavirus. among workers of color, black and latino workers in particular, it is closer to 70% of those workers expressing concern, in addition to the fact that they express greater concerns about retaliation as a of speaking up against that. so it is very important that the workers, as workers go back to work and as front-line workers who are already out there, that workers are empowered to advocate for protection of their own personal self -- health and safety as well as the health and safety of american workers. >> thank you very much. according to research from the brookings institute, we can expect 40% of borrowers to default on their loans by 2023. that does not begin to account
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for the impact of the covid crisis. to me this indicates student loans and a default crisis. we know certain students are at greater risk of default. the study find the rate of default for students across schools is four times that of students who attend committee colleges. black borrowers who have completed a bachelors degree default at five times the rate of white borrowers complete their degrees, and are more likely to default than white borrowers who leave college without a degree. i am concerned the student loan default crisis will worsen in the wake of covid-19. secretary, what can you tell us about those who struggle most to pay back their loans? and what you see covid-19, how do see it impacting these struggling borrowers? >> thank you, congresswoman. certainly the racial wealth gap is driving the degree to which black students are disproportionately likely to default on their loans at every
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income level, even at the highest income levels, black students are still seven times as likely to default as white students. the key is, to provide targeted debt relief, to try to address this. and to ensure that college is more affordable. if you look at the amount of the cost of attending a public college, that was covered by pell grant in 1980, it was 80%. today that is down to 28%. we need to make sure college is affordable for all students. that investment in higher education will have long-term benefits for our economy. >> that was going to be my last follow-up question, what can congress do, and i believe you have answered that. thank you for your work and thanks to each of our individuals who came to testify.
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>> from pennsylvania, mr. smucker? >> thank you. i want to go back to the discussion around the disproportionate deaths in nursing homes. my district is home to a high number of senior housing facilities, nursing homes and assisted living facilities and other senior residential communities. my state, governor wolf in pennsylvania, was one of five governors who made the decision to force nursing homes to take
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covid positive patients. many nursing homes were not in a good position to handle infection, or prevent the growth of infection and they were at capacity. i talked to nursing home workers and administrators who are frustrated when they were at 98% capacity in one case, difficult to isolate patients. we were moving patients, the governor was moving patients to the nursing homes in the hospitals were virtually empty edward best equipped to handle this. the impact -- virtually empty and the hospitals were best equipped to handle this. nearly 70% of the deaths in pennsylvania have occurred in nursing homes. 6,426 deaths in pennsylvania and more than 4000 in nursing homes.
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to make the decision worse, at the same time, the governor was not adequately prioritizing nursing homes for ppe. they were receiving ppe only after hospitals had what they needed, so it was devastating. 4,389 deaths in nursing homes in pennsylvania, how many of those can be attributed to that policy? >> mr. smucker, good to see you. i do not know the answer to that because we have to look facility by facility in a retrospective analysis. i hope those are done by researchers when we have more time to look at this problem. it is a catastrophe. 68% of all deaths in pennsylvania are in nursing homes. and by the way one thing apart
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to mention his this was not, some, look at what happened and we should not have done that, at the time governors put these orders into effect, the nursing home community was up in arms fighting these orders, arguing they would devastate. >> you are exactly right and i was talking to them at the time and they were desperate for help. it was in pennsylvania and not new jersey where the secretary of health removed her mother from a nursing home in the mist of the crisis, think about that. and telling pennsylvanians it was safe to keep your loved ones there. it is frustrating and it makes me angry to understand what has happened. one of the things i have not
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heard, can you shed light on disproportionate impacts of nursing home residents who are minorities? are there more minorities who have died in nursing homes as well as in the general population? >> as i mentioned in my written testimony we have tried to do that work so we have done some basic correlations and regression analyses of racial demographics at the state level and nursing home fatalities. at the state level we do not see a correlation. we hope that county by county we can see if there more correlations of the county level or at the facility level, but we do not know yet. >> we have continued to be in lockdown and a shutdown in pennsylvania. how do you think that would have changed had we given adequate consideration to have any of the deaths were, we were seeing that in nursing homes?
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>> this is the two points i really want to drive home in this hearing. the first is that we did not do enough to protect people in nursing homes who are disproportionally nonwhite. the second thing is that in the state like pennsylvania where 70% are happening in nursing homes, that means the risk for the average pennsylvanian is not in a nursing home, the 99 .4% of pennsylvanians who do not live in nursing homes, the risk is cut by two thirds which means you can do more to reopen the economy and schools and we have unnecessarily harmed populations. [loud beeping] >> the gentleman from california? from new jersey, mr. norquest? >> thank you. i want to follow up.
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we hear about the fiscal health of our country. obviously very important. for those discussing the debt, apparently that was not an issue when they get away $1.3 trillion to the top 1% which now shows they are not paying anywhere close. and the unfunded wars. if we were in a war, would we talk about the debt? no, we would talk do what we have to do is a country. and we are in a war, except it is the virus. nursing homes, i keep hearing are crucial. so hospitals. the difference is nursing homes were not prepared. nursing homes take into consideration medical
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considerations. they do not have to ppe, they did not have the respirators or hvac systems. and the workers, pay them a living wage and they would not have to go from nursing home to nursing home. with that said, i want to talk about schools. when we look look at what is going on and my colic talked college talked about the osha standard. right now there are only guidelines. can you talk about the difference schools, particularly in areas with challenges to the budget, urban areas, that if you have a standard which we have talked about quite a bit here, we would know how to prepare for it. we are in june, july, august, the construction. for schools. yet we are not seeing schools follow any standard.
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[indiscernible] kids are coming back. what is going to happen if they do not have the facility set up for covid, dr. wilson? >> that is the question most of us do not look forward to seeing the answer to it for schools and facilities that are unprepared to welcome back students and large numbers as well as teachers and faculty and staff. so, having standards in place, so students are safe. so teachers and staff are safe, is essential to reopening. that is a part of our recovery. part of the recovery is people having confidence that they can safely return to work, safely return to schools, safely return to their way of living without putting their health at risk. >> right now if i understand, most schools [indiscernible]
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many states have what they call public osha determined by the state, yet even though states are not accepting the standards. do you see, in september when children go back, what confidence -- in september when children go back, what confidence with parents have that the school is ready for it? >> i do not know that parents will feel very confident in sending their children back to school if we do not have consistent enforceable standards that are in place to protect students, teachers and other staff at schools. >> so what we see is, we heard about safe harbor in that discussion and that can happen. but without standards everyone is doing their own thing. for those focus more on the economy than people you represent, i want to say one thing. there's an old saying, those with the most toys or money when they die, when. -- win. but it does not matter how much
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money you have when you die. >> gentleman from indiana, mr. banks? gentleman from north carolina, mr. walker? gentlemen from kentucky? gentleman from idaho? gentleman from kansas, mr. watkins? gentleman from texas, mr. wright? from pennsylvania, mr. mr. meusser?
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>> thank you. data suggests we had the strongest economy in 50 years prior to the covid academic --, pandemic. does the data also support that this economy was very beneficial to low income minority americans? >> yes, sir. the unemployment rate for african-americans, hispanics and minorities overall was at record lows prior to the pandemic. >> would you say the improvement in our economy was a significant improvement economically for americans including low income men minority workers? >> having the under plummet rate
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rate at record lows is obviously an important achievement but not the only thing we have to do to ensure all americans prosper. we have to bring income and wealth up and things like that. but we were headed in the right direction. >> thanks. does the data projections suggest a safe opening will have dramatic improvements for low income americans and minorities? >> certainly i think the dispersion of policy responses we are seeing now so if we compare florida which never locked down severely and then reopened early on, relative to other states, the economic performance of all people and certainly of economically vulnerable populations is much greater there than elsewhere. >> so the safe opening of schools? the safe opening of small businesses?
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very important for our overall economy? as well for low income minorities? >> especially so and this is not just 82020 thing. if you look historically at any time in which we have had a severe recession, whether in the early 1980's or 2008, minorities and low-income income americans were always the ones most harmed. economic growth helps economically vulnerable people more than it helps the people who are already prosperous? >> right. so small businesses and particularly schools are very concerned about liability. passing liability to hold harmless schools and businesses i am told by schools is critical. a liability reform bill would be important for low income and minority students as well as workers?
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>> it is essential, obviously a lot of reopening policy it's not the state level by congress is in a position to act on the liability issue and it is arguably the most important policy to get reopening to work -- a safe reopening to work. >> you would agree that a transportation infrastructure bill would be important for all americans according minority and low income? >> it depends on the details but it would be useful particularly when you think about public transportation and the sanitary concerns about public transportation is something we need to address. >> you are a data driven individual. i want to ask about nursing homes. in pennsylvania. and we have 70% of our fatalities nursing homes. in washington state and other
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areas in early march, we soffit -- we saw fatalities occurring in nursing homes, how can we explain that two weeks after that, on march 18, some states including pennsylvania, order patients from the hospital with coronavirus back to a nursing home? and as congressman smucker said earlier, the nursing homes were at capacity with them at its base and hospitals were at 20% capacity maybe. how can you explain that? how can summit he see the data and make that decision? >> it was clearly a reckless and catastrophic decision. what they would say in hindsight i suppose, is, well, we were worried the hospitals would get overwhelmed with covid patients and that is why we wanted the
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nursing homes to accept the least severely l of those actively infected covid patients. that was a wrong way to think about it. if you worsen the disease in nursing homes you will have more people come to icus and to hospitals because the people most at risk of dying or beaks really help were nursing home population. [loud whistle] >> gentlelady from washington? >> thank you. i have been surprised to share comments around lockdown somehow harming our efforts on covered given that washington state was the first state to have a case and we have managed it remarkably well. through aggressive lockdown policies. i think the data has shown this was exactly the right approach.
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i would like to focus on people of color and health care. we know people of color are disproportionately on the front lines as health-care workers, janitors, postal service employs and farmworkers. people of color are overrepresented among covid-19 cases, with black americans four times more likely to die from covid-19 than white americans, and latin x people comprising a greater share of covid-19 cases than their share of the publishing in 42 states. they have allowed us, frankly, to stay safe, while they have been risking their own lives. yet we continue to fail communities of color by not insuring equitable health care for all. we know that people of color are disproportionately lacking access to health care, representing over half of america's over -- uninsured population. why do people of color are lack access to health care?
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>> a lot of disproportionate lack of access to health care is related to the fact that for so many of us, health insurance is connected to employment. we know there are persistent disparities in the labor market, in terms of implement outcomes and also the kinds of jobs or positions peoples hold and the disparities that exist across those different kinds of occupations. whether a full-time employee or part-time employee. between us disparities in employment, on top of the occupational segregation that tense about workers of color in occupations where they are less likely to have employer-provided health insurance, all that contributes to disparities in health insurance. >> the crisis has made it clear need to address these inequities by on tethering health care from employment. what other steps should we be taking right now in the midst of
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the pandemic to address inequities in access to health care? >> it is important we consider how in the current situation we can make universal coverage available to everyone. that would include people not having to pay additional money to be tested or to get treatment for covid-19. this is a unique situation we find ourselves in and it is important people have the confidence to go and get care and testing and treatment that is essential for fighting the virus and for building a follow-up success. >> thank you. this pandemic has made it clear when some members of our communities are excluded from equitable access to necessary resources and services, it hurts us all. the pandemic, obviously free testing and treatment at the eventual vaccine for covid-19 is critical. as more and more people lose
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their employment, lose their source of income, almost 44 million americans without, that have filed unappointed claims unemployment claims and 27 minimum who have lost health care, the reality is they also have other health care needs that are going to need to be covered. and that is why i have introduced the edit care crisis program act, which would expand medicaid eligibility to those who are uninsured and extend medicare to recently unemployed individuals and their households during the covid-19 crisis. dr. wilson, should access to health care be tied to employment? who does this benefit and who does that leave out? >> again, when we are talking about what needs to be done to make sure we are living and a more equitable society, [beeping] there are clear and persistent labor disparities -- racial disparities and gender
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disparities that tying health insurance to employment is not the wet best way of achieving a more equitable solution to the lack of health insurance, unless we are also addressing those underlying disparities in the labor market. >> thank you so much for your testimony and your work. i do not think anyone can make the case that the current health care system is working for. covid-19 has provided a clear case that when health care is provided by an employer, and somehow tethered to our work, access to that health care is just as volatile as your employment status. so we are working hard to rectify that. and we must boldly call out this systemic inequities in our health care system, and achieve health justice as a meaningful and necessary step toward racial injustice. in my view the best way to do that is provide universal health care coverage for everybody, from the government as so many other countries do.
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chairman scott: the gentleman from kansas? >> thank you. it is important now. chairman scott: you are recognized for five minutes. >> thank you. mr. roy, the cbo estimates we may never return to the record low unemployment rates of recent years. i believe we can safely get people back to work faster than economic estimates but what is your sense of how quickly jobs can return? mr. roy: i think many jobs can return quickly. what i am more concerned with is not so much jobs returning quickly. i think a lot of jobs can return quickly as the economy reopens. hospitality will be more challenging, airlines will be
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more challenging but the bulk of the economy i think can come back but i worry about consolidation. we had small businesses get absolutely crushed because they don't have the cash reserves and leverage to stay afloat if we lockdown the economy for this long and i fear we will see a lot of big-box large multinational corporations fill up the space of small businesses they are not able to fill because they are economically unstable. >> we are beginning to understand the impact of covid-19 and the impact of state imposed lockdowns on the american worker. how damaging were the lockdowns and can you comment on what the impacts were on small businesses versus large businesses? >> in the paper i mentioned that is included in a written testimony on how to reopen the economy we document a lot of the research out there that
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small businesses on average have 28 days of cash in reserve if they don't have any revenue and for certain types of businesses like restaurants, retail shops, repair shops it is more like two weeks so those businesses have gone belly up. 100,000 small businesses of closed permanently as a result of the crisis and the true number might be much higher. it is a serious problem. in terms of how to get the economy back on track, states that have reopened have shown a rebound, pretty rapid rebound with the exception of some of the sectors i have mentioned. >> you mentioned limiting companies liability, such a critical component. is there a precedent i could look back to to serve as a baseline to understand effective policies? >> i'm sure there is. i would have to go and look myself for one that really makes sense.
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i don't have a good answer for you right now. >> you mentioned tax cuts and job data and deregulation were a few of the reasons for such a strong economy and low unemployment before covid-19. can you expand upon that, and such on how we continue to grow these policies and how they could help the economy bounce back in response to this downturn? >> we don't have time to go through them all but regulatory initiatives paid a big role in the jobs act, reducing the corporate tax rate to a level that is more competitive with other countries meaning a lot of multinational companies that are moving to ireland and canada are moving those jobs back to the united states. >> i yield the balance of my time.
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>> thank you. i know you favored the gentleman from virginia before but today you are disfavoring him. you keep skipping over him and i have to speak up for him because he has been with us from the beginning and you've gone over him four times, next time you recognize a republican i ask you come back to him. >> i appreciate and apologize to my distinguished colleague from virginia. i noticed the gentle lady from florida has returned, you are recognized for five minutes. >> thank you for your extraordinary leadership and ranking member fox for holding this hearing to investigate how the covid-19 pandemic is widening racial inequities in education, health and the workforce.
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i want to thank all the witnesses for their testimony today and this hearing like others challenges us to think more critically about the impact of systemic racism in our nation. this is necessary to bring this country closer to the more perfect union spoken about in the preamble to the constitution. we must acknowledge the role race plays in the distribution of wealth and benefits in this country if we are to ever address this. part of that acknowledgment comes in the form of sorting out the disparities, impacts the catastrophic events have on black and minority communities. many heard the saying when america gets a cold black america gets pneumonia. that happens to black america when america has a pandemic and
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this negative health outcome is proportionately negative education outcomes, negative employment outcomes. i have a question and my question is for doctor wilson. in the aftermath of the great recession, fellow economists sounded alarms about long-term unemployment which disproportionately affected african-american folks, what is long-term unemployment? do we need to be afraid that long-term unemployment will surge again in this crisis? >> thank you for that question. long-term unemployment - for 26 weeks or longer. we saw high rates of long-term unemployment of extended duration during the great recession because of the length
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of time it took the economy to fully recover just reaching communities of color later rather than sooner. when we look at our current situation we have concerns whether we are going to see the same pattern. one month out of data we saw in may where the black unemployment rate picked up slightly while the overall unemployment rate declined, recovery might not be as even as the initial impact the pandemic had on the economy. loss of employment and evenness of recovery are issues that are important. >> what policy solutions can prevent long-term unemployment particularly for workers of color? >> to prevent long-term unemployment it is essential to
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get the economy reopened and back to work as safely and quickly as possible, prioritizing unemployment in terms of health decisions are things that can help with that. targeting efforts to create jobs, chronically and consistently much higher, a way to address public health issues and jobs. >> black and hispanic workers experience recession level conditions, if it drops below 4% or 5 persons. fully recovered for white workers. thinking ahead to this economic
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recovery i am curious whether you believe federal reserve and policymakers need to shift how we define full employment. what effect could shifting this measure have on racial equity for workers. >> to accurately evaluate full employment, across different communities. beyond looking at the may report examples that consistently overestimated where unemployment would be in order to have an equally shared recovery. it is important to look at what is going on in different communities, full employment would not be declared until we see it happening. >> and now the distinguished
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gentleman, distinguished colleague from virginia, apologize for skipping over you. >> i am enjoying the conversation. a couple questions for mister roy. the governor placed quite a few restrictions on places of work and settings from state to state, workplace settings greatly with respect to how much covid-19 exists for customers. have these differences at different states, have they contributed to the impact of covid-19 on minority communities and have restrictions recognized differences and should state continue to refine these restrictions based on the risk that is present? >> one great example of this is the towns on the border between
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virginia and tennessee because tennessee has pursued a policy of opening and they've done a far better job controlling the spread of covid-19 in nursing homes and had a more open economy so in tennessee we are seeing better performance for economic vulnerable populations as medically vulnerable populations with better performance in virginia and virginia is continuing to lockdown in the most aggressive states, relative to actual public health utility. >> hoping we can see some loosening of those restrictions and improvements in economically vulnerable areas of the state, that goes to your point. another question relating to higher education, some states yearning to participate in the enormous college experience. what do they do to minimize the
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risk of contracting coronavirus, how can they -- the likelihood of passing the virus to older family members they have at home. >> on reopening schools, with postsecondary facilities, what is important is that just campuses to have more physical distancing. some students particularly for most colleges, don't have enough housing space to house most of their students, enabling students to come to classes from home it will be important for those in more vulnerable populations, that would be a way of avoiding being around their grandparents or other at risk individuals. it is important for the housing
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policies of universities and colleges and other postsecondary facilities to take that into account, take the individual risk of students into account. you want to be careful and safe around older faculty members, members of staff but in general people in the age bracket of colleges are at low risk of severe illness and mortality from covid-19. i recommend if members haven't already reviewed it, testimony to the senate health committee, was compelling on all these points. >> not only does the sixth district have more colleges and universities than any congressional district save one district in boston. we also have james madison university in harrisonburg which is a coronavirus hotspot. it will be a scenario when they return to campus where there's
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a lot of education and a lot of work on behalf of the whole community to ensure the community stays safe and our efforts to bring the numbers down continues aggressively. thank you for the answers to the question. whatever time i have remaining i'm happy to yield to the ranking member. >> as you mentioned in your written testimony, low-income students and students of color have experienced disproportionately negative impact. given the body of research on approved educational outcomes for participants of choice program and overwhelming bipartisan support among the public do you think congress should examine ways of expanding school choice as we consider future aid packages? >> a lot of things to consider, school choice can be useful in allowing students to have in
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person instruction in hotspot areas. if you live in an area where there is an outbreak but need to get education, school choice might allow you, in the choice of your school but in a particular class, maybe there is a student who is good at math but his own high school doesn't have the capacity to teach ap calculus, through a modular educational choice to get that instruction from a different school or different teacher. there are a lot of a lot of desegregating school choice to broader educational choice and dan lipps is one of the pioneers in that area. >> thomas saul has a wonderful editorial about the importance of school choice for minority and low income students. thank you, mister chairman.
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>> thank you. gentleman from new york, mister marelli. >> thank you, mister chairman. i not only thank you for your leadership today but throughout the pandemic and providing the committee with another opportunity to work on these virtual hearings and briefings. i appreciate all the work you and your staff have done and want to acknowledge it. since march our nation has faced insurmountable challenges and heart-wrenching losses. the virus doesn't play by clear rules so for months we have been largely relying on reacting to this unprecedented crisis to support our communities and our constituents but now as we regain footing in many places we have a real opportunity and responsibility to take certain
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intentional and preemptive action to safeguard the nation especially communities hardest hit by the pandemic against further fallout. the racial and ethnic inequities that have existed for generations, the virus is bringing that into stark relief and demonstrating how much, how deep these inequities go. i want to point out a little data from a group called common ground in monroe county public health department. in rochester we have four times the rate of infection, five times hospitals asian rate into a half times mortality rates among black citizens and people of color in our community. statistics are unacceptable and represent the deeply entrenched any qualities, inequities and barriers to communities of color. as we discussed in the hearing
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today and the hearing last week the deaths go deep. we talked about education in the inequities in the educational system which are staggering, the digital divide, how unprepared and under resourced many of our institutions serving low-income students are. as we begin to build our community it is critical we look at recovery through the lens of social determinants of wealth, education and economic stability. i got a couple questions. i want to acknowledge mister king, secretary of education, commissioner of schools, commissioner of education, we worked out many projects. i want to acknowledge him and thank him for being here. i have a question for former secretary king. doctor jones, you mentioned during your testimony that you essentially invited a question or to ask about an allegory
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talking about structural racism. i don't think anyone has done that. i would like to hear that if you have a moment to go through that. >> i know you want to ask about the secretary. this is an allegory based on something in my real life, that racism exists. when i was a medical student i was studying long and hard one saturday with friends, we had no food in the apartment, we decide to go into town and find something to eat. we walked in and we sit down, place our order. not a remarkable story yet but as i sat with my friend eating i looked across the real and noticed a sign with the startling revolution about racism. what did the sign say? it said open. if i haven't thought anything more about it i would have assumed other hungry people could sit down and order their
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food and eat but because i knew something of the 2-sided nature of the signs i recognized the restaurant was closed, other hungry people a few feet away from me would not be able to sit down in order their food and eat it. that is how i understood how it works in our society, it functions as a dual reality and those sitting inside the restaurant at the table of opportunity, they see a sign that says open, they don't recognize a 2-sided sign going on because it's difficult for any of us to recognize the system of inequity. on the other side, very well where it is a 2-sided sign going on because it proclaims they can look through the window and see people inside eating. those inside the restaurant who ask is there really a 2-sided sign that racism truly exists, hard for you to know when you only see open. that is part of your privilege not to have to know but what you do now you can choose to
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act, not a scary thing and it doesn't compel you to act so that if you care about those on the other side you can talk to the restaurant owner. there are hungry people outside, let them come in. you will make money and maybe you will tried to get on that kind of break through the door but you won't be sitting back saying i wonder why they don't sit down and eat? understand something about that. i won't go anymore deeply into it. >> i know my time has expired so i have to wait and get mister king and doctor wilson and i have a question for doctor jones. i will yield the balance of my time, appreciate the panelists and the work they are doing good. >> gentleman from south dakota, mister johnson. >> appreciate it.
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i was intrigued by the conversation you were having about reopening in the fall and best practices. your answer focused on the collegiate system. let's talk about the k-12 environment. if you are giving advice, school board members and administrators who want to make sure they appropriate in an safeway in the fall what guidance would you provide? >> you are muted. >> excuse me for that. i am sorry. i mentioned in my testimony, we have a paper forthcoming which i will share with you once it is out, should be out in a few days. one thing, we are going to have to make accommodations for people who can't physically attend school. if you live with your grandparents or have other at risk individuals in your
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household those are individuals we need to have stay at home. there may be teachers wildly were at risk who will need paid leave for other accommodations but leaving those things aside what do you do for those individuals? one thing we've been working on with my co-authors with certain states is at the state level centralizing the virtual curriculum so you don't leave the burden on individual school district to create the virtual curriculum that runs in parallel to the in person curriculum have that done at the state level so if you need to stay home, there, that process is a lot more and leverages the resources of state rather than the district level. for the people who do - who are able to go to school, we can be more confident the risk of transmission is low. one thing i haven't mentioned is we have a lot of research from outside the united states
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that shows transmission of covid-19 in children is very low. in iceland they did a study of the entire population of iceland and found not a single incident of a child transmitting covid-19 to his or her parents which is remarkable given they live together and around each other all the time. that gives us a lot of confidence the children are not vectors of transmission. that means a lot of the precautions at schools regarding we only have classes of six people are all the deaths have to be 6 feet apart, we don't necessarily know if that is true and there should be some flexibility in school districts to take that into account. >> thank you and i would like to yield the rest of my time to the ranking member. >> thank you. mister roy, let's follow up on mister johnson's question. i think it was a good one. as these restrictions are being
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raised they are very blunt instruments, being lifted now. how should states and cities approach their decisions to list restrictions to reopen while keeping people safe. it is a very instructive. >> a lot of evidence is accumulating that children are not vectors of transmission with childcare centers and k-12 schools and potentially post secondary college instruction. we have more research to confirm this. as i mentioned a lot of european countries, germany, switzerland, austria, without an impact on their caseload, all of that seems to indicate
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your vulnerability to covid-19 is related to the degree you are victor of transmission. for all those reasons we have a reason to be hopeful and optimistic that younger populations can go back to work and younger workers can go back to work. when it comes to reopening workplaces, one thing states can do, the workplace is disproportionately younger, those are things you can bring up more quickly. >> i yield back. >> gentle lady from pennsylvania. >> thank you, mister chairman. this pushes for doctor jones.
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the 60 retail drive-through covid-19 sites opened at the public-private partnership located in black communities. for the tests and at home tests. how important is it the federal government permit these to be purchased over-the-counter and without a prescription and subsidize the cost of these tests or make them free and require insurance cover these tests with no cost sharing and through the postal service so people can receive them without having to travel to the store. it is part of the same peace. >> it is important to increase testing in communities that have been hardest hit so that is the first thing. private research did the new at home test.
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i would say other additional ways to support testing is community organizations, to work with others placed in the community. i don't know about that particular test. >> just to clarify the test is not available. in my district, working on it but it is anticipated it will be available later this year. >> if it is not in your neighborhood you have to default to a home test, we have to have the same level testing availability in all our communities and more in the hardest hit community. nothing good or bad about that test. that doesn't answer whether we have more testing in our most public communities. we need to have different partners in different
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strategies, invest in minority owned businesses in those communities to do the testing because it could be that if you do your home tests something about the communication based on how you should pursue extra care might be lost. it is not a substitute. >> very helpful. i want to direct the next question to doctor king. even before covid-19 struck, before earning their certificate and disproportionately likely to occur among low-income students and students of color i am
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concerned with the health pandemic that the small progress on increasing the rate of college completion is going to vanish. can you discuss the inequities in college graduation rates among different students, and whether we have made progress in closing the gap between low-income students and students of color. to doctor king. >> are you still on mute? >> there is doctor king. >> thank you. >> for low income students and students of color and completion some driven by
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financial gap? and change in the financial situation at their university struggling financially. and targeted investments. for community colleges for mix of financial support. and lower the per graduate cost in the long run if we make those investments. >> with that i yield back, mister chairman. >> mister keller? >> thank you to the ranking member and panelists, a lot has
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been discussed about nursing homes in pennsylvania, how it affected the population in nursing homes. the deaths are relatively high. how did the other 45 governors in the states that handled it better looked at different information and what might have led them - pennsylvania, new jersey and california had problems with the deaths in these facilities. >> i wouldn't necessarily at this time rank pennsylvania's governor 40 fifth or 40 seventh, don't know if we can do that but in terms of -- the states that have done the best and i will use florida as an example.
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their health secretary was aggressive in resisting hospitals that were lobbying actively to have permission to discharge covid-19 infected patients into nursing homes. mary mayhew thought them on that. it was not an easy decision to fight the hospitals which are powerful lobbies in every state and say you are not going to take this patients and get them out of your hospital and stick them in a nursing home because then you will only get more patients with covid-19 later so she was aggressive about that and also aggressive about the meeting and restricting visitation rates which is heartbreaking. if you have a loved one in a nursing home he wants to make sure they are okay. that was a difficult and painful decision florida did take that protected that population far better than other states. >> one other thing i want to talk about to my experience of
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having worked in a factory and run the larger manufacturing facilities, employers care about their employees and they can keep them safe. larger operations, retailers and so on being able to stay open, smaller businesses we know in small businesses more adversely impacted whether it is minority businesses, there is every reason to believe small businesses can't practice the same guidelines given the rules by cdc and so on. that they were able to do by the time the economy was shut. >> if you are referring to the fact that in certain states large retailers were allowed to open but small retailers were not, that was an asymmetry and terrible policy because those
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small businesses that help communities thrive, help provide competition, help provide lower cost to the consumer for all different reasons little unemployment piece, it is important to have small businesses competing with large businesses. they have the capacity and we see that in restaurants. in austin where i live, texas allowed restaurants to open at to us in point and every restaurant cares not just about its workers but it's customers to make sure they have the confidence to patronize that restaurant knowing it is going to be safe and they are doing what they can from a cleanliness point of view. businesses have a powerful incentive to make sure their employees are safe and their customers are safe and that is far more powerful than any government mandate. >> i agree with you and that's part of the reason we should look at some kind of liability protection for these businesses. that way people can make a decision whether they feel safe patronizing a certain business whether it is a restaurant or retail operation.
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the other thing i would look at, any kind of resurgence when we open our economy and talk about positive cases, doing a lot more testing, is there another metric to make sure we understand the spread of this disease, the percentage of cases that are positive. >> we are seeing a rise in cases driven by rise in testing. doubling the number of tests, we are not seeing a corresponding spike in death. they are less medically vulnerable.
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heart disease and high pressure and diabetes etc.. we don't yet know exactly because we don't have a granular level of detail but the death rate from the cases we are seeing now appears to be significantly lower and that is not surprising. what you see is most vulnerable people die first and the virus affects less vulnerable people who don't die at the same level. >> i yield back. >> gentleman from california, mister harter, gentle lady from georgia. >> thank you, mister chairman and thanks to our guests for being here today. thank you for joining us to talk about this pressing issue. i want to be completely keer -- clear.
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covid-19 did not create these inequities but reveals the suffering of the minority communities in america, disparities, and the workforce, years of racism, restricted access to services and high rates of poverty. the symptoms are manifested in four outcomes in every part of american life. in the k-12 funding, budget cuts disproportionately impact students in lower income school districts where black and brown students make up a larger share of the student body, students of every background deserve better. recent study showed black populations are at least 3 times more likely to die by covid-19 and white, it is 2 and
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a half times likely today. it is incumbent on every member of our body, every member of the body, every citizen of the nation, witnessing before our eyes, whether you are black, white, brown, time to take seriously, the challenges we are facing, my question for you, there is a section you entitled the fallacy of race neutral policy further exposed by covid-19. why has race neutral policies not offered genuine inequities, what is the example of failure in the covid-19 area?
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>> policymaking, what was highlighted in my testimony you cited, it ignores the fact that in a policy on its base his race neutral, doesn't reference race in any way, have race neutral effects because the structures in this society, any policy, every policy that passes day after day on the rate of income, will slow. the efforts to slow the spread of the virus by shutting down and disparate affects on workers of color, lower levels of wealth and other types of financial resources to whether
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the economic downturn. at public safety issues, the underlying disparity as well as wealth and other economic outcomes, very different results to impact communities. >> even in my own community i represent georgia's 6 congressional district. there is another portion of the district i see as plain as day, the disparities of the largest cases that contracted covid-19 and the largest numbers that have been seriously affected, the most number of diverse individuals and diverse people in the community so thank you for that.
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thank you for your answer. these problems are enormous and continue to raise disparities every single day. americans never shied away, we face no greater challenge at this point than a more equitable and free society. this is a challenge to every one of my colleagues and neighbors to think seriously about the type of society you want to live in and that you want your constituents to live in. it is one where those with the least suffer the greatest, is that what we want? i don't think so. part of this great nation are neglected and feel they have no value. they deserve better. will we continue perfecting this union always looking
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toward the future and fight for a society that strives for justice and equality? i ask that of all my colleagues and i yield back the balance of my time. >> doctor murphy. gentleman from new jersey. gentle lady from washington. >> thank you, mister chairman and thank you to our witnesses. i want to make a quick comment mostly to mister roy about schools because the vast majority of people commenting about schools say we don't know the role of children in transmission. they get it less often, don't have symptoms but it is a big black box we won't know until schools open. i also want to say there is a
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general understanding i don't visit any question about that, we don't know about long-term outcomes but the united states is not iceland. the united states is fatter, more kidney disease, more heart disease, heart conditions that put you at higher risk for this disease, not just that but the kids who need most to be in school come from families we are talking about today at mode risk -- most risk of getting the disease and dying from it. i wanted to direct my question to doctor wilson. my district has a large latino population and we have seen a disproportionately hit by this disease first because of working conditions we talked
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about which are more crowded, agricultural jobs and 80% of transmission happens in the home and homes are more crowded we've seen a greater amount of community spread. not just that but since housing is part of how covid-19 is spread, we know housing is tied to health outcomes and in recent weeks we have been talking about how housing is fundamental to building wealth, building that nest egg and achieving security. can you cover housing, the change we could make, difference between policies, policies that help with ownership and long-term outcomes of a change in policy. >> thank you for those questions. the structures and patterns we observe in housing access and housing for the buildings are
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directly related to a long history that excluded certain populations, concentrated and isolated people in communities where the quality of housing, stock of housing was less available, driving up the cost of housing in many of these communities. i think policies that have direct issues of affordability and housing are an important -- addressing the inequities we see in terms of housing, spilling into a outcomes in health as you indicated as well as employment and schooling. >> another question about paid
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leave, family leave, they are affected by not having the same assets to leave and if they are in close proximity to people who are infected they might need several series of quarantines. i wonder if you could speak to having two weeks of sick leave and took 3 months of paid family leave. what happens in these at risk communities when you have to take time off perhaps multiple times, multiple close colleagues at work and needs to quarantine. >> the connection between lack of paid leave and other outcomes makes workers make difficult choices between their health for their economic well-being.
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workers forgo earnings that are he sensual and critical to the economic well-being of their households because they are making decisions that are better for their health. by having paid sick leave more accurately and more broadly we really empower workers to make the kinds of decisions best for optimizing both their health security and -- >> thank you very much. i yield back. >> the gentle lady from illinois. >> the coronavirus pandemic has left no corner of our communities unscathed. lives and livelihoods have been lost in my district in illinois and communities across the country. this is why i am concerned with mister roy's comments about the
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role children as carriers of covid-19, there is a lot we don't know in the current guidance from the centers for disease control and prevention does point out the children, at risk of infecting, contracting the disease and be carriers, we should continue to have fact-based findings to present to the committee, encouraging american people to consult on the issue which is the centers for disease control and prevention, not afflicted evenly across communities. the pandemic inside this pandemic is economic consequences of communities of color, black americans. they are dying at five times the rate of their counterparts. disparities are larger, they
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are glaring but not surprising. the racial inequities, one of the key drivers with access to care. the uninsured rate for african americans is six times higher than the rate for white americans. to reduce disparity for health outcomes for covid-19 and other conditions we must expand access to affordable healthcare which is why introduce the affordability act which has advanced premium tax credits to more americans and increase the size of those credits. doctor jones, enhanced premium tax credits reaching millions more americans. access to affordable healthcare reduce racial disparities with hospitalization and death rates. >> it is important we have access and one of the ways you value your people equally.
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to take away any economic barriers, i would also say we need to make sure the last visit, the balance at the bottom, i will also say that does not absolve us from addressing what is created in the health sector. to strengthen the aca, get to universal access, high-quality healthcare, perhaps lower right now, the age of medicare eligibility and all of that. >> the return on that i have been committed to reducing the alarming disparities, they asked for 2020 with congressman, adams, to extended a grade coverage.
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doctor jones recognizes medicaid covers 65% of african-americans, can you describe the important of medicaid coverage for a full year to close racial gaps and maternal health outcomes? >> the maternal mortality rate between black folks and white folks ranges 3 to 8 times depending on what part of the country, mothers who are dying within the first year of childbirth is alarming. we support them in all the ways we can. >> it is about saving lives. beyond extending medicaid coverage, why do we need policies like the ones we included? to provide targeted investments to approve health outcomes? >> we need to have the mortality review committees with all the data they have and lift the risk factors to
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address them. >> as we speak they are working tirelessly develop a safe and effective vaccine for covid-19, yet it is only the first step. we need to deploy to every community across the country what needs to be done and we know african-americans currently have lower immunization rates on that issue. i want to thank the chairman for having this hearing, as the committee knows, we need to end racial disparities whether covid-19 related or in the healthcare system and make sure as we communicate with the american people during this pandemic, evidence-based information for the american people. >> thank you. gentle lady from connecticut, ms. hayes. >> thank you, mister chair.
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today, like so many other committees, i have been listening, so many colleagues don't get it. like the gentleman from wisconsin i look forward to a time, don't have to deal with these issues in this way. last week in the same committee we had a hearing about shutting down schools and what budget cuts would look like but my response is so much bigger than the economy looks at how to deal with these things economically. i can assure you everyone on this committee, when my husband was diagnosed with covid-19 and i was waiting for his chest to rise to ensure that he was printing, never once did i think about his job. never did and i think about the economy. i thought about my husband getting healthy and being safe.
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in the same vein i am thinking as we look forward to september and our schools open up, i was on a call with fema and they indicated they have no intention of supplying ppe for our schools. i live in a state that is disproportionately impacted and has large equity gaps, 84% of students graduate high school and less than five miles down the road, 75% of students are high school graduates and a parent was sentenced to 12 years in jail for what they called stealing education for sending a child to a school outside her district. that is how desperate people are to provide a good education for their children in this state. it is so good to see you and you opened up your comments with something about conversations near and dear to me, brown versus board of
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education decision. like it, don't like it, whether is uncomfortable or not we have racial and equity disparities in our school and public education system and we as a committee have the ability to change those things. as we look forward to september, doctor king, can you talk a little bit about, we heard about maximizing testing and opening earlier, but i am thinking about the trauma, and all the other things that will happen when children return to campuses. can you talk about what those inequities will look like after the covid-19 pandemic and the financial crisis if we do nothing to intervene? >> good to see you, congresswoman. the impact covid-19 -- when i think about that i think about the kid who relies on school for their positive relationships with adults and peers. some kids are in homes where
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there is addiction, where there is abuse, domestic violence, economic trauma. when they come back in september they will need more support which means we will need counselors, mental health services, investment, emotional support students need and that won't be there if school districts make huge cuts as a result. >> thank you. i am happy you used the word investment. thinking forward, i will ask you and miss jones, the same thing, thinking forward, if we look at what types of investments are made. >> i am sorry. >> to make public education more equitable to address these underlying issues. in the same way we invested in small businesses and we invested in our larger economy
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what would investments look like moving forward? >> we ought to close what the chairman talked about between students of color and white students and school spending. that is what investment looks like. a good investment would mean addressing the learning loss and social and emotional needs of students with supplemental dollars. investment would be doubling pell grants and making it possible for low income students to pursue higher education. >> i will switch to miss jones. most of our education funding comes from municipal -- putting kid that a disadvantage. >> we need to change the local property tax, funding pool because if you have a poor neighborhood, poorly funded schools, you need to invest in
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early childhood education, invest in teacher education, have a model like finland with a mentorship position. thank you. >> thank you. i am not sure which bill that is but either way i am done, thank you. >> thank you. >> those are obnoxious. >> the second one. gentle lady from florida, gentleman from michigan. >> thank you, mister chairman and happy pride month. donald trump and betsy devos claim school choice is the civil rights cause of our time and that is honestly comical but unsurprising because in michigan, we know that school choice causes segregation in our time. we are seeing the impact of
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these policies in michigan's ninth district. mt. clemens school district has seen massive numbers of white students participating in schools of choice to go to nearby wider school districts. michigan's school financing moves with the student. when the student needs to go to another school district that funding goes with them. as a result, the mount clemens school district was a majority black student body, faced major budget deficits for the past we do decades. and it hasn't been updated in 50 years. that is before the covid-19 crisis. these students are being intentionally left behind. there is no coincidence here. betsy devos is trying to turn these harmful policies on the entire nation and secretary of
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education. the department of education finalized a rule that would funnel critical emergency money away from school districts and students most impacted by covid-19 as congress intended by bipartisan, bicameral and send it instead to private schools even those serving the very wealthiest students. .. i would like to ask you about this. would you agree that school choice policies with funding models like michigan has disproportionately harms students of color by funneling money and other resources away from schools flex the choice that secretary devos favors is one that is harmful. the evidence is clear in michigan. that secretary devos favors is one that is harmful to students and evidence is clear in michigan. it's both thehe problem of fundg structure and also the unregulated charter market which
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is allowed for profit charter operators who were not serving students well, to proliferate without meaningful accountability. this narrow vision of schools is part of the problem we have to solve. >> i would just add here in michigan which secretary devos has had an impact on for many years, charters have almost no regulation, and it's been very harmful thing. what happens then to educational equity if you don't save our public schools? if we shift to the gop idealized free market education system, which students will be hurt the most? >> there's the question and alert students of color and low-income students the most. public education is the foundation of our economy. in fact, thebl majority of kidsn
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the nation's public schools by kids of color. we have no future as a society if we don't w invest in their education. in the short run one of the things it wouldva make sure we correct the misinterpretation of that cares package, taking dollars intended for public schools and send them to private schools. >> thank you. i feel like public education is really what don't the middle class in this country, along with workers having the freedom to form unions. dr. jones, how will policies like secretary devos proposed rule that we've been discussing hurt -- in equity and systemic racism in our education system? you've got almost one minute to answer. >> so actually these blinders that want to vigorously invest in the full excellent public education upon our kids, if people think there's no genius in the ghettos and the reservation. we can get along very well thank
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you. those blighters are not just hurting those children. they are sapping thehe strengthf the whole society because there's genius and all of our communities and we could be doing so much better as a nation or even as world if we could vigorously invest in public education. what you're seeing is there whole communities that are being devalued for the genius, and yes, vigorously investing in the full excellent public education is what is going to save our nation. that's one of the core. >> thanks veryel much. mr. chairman, before that horrible second bill, i yield back. >> okay. thank you. gentlelady from minnesota. gentleman from maryland, mr. charles. >> i'm ready, mr. chairman, if i am up. >> you are recognized for five minutes. >> thank you. dr. wilson, your chest when
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highlight lack on businesses have been hit hard by this crisis in part because the disproportionate owned in industries that are vulnerable through shutdowns. you also note black families face vast wealth gaps compared to white families. what effectively this crisis will have on the wealth gap? but most importantly what she would be looking here in the federal government to try and address this wealth gap which is so profound and start with homeowners, ownership, 47%, how do we change this? >> the wealth gap is one of the reasons wewi are seeing such disparate impact of covid-19 in communities of color. at least in times of the economic outcome. as i mentioned before, having wealth from having savings put you in a position to be able to
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weather the shutdowns and the things we had19 to do in the interest of this. without adequate savings, withoutas adequate wealth you he no cushion or you're going to rapidly deteriorate any savings that you did have. i see if we don't address the current crisis as well as addressing the wealth gap, we stand to see that wealth gap widening significantly. that means both in terms of the impact we see a small business as well as broader disparities in homeownership and other kinds of wealth building. >> any ideas about how we can help minorities get into businesses? that's the big disparity. they are not starting the businesses, therefore they're not building up the equity and then of course homeownership is the other piece where equity is. that likes, , too. we need some ideas how we can drive that and stimulated, prime the pump.
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>> in terms of small business it's important to recognize that black business owners are less than 2% of businesses owned in the united states. and beyond that if we think about the larger businesses that employ people, african-american of this is only about 4% of those.t the issues with black own business as a wealth building tool is not starting the business but having an opportunity to expand and grow those businesses so they're the able to buildld substantial weah that is important in the communities in terms of making jobs available as well as building personal and community wealth. the things that need to be done to address it, we have to address again the racial disparities that exist throughout our system. part of the reason why black businesses don't have spent opportunity to expand and grow is because of the disparate
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predatory or lending practices that exclude black business owners from getting the capital they need to expand businesses. we see the same kinds of patterns with getting access to mortgage loans in order to purchase homes, on top of the large income gap in wage gap that puts people at lower levels of income with less to drop on. >> let's shuffle over quickly to the racial inequities in the criminal justice system, dr. wilson. if african americans or hispanics are incarcerated same rate as white, we have 40% 40%s people in jail. 40%. that's the reality to this community, our team needs of color, disproportionally affected in an unjust justice system. what things do we need to do to help try those unemployment numbers down for just his impact in individuals so when they come out they can stick out and not have a circular system of
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recidivism? >> there are a number of things that are being attempted in communities across the country, bandbox provisions to keep employees from asking about their criminal background prior to speak how big a difference to thank the ban the box makes? we have built we just putting last week anything does exactly that for the whole country. talk about the difference that makes. >> it's an important first step with their other things that we could put in place to support ban the box. not only get your foot in the rural, teaches being eliminated in the first rent. there are other policies that are important. >> thank you very much. i yield back before that bell rings. >> thank you. gentlelady from michigan,
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ms. stevens. gentlelady from nevada, ms. lee. gentlelady from massachusetts. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you so much for the panel today. this is such a terrific hearing. communities of color have always experienced racial discrimination in health careti settings. dating back hundreds of years, race has been used as a weapon to undermine and dehumanize black patients. as my colleague from georgia mansion, covid-19 didn't create these disparities but it certainly has exacerbated them. as black and brown patient struggled to access covid-19 testing and treatment. dr. jones come , according to te american medical association, only 5% of use citizens are black, 5.8% aretr latinx and only .4% are native american
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spirit black women account for only 2% of physicians in our country. how has the covid-19 pandemic underscored the importance of increasing diversity in the field of medicine? >> it's always been an important issue because if we train more physicians of color, then they can deserve communities of color with a more respectful kind of way. some of what we've seen with being present in emergency departments and is dying at home, that would be less likely to happen. it's a chronic problem and we need to address it. we need to address it not just in terms of medical school admissions, practices but all the way back to early childhood education, that pipeline that starts very, very early on. >> great. if you could just elaborate on how increasing diversity in medicine and public health
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prevents discrimination and buys from affecting patient care. >> we know implicit bias exists among medical care providers. we have been knowing this for about 15 years, even before we had the implicit association m test. physicians might look at a patient and think that patient couldn't afford, wouldn't comply, wouldn't understand and not even give patient full range of treatment options. there's so many ways these subtle biases against different groups come the assumptions people draw, actually impair care much less what happens when you have systems that also don't accept patients with medicaid or don't whatever, so it's a provider thing and it's a system thing and he go hand-in-hand because the more providers you have a color, then they are at the decision-making table that can then change some of the system things that are going on. >> i appreciate that. what are recommendations you
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like to offer this committee as we think about how to address this issue? arthur incentives or programs we could strengthen to address the lack of representation and diversity across our healthcare continuum? >> something that's been a place for decades is national health service corps which got a bump in the affordable care act but that enables students from low-income communities to go to medical school and then they have payback commitment needy communities where they are then more likely to stay. that's one very specific thing. if that can become huge the net would go a long way. >> thank you so much. thank you, mr. chairman. i yield back. >> thank you. mr. castro of texas? has anybody online, on air not been recognized?
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if not i recognize myself for a couple of questions starting with ms. wilson. ms. wilson, dr. wilson, we've responded trying to stimulate the economy by using primarily unemployment compensation, food assistance and other things. they're a bit of the suggestions like a payroll tax and capital gains tax holiday. which initiatives tend to stimulate the economy the most? which give you the best bang for the buck? >> according to the recent analysis by thomas mark zandi, finds that food assistance program has the largest bang for buck. one dollar spent food assistance generate $1.67 in gdp a year from now. unemployment insurance benefits our second with the bang for buck for $1.46.
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>> andme what about the payroll tax and the capital gains tax holiday? how do they score? >> i don't recall off the top of my had the exact numbers there but i will say that those typically have bang for buck under one dollar. >> thank you. dr. king, can you tell me a little bit about the importance after people been out of school for so long, the importance of potential summer programs? >> summer creates an opportunity for the grounds lost. we had to put in place summer programs in person where possible, given public health criteria, and if not possible through distance learning.
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but we know students are going to come back to school having lost as much as 70% of the grant of the school year in math, 30% or more in reading. the way we address that is provide additional instructional support, particularly critical for student with disabilities and english learners who have been without services in many cases since march. >> thank you. can you say something about how the funding public schools with property tax affects equity? >> huge disparities between the districts with large numbers of students of color spend about $1800 less per student than districts with white students. one of the things we can do to address this is require as a condition for newre stimulus dollars that states have to protect their -- from cuts and the districts have to protect
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the schools from cuts. >> if your property taxes, does that inherently create an equity? >> it does, and in an environment where there's a financiall crisis, what it means is that wealthy districts will be able to go back to their property tax owners, increase the property taxes a small amount and generate significant revenue to absorb the cats, whereas high poverty districts don't have that wealth based and the cuts will fall hardest on them. >> dr. jones, can you say a word, we've talked about the cobra subsidies. it's my understanding if you lose your job, you lose your get cobrabut you can subsidy you can continue insurance. if you have to switch into the marketplace you wind up having to get a new insurance policy, get new providers and even start
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your deductible all over. then when you get your job right back here to go back, tell those providers it's nice knowing you for a couple of months, and then back your old providers and then start your deductible all over. doesn't make a lot of sense to try to do everything we can to maintain the continuity of your insurance? >> it does. i think extending cobra and subsidizing cobra coverage is a good idea. >> good, thank you. finally, mr. roy, i think we can all agree it's just a good idea to open schools if they can be donene safely. if tests are not available how do you reopen the schools safely? >> testing is one part of the equation, it's not the only one. for example, in texas where summer schools are able to reopen a lot of schools are applyinger hybrid approach where they're using temperature checks
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which are not of course not nearly as definitive the temperature checks, symptomatic tests to look at whether children might have covid infections. but again it's more about risk management on the other side. before you get to the testing stage really making sure the kids are not transmitting the disease in the people who are at risk for work at those facilities whether it's elderly teachers, staff, et cetera and people who live in households where there are elderly grandparents, that they areut removed from the city. it's more about preventing the risk of infection from happening inin the first place then about testing but testing to be part of the solution if we can scale itn up. you don't need testing to reopen the school. >> of course you don't know whether people transmitting or not if you wait until their symptomatic because many will be transmitting before their symptomatic. one of the things the heroes act
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includes is money for school construction. a lot of schools do not have proper. ventilation and that is one of the key safety requirements, , to make sure you have good ventilation. we're going to do everything we can anybody wants to open up as soon as possible, but if you can't do it safely, i think we may have a problem. i want tof thank all of our witnesses for the testimony. if there is any of the business, anyone else t have comments? i want to remind my colleagues pursue treatment practice materials for submission to hearing record must be submitted to the committee cleared within 14 days following the last day of the hearing. so by 5 p.m. on july 5, preferably in microsoft word format, the materials submitted must address the subject matter of the hearing. only a member of the committee or invited witness may submit which is for inclusion or document are limited to 50 pages of documents longer than that
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can be incorporated by way of an internet link that may not be available in the future so you want to be careful about that. items should be submitted electronically by e-mailing submissions. without objection, i would like to enter the following into the record, the following report, one, black workers face two of the most lethal pre-existing conditions from coronavirus, racism and economic inequality. published by the economic policy institute. i want to again thank our witnesses for their participation today. members of the committee may have additional questions that they will submit and we hope you would answer them as soon as possible. the hearing record will m be opn for 14 days in order to receive the responses. i want to remind our colleagues
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pursuant to the committee practice, witnesses questions for the hearing must be submitted by the majority committee staff or committee clerk within seven days. question submitted must address the subject matter of the hearing. now recognize the ranking member for a closing statement. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i want to thank our witnesses for participating in this hearing today, but again say we should return congressional president and hold our hearings in person. running the country through proxy votes is unacceptable. as we consider how to mitigate the impact of s covid-19 on families and communities we must highlight the benefits to childrenco and families in two. households. a likely the poverty in a two parent family drops to 9% from the highs of 39% in
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single-parent families. this is crucial to remember as a percentage of two-parent households has dropped from 88% to 69% since 1960. while america's single parents make tremendous efforts on their behalf, and may not have other options, we can encourage and remove barriers. before covid-19, under point was at record lows including minority unemployment and the flourishing economy ushered in under the republican-led congress and the chump administration benefited workers, employers and families alike. the coronavirus has caused devastating job losses. the positive news, there's a path forward. we have had seen from the may s report last month with 2.5 million jobs added to the economy the reopening our economy safely is helping americans get back on your feet.
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mr. chairman, i also like asking endless consent that the june 21 editorial from the "wall street journal," failure in the virtual class and bee include in today's hearing record. i want to get some quotes from it to explainto some of the problems that were having right now that nobody has discussed. the n title, failure in a virtul classrooms, the remote learning experiment isn't going well. this month the university of washington center on reinventing public education published report looking at how 477 school districts nationwide have responded to the covid-19 crisis. its findings reveal widespread neglect of students. this should concern all of us, mr. chairman. the report found only 27% of districts required teachers to record where the student participate in remote classes, while remotere attendance has bn
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abysmal. during the first two weeks of the shutdown, some 15,000 los angeles students fail to show up for classes or do any school work. "the philadelphia inquirer" reported that ten weeks in the philadelphia school district registered just 61% of students attending school on an average day. the same week, the "boston globe" reported on half the students are logging in the online classes or submitting assignments online. students have an incentive to ditch digital classes since their work counts for little or nothing. only 57.9% of school districts do any progress monitoring. the rest have an even set the minimal expectations that teachers review or keep track of the work their students turn in. we are failing our students, and
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it is because primarily as this article points out of teacher unions. they go on to quote the people in the teacher unions. we need to get the schools open into anything we possibly can. i also want to point out that, too tight back into the economic situation. but yesterday the "wall street journal" editorial board pointed out that quote, states that are reopening faster are recovering faster and easy more economic suffering. specifically the editorial board rights, nine of the ten states at the highest jobless rate are run by democrats who have tended to demand that the economy should stay locked down, into some cases are still resisting opening. one exceptionon is colorado whee our former colleague, democratic governor jerry paul's, was one
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of the first -- jerry paul's. as one to reopen. he says he is paying office colorado's jobless rate in may fell to 10.2% from 12.2% in april. to lead our country back to a thriving economy began and we must reopen america. there's also another thing i noticed in one set of comments that were made near the end of this hearing, and that was the comment that it is better to basically give welfare than it is to help people get a job. that goes against everything we've ever known in this country, which is you get a better bang for your buck from welfare than the people going to work. i just don't think that's true. i think everything that we can do to help p people go to work,t
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diminishes poverty, it gives people options. and i hope that will take some more focus on that in the future and talk about those statistics, too. that, mr. chairman, i yield back. >> i thank you for your comments on the economic impact of impact of a certain initiatives. that's actually arithmetic. some investment in the economy do better than others. that's just a fact that the tax and federal gains tax holiday do virtually nothing to stimulate the economy, whereas some of the others support do much better. but there's a lot we can do to help our nation get through this pandemic and in, and also reduce the racial disparities as we do
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it but we want to thank our witnesses for the guidance and for pointing out the heroes act as a major step in the right direction to get us through this pandemic. if there's nothing morewi to coe before the committee, the committee now stands adjourned, and i thank our witnesses again. thank you. >> booktv of c-span2 us top nonfiction books and authors of the weekend. coming up this weekend sunday at 9 p.m. eastern on "after words" offer, , former college presidet and political commentator dinesh d'souza examines what he calls the new face of socialism in the united states and what it's becoming part of our political culture in his book the united states of socialism. is interviewed by independent institute senior fellow benjamin powell.
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watch booktv on c-span2 this weekend. >> america's future is in our hands, and ladies and ladies a, the best is yet to. >> president trump is hosting around and portsmouth, new hampshire. watch live campaign 2020 coverage saturday at 8 p.m. eastern on c-span, on-demand or listen on the go with the free c-span radio app. >> phoenix mayor kate gallego discussed her cities response to the coronavirus pandemic in the interview with "washington post" opinion writer jonathan kay parker chautauqua relationship with arizona governor doug ducey and criticized the federal


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