tv Counterterrorism Efforts in North Africa Part One CSPAN December 7, 2017 3:14am-3:57am EST
>> i'm going call the meeting to order, the subcommittee. thank you all for coming today. a couple of things to start with. number one, we're going to have votes starting at 3:00. we'll deal with that when we have to deal with that. second thing is this committee doesn't meet as frequently as many other committees. but primary reason being that the issues we deal with are of significant magnitude that they're generally dealt with by the whole community. so either this committee wraps itself around the other or vice at it. but in any event, we really deem that this was an appropriate subject, however, for this subcommittee. obviously, the complexity of dealing with the issues on north africa are certainly worthy of
our consideration. thus the meeting today. and we have a very good panel to help us deal with these people who deal with this all the time. so thank you all for being here. ambassador sales, i know your travel schedule has been quite robust. and as a result of that, i appreciate you accommodating us to actually be able to be here yourself today. north africa is an important region for united states as well as transatlantic security. several years ago we watched the arab spring begin in tunisia and then spread across the middle east. people in the region wanted a better life and were clearly tired with the slow pace of change. despite their aspirations, the pace of change has not met their expectations. today we still see weak institutions and strong leaders make change difficult. and in the process, safe havens continue to exist for terrorists. the region, especially morocco and tunisia has seen a
significant number of their people, of their citizens join isis in iraq and syria. now these fighters pose a threat as they return to the region, to their own homeland. morocco and algeria have strong institutions to collaborate with the united states. in tunisia, the government is stable, but still fragile, and requires a commitment to help build their institutional capacity. isis' increased presence in the sinai is troubling, to say the least. the attacks against coptic christians and muslims like the recent mosque attack highlight how large a threat isis still is in the region. in libya, we see rival factions in weak institutions undermine the capacity to govern the country. leaving few partners to work with the fight against terrorism. the by-product is freedom of movement for terrorists to plan,
train, and finance their activities. at the same time, countries around the region are competing for influence and power rather than helping the domestic leaders build capacity and effective institutions to governor their own country. this only undermines counterterrorism efforts. however, this challenge is not something that can be con front solely to military force. targeted u.s. air strikes have been helpful, but political resolution in libya is vital to building long-term partner capacity and actually rooting out terrorism. if factionalism persists, we will never get beyond military action. also, i worry that the broader region is becoming not just a training ground for terrorist camps, but a base of operation as deeper affiliations with international terrorist organizations are growing. this has profound implications for european security as smuggling and extremists themselves cross the mediterranean into europe there is an opportunity for the united
states to partner with our allies in europe and the gulf to help bring more stability to the region. and i look forward to hearing our witnesses help explain how we can accomplish this challenging task. i know that senator keene wants badly to join us today, like all of us he has challenges. he will be here. well look forward to his opening statement when he gets here. in any event, i want to thank both ambassador sales andpoliscu to honor us with what you have to say, and we'll start with ambassador sales. >> thank you very much, chairman risch, ranking member kane and other members of the subcommittee. i would like to thank you for inviting me to discuss u.s. terrorism efforts in north africa. mr. chairman, should i pause now
to hear from senator kane? very good. well, i'd like to thank you for holding this hearing. and i'm especially grateful to you for scheduling this hearing at a time that allows me to personally participate. our top priority in the region is to prevent terrorist groups from threatening the united states by denying them the ability to operate in the continent's vast ungoverned spaces. terrorists who enjoy safe haven are capable of exporting violence around the world, striking us here at home and striking the homelands of our closest allies. we saw al qaeda do this from afghanistan in the 1990s through 9/11. more recently we also saw isis do the same thing from its false caliphate in syria and iraq. this is the reason why we're helping the sometimes fragile states of north africa build their counterterrorism capacity. we want to develop their capabilities to the point where they're able to defend
themselves without relying on assistance from the united states. today, isis is on the ropes in syria and iraq, but significant challenges remain. isis networks in north africa, as you've already mentioned, senator, foreign terrorist fighters from the region who have traveled to the war zone and now seek to return home. al qaeda affiliates, like aqim. today i'm going to highlight several areas where the ct bureau and the rest of the state department have been working with our north african partners to address these and other problems. first, law enforcement and criminal justice. strong, stable, and responsive governments are an important bulwark against terrorism. that's why we help partner nations develop appropriate legal frameworks to effectively prosecute terrorist offenders. in particular, we strengthen our partners' ability to investigate, prosecute and adjudicate terrorism-related crimes. we also help them build crisis response teams that are capable of responding to terrorist attacks in realtime.
second, border security. terrorists exploit long porous borders in remote and loosely governed parts of the continent. an important part of the solution to that problem is information sharing. for that reason, we've worked with our inner agency partners to conclude hspd-6 agreements with dozens of countries, including a number in north africa. as you know, hspd 6-6 calls for information sharing about known and suspected terrorists. we've also worked to stem the flow of ftfs across international borders. this means getting our partners to use interpol's stolen and lost document database and other resources. we're also expanding the pisces program. that rather elaborate anak anymore is personal identification secure comparison and evaluation system. it's a mouthful, but what it does do is provide state-of-the-art border screening systems to 24 countries. a third important ct tool is designations.
the state department has listed a number of foreign terrorist organizations that are active in north africa. examples include isis sinai, isis libya, aqim, and ansar al sharia. using these designations enables us to help cut off the financial flows that are the lifeblood of these organizations. fourth, we work to counter radicalization in a way that's tailored to each north african country's unique circumstances. it isn't enough to stop fts from traveling to the war zone or remove them from the battlefield. this is a battle of ideas, and we also need to delegitimize the radical ideology that attracts them in the first place and prevent them from getting into terrorist pipelines. finally, looking beyond foggy bottom, the department of defense continues to advance u.s. counterterrorism priorities in north africa by taking the fight directly to the enemy. on october 29th, our soldiers captured mustafa al imam who was allegedly involved in the 2012 benghazi terrorist attacks.
we've transferred him to the united states for prosecution where he will face justice for his alleged crimes. we continue to investigate the perpetrators of this attack, and we look forward to bringing them to justice. mr. chairman, mr. ranking member, thank you again for holding this hearing. i'll now turn the floor over to ambassador polischik who will discuss some of the political aspects of the efforts in the region. >> thank you. ambassador polischik? >> chairman risch, ranking mr. cain, subcommittee members, thank you for the invitation to appear before you. as ambassador sales just described, isis and other terrorist groups have been significantly degraded in this region. nevertheless, these groups continue to capitalize on political friction, economic frustrations, and regional fragmentation in their quest to
destabilize our partners and threaten attacks against u.s. interests. as an integral component of our counterterrorism efforts, the united states is working closely with our partners in north africa as they seek to advance political reconciliation, promote economic reforms, and strengthen civil society to ensure a robust and comprehensive approach to our collective threats. i'd like to speak briefly about our specific efforts, and also would like to submit a statement for the record. turning first to libya, where the ongoing political crisis continues to impact security throughout the region, libya must first overcome the current political impasse to achieve lasting stability. that is why the administration recently hosted prime minister al siraj in washington to reconfirm support for his government of national accord and u.n. facilitated efforts to negotiate a settlement. we urge all libyans to engage constructively in the u.n. process and pursue their
ambitions through the ballot box. any attempt to impose a military solution will only fuel civil conflict, providing isis and al qaeda with opportunities to use libya as a base to threaten the u.s. and our allies. the potential for greater instability in libya is of particular concern to the unnisha. as tunisia consolidation its economic transition, economic stagnation and social marginalization have prompted approximately 4,000 tunisians to join isis. the u.s. effort is promoting tunisia's efforts to respond to the threat, bolstering capacity to investigate and incapacitate those involved in terrorism and tackling the root causes of the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon. in tunis last month, the deputy secretary of state spoke directly with tunisian leaders about the country's economic challenges, pledging u.s. support, but urging quicker implementation of reforms that are vital to ensuring all
tunisians are able to participate fully and political and economic life. algeria, where i recently served as u.s. ambassador, has witnessed a dramatic improvement in its political, economic, and security situation since the 1990s. today algeria stands as a highly effective counterterrorism partner, able to deny terrorists safe haven within its borders and working to build the capacity of its more fragile neighbors. a measured butificive political in recent years has undergirded this transformation. morocco continues to distinguish itself as a capable security partner and regional leader, particularly with respect to countering violent extremism on the african continent. morocco is a net exporter of security. for example, in close cooperation with us, moroccan personnel have trained counterterrorism forces in senegal and chad, while morocco
has lent powerful support to the g-5 to strengthen the regional response to terrorism. egypt remains an important strategic partner. its most pressing internal security challenge is the isis affiliate in northern sinai. let me pause to reiterate the u.s. government's condolences for the horrifying november 24th mosque attack which killed over 300 egyptians. isis has also targeted egypt's christians via appalling church bombings and attacks on pilgrims. other terrorist groups have claimed attacks on egyptian officials and police outside the sinai. for cairo, instability in libya and the potential for isis to regroup there represent critical threats to egyptian security. we remain committed to supporting egypt's efforts to defeat terrorist threats. building on decades of strong security ties, we are seeing growing counterterrorism cooperation and continuing strong military to military efforts across a range of programs.
turning briefly to economic stability, president asisisi ha taken bold and necessary steps on reform and the economy is improving, albeit slowly. finally, we will continue to emphasize the importance of a comprehensive approach to counterterrorism that protects and minimizes damage to civilians. we have been engaged in a frank but as yet inconclusive dialogue about egypt's restrictive ngo law and restrictions of employments of ngos. we have raised and will continue to raise at senior levels policies that challenge governance and continue to stress the fundamental importance of the respect for human rights, civil liberties and the need for a robust civil society. mr. chairman, ranking member kaine, thank you for the opportunity to speak with you and we look forward to hearing your questions. >> thank you very much that was a really good comprehensive overview. obviously we've got the right
panel here to delve into this. with that, mr. ranking member, tim, did you want to make a statement? i'm going to reserve my questions so i'll jump to you. >> i apologize for being a few minutes late, but it spared you hearing an opening statement from me. so there is some good news. let me jump right into questions. one of the things that i'm always puzzled by, and i think you can each offer some insight into this, there are relatively stable countries in north africa that we work closely with -- tunisia, morocco, algeria. and yet a large number of the foreign fighters that go to fight with isis come from these nations. why that the case? why have they been such producers of foreign fighters to go fight with isis? >> well, no question, senator. let me say it's good to see you again. i think the answer to that question is very context specific. i think different countries have experienced radicalization and the migration of foreign terrorist fighters for different reasons. so tunisia, for instance, has
sent anywhere from 3,000 to 6,000 terrorist fighters from north africa into syria and iraq. morocco by contrast has sent about 1,700. the numbers for some of the other countries are substantially lower. in the case of algeria, which exhibits a very low incidence of foreign terrorist fighter movements, i think part of the reason for their relative success in the region is because of their long history throughout the 1990s of combatting islamist violence in algeria. i think that that experience has helped algeria create governmental institutions and civil society institutions that help their population, that sort of inoculate their population against the siren song of radicalism. of course, not perfectly. all countries could stand to do a better job. but i think that experience from the 1990s has been one factor that has contributed to the relatively advantageous situation when it comes to
foreign terrorist fighters there. >> let me ask a second question. the president's announcement today about jerusalem, this is a -- this body has long recognized the reality of jerusalem as the center of government for israel. but the reason that presidents have not taken this step before now has not been because of that reality. it's been because of advice by allies in the region, including allies of israel like jordan, saudi arabia, egypt, who have basically said if the u.s. weighs in on that, it may well lead to extremism in the region that could be dangerous either to israel or potentially dangerous to the u.s., the u.s. embassy personnel, et cetera. is that a concern that we should be taking seriously following this announcement? and what is the state department doing to try to protect our embassy personnel in the region? >> well, senator, i hope that you've had a chance to listen to
the president's statement. i know you all have very busy schedules. i was just reading very quickly that the transcript myself to make sure that i had the latest information. i think we need to look at a few issues here. first, as you said, the president recognized jerusalem as the capital of israel and its seat of government. but in his remarks the president also said a number of important things about final status and stressed that the specific boundaries of israeli sovereignty in jerusalem are subject to final status negotiations between the parties. the united states has not taken a position on boundaries or borders. we realize that -- >> ma'am, if i could just interrupt, because i don't want to run over time. have i the statement here, and it does include that. the piece i'm particularly interested in is one aspect of the president's statement. the departments, and this is a summary, departments and agencies have implemented a robust security plan to ensure the safety of our citizens and assets in the region. that suggests that the administration was aware that this could have some negative
security consequences for embassy personnel and others in the region prior to making the announcement. what is the state department doing? what are these robust security plans? what is the state department doing to try to protect our people in the event that this announcement leads to the kinds of events that the king of jordan and others have suggested it might? >> the safety and security of american citizens both working for the u.s. government and the private american citizens throughout the world the security. the safety of the thousands of troops that we have throughout the world are of paramount concern for the. and secretary tillerson. so this is something that we have been weighing carefully. we have been meeting internally. we have been sendsing messages to the embassy and consulates and thinking about. and partner governments to make
sure we're doing everything possible to ensure the safety of the american citizens throughout the world. >> do you know whether we have employed additional marine security guards or other military or protective assets into areas likely affected should the concerns occur? >> i would be happy to provide more information in closed session. >> that's fine. that's enough for the first round of questions. i may have more. >> thank you so much. senator young got through the door before you did. >> turn after my light. >> thank you, chairman. this hearing like so many others under scores the importance of once again focusing on the need for this committee to pass an authorizization for the use of military force. my colleagues know i introduce legislation to the ends back in march. i have enjoyed working with colleagues who understand the importance of this issue. and led op this issue.
applaud the chairman recent efforts to take up this cause and hopefully we can keep moving forward on that front. am bas sors the counter terrorism often focuses on the connect i have element. and certainly true there's some terrorists who are ir reck sisable and have to be taken off the battlefield through military means. a comprehensive strategy has been more than that. it's got to focus on capturing or killing today's irreconcilable terrorists. and addressing sources. root causes of radicalization. ambassador based on your kurn position and your lifetime of experience, what do you see as a connection between on one hand our international development efforts working with partners and on the oir the fight against
terrorists? >> senator young thank you for the question. there's a very tight and close relationship between development that leads to well established democratic institutions. prosperous economies on the one hand. and counter terrorism success on the other. democracy is a great bull work against terrorism. efforts to build democracy that are open and transparent. and responsive to the citizens and prelktive of basic civil rights are key counter terrorism tools. the reason for that is because democratic governments that provide citizens a voice an opportunity to be heard falsify the false claim of terrorists that a resort to violence is necessary to address one's concerns. that is never the case. but it is especially not the case in a democratic government.
so i think that the broader sweet of usg policy that seek to develop the economies of countries around the world and strengthen their commitment to knock si pay a number of dividends. not the which of least are counter terrorism dividends. >> could speak to this issue. and focus on efforts to nurture and promote democracy but maybe to more basic human needs? hunger. medical attention. and economic development. >> of course. yes, and this is something that we are trying to do to take a wholistic approach at the drivers of radicalization and i think the context is different. from country to country. from individual to individual.
so we are trying to ta tailor over all engagement to specific needs. for example in tu knee sha there's a lot of focus on strengthening the capacity of the law enforcement and security forces but looking at what it will take to create employment. so the large numbers of highly educate ltd young people have good satisfying jobs. we have the entrepreneur ship funds that's creating small enterprises there. we have the programs that are focussed on youth leadership and training. in terms of the basic humanitarian needs, as you know a lot of countries in the region have high lefrls of income. we don't have a lot of missions in the class sings. of course we have programs in morocco and egypt. jordan. throughout the region. libya and yemen. things are focussed on the
transition humanitarian assistance is a very key part of this for countries in conflict. and the u.s. delivered hundreds of millions of billions of dollars of aid in recent years. >> is there going to be increasing need fvrt country to focus on this. working with international partners. two reports that recently came out the first report was published yesterday. by the world food program u.s. a demonstrates the link between food insecurity and instability. and the second report was produced by the united nations development program. it's entitled a journey to extremism in africa. and this report highlights the link between lack of development on one hand and violent extremism on the other. with unanimous consent i'd like to introduce both of the reports in the record. i'd like to ask whether you have had a chance to review the reports?
>> not yet, senator. we'll look forward to doing so. >> like wise. >> thank you. >> a quick follow up. that's what worries me is that the budget reflect priority. and we seem to be focusing when it comes to northern africa far more on our military pengsdtures which are special and necessary in the various counter terrorism coalitions we're in the extraordinarily important. but i worry about seeing budgets proposed by the administration slashing the critical programs that create an environment for stability. where we're not allowing folks to go down that path way towards radicalization. in addition, our diplomatic resources in african something we have concerns about as well. and investments we're making in
institution building and the like. i wonder if you can comment on that. senator young has made the point numerous times. i tend it agree with him. and growing worried we're relying on military intervention with the thought that might somehow solve the problem immediately but deal with what think are the longer term causes of radicalization. >> it's a great question. thank you for raising it. i think ambassador and i and the entire state department and administration would give you the same answer. that is that the connectic aspects are important and vital. and various other aspects of the strategy. that's why we're here today to tell you about them. if i could give you a couple examples of things we're doing. in the civilian space sdp the border security and law enforcement. to round out the full suite of whole of government tools we're using to address the threats. short term and long term. so in places like algeria for
instance. partnering with local law enforcement to develop their ability to investigate terrorism related krils. working with judges to help understand how to handle complex terrorism cases and deal with evidence, deal with witness protection and facility protection. we're also dealing working with prison officials. to help them manage the very difficult issues that arise when you're trying to incarcerate. >> i appreciate that. being i have three minutes left, specifically to the point about food aid. we're cutting the proposal is to cut the funding to the very programs that reports like this one show are necessary for us to create stability. >> senator if i milgt jump in. i think there's some very interesting and positive developments in north africa with respect to international cooperation. this is a part of the world where the impact of the terrorism of the migration flow of the smuggling is felt very
keenly by europe. actually like i think and libya is a good example. to help strengthen institutions and then the rest of the international community has come in to help pick up the slack and take on projects. for example there's a g 7 initiative under way in which we're sharing the burden with our partners to help address all of the needs that you out line. libya is another very positive example where the united states is doing part of it. but europeens are doing a very major part. i think as we look at the reality of the administration budget request, something that we have done very effectively is work with our international partners to make sure we're looking wholistically at the needs and make sure other partners are engaging in areas where we might not be able to engage as robustly as the past.
>> i wish we had more time. when you mention tunisia i get worried at the corruption in the government. which gives blanket immunity for civil servants. i want to ask about the human trafficking problem. i'm sure you all saw the cnn videos released with what is to me a heartbreaking evidence of modern day slavery the trafficking going through from areas. that my subcommittee covers. which there's a lot of evidence that the human trafficking in fact in e reports that the decrease registered in migrants doesn't necessarily translate into a reduction. the flow is new routes are going. this is happening the flow of human traffic lg the modern day
slavery. this weighs on your hearts and anybody aware of the degree of it. desperate people fleeing seeking opportunity ending up being sold into slavery is unacceptable. it should enrage this nation. we should be doing something about it. could you maybe let me know what the u.s. is doing to try to help address the situation. what humanitarian aid, migration assistance, how we're cooperating with allies in the region and specifically with the eu. and and has the state department considered doing things to hold the perpetrators accountable including sanctions. or other authority? >> we share 100% your concern about the horrifying situation. and was in washington last week that was a topic of discussion. the security counsel met to talk
about this. and the united states expressed its deep concern over this. on the humanitarian front we have been engaged in supporting migrants providing humanitarian assistance. since the very early days of the revolution back in 2011. this is or libya. so we continue to be very engaged working with iom and others to mac sure the people caught up in the horrific crimes get the care and assistance they need. with respect to trying to get a handle on it i think this comes back to the issues that ambassador was talking about. the appropriate border control. and comes back to the root cause as the senators identified. the people who are coming from the countries elsewhere in the continent whose lives are so desperate they're willing to make the journey. clearly something needs to be done so they have prospects in their own country. it's a multi-faceted approach. we coordinate closely with
colleagues in the african affairs bureau. to look at this in a wholistic way. >> mr. chairman, thank you. >> senator johnson. >> i want to thank the witnesses for your testimony and the service. in the committee that i chair homeland security affairs we have an annual threat hearing. two years ago the fbi director testified or predicted that as we tighten the noose around isis in syria, iraq and syria. we'll see a spreading of foreign fighters into other reres. this year fbi director wray and witnesses. director rasmussen has encouraging testimony. although we have heard reports of fighters leaving. today we had hearing on this evolving fight. there's a new faze as we denied
them the territory. we have not denied them the cyber kal fate. it was encouraging saying that because turkey shut down the migrant flow it's actually quite difficult for isis foreign fighters to leave that war zone. leaf syria. because we don't have represent i have from the department of state i want to ask do you agree. are they trapped in that war zone? >> thanks for the question. i think the situation today is a lot better than it was in 2014. there are much stricter border controls in place today. to monitor and prevent the movement of foreign terrorist fighter across international borders. that is not to say however that the threat has gone away. the threat has simply changed. so as you know the paris attacks in two years ago in november of 2015 were carried out by foreign terrorist fighters who had gone
to the war zone and come home. we're seeing terrorist attacks today in europe and united states most recently new york city. on halloween. by people who haven't traveled to the war zone. but rather are in inspired by the radical ideology and message of hate. that isis perpetuates. isis is savvy when it doms to using social media as a megaphone to broadcast their message. and reach people who have no capacity. that's one of the concerns that i think with need to focus on. >> i understand that. i'm asking about the forbe fighters being able to escape the war zone. two years ago we had the migrant flow. are there other escape avenues? >> senator i grew up in virginia. my family is from pennsylvania.
so yes in terms of the other roots, as sales said the turks and others have clamped down. no system is infallible. what's positive since that the hearing you reference is the actions we have taken in libya. and we have had a very good counter terrorism in prime minister. we have effectively with the libya degradedñr isiss capacity. and in libya. and the follow on strikes in other desert camps. the situation i was very worried about when i was sitting in algeria it would squeeze isis corporate headquarters and they would pop out in africa. hasn't happened. i know from speaking with the algeria who follow the issues very closely they're concerned about the follow effect into the region outside of my particular area of expertise within the state department. but as am bos dor and others
have pointed out, a region with weak institutions, limited capacity. so i think one of the very positive things the administration is doing is working with the stronger partners in north africa to help build the capacity of the weaker states. morocco has been doing great work. algeria as well. this is something we can continue to do. the states share the same vision that we have in terms of the need for security, stability. and those kinds of economic reform. >> you might have answered my final question. in a full committee hearing. there are 19 different nations that defense department is operating in to prevent the spread of terrorism. obviously history shows us we have failed states like afghanistan. if we allow those to continue to fester. terrorism we allowed isis to rise from the ashes in al qaeda in iraq. one of the top priorities i
imagine of the administration is prevent that from happening. in your region you're responsible for, which is or which are the nations most at risk for being that failed state that that type of terrorist activity could blossom in. >> it's difficult to say who's at the top of the list or bottom. i would say that all countries have the challenges. let me explain. what we're doing to help them meet the challenges. it's essential that these sometimes fragile states develop reliable and strong and capable institutions to deliver basic government services such as larmtd. such as criminal justice. such as border security. these kinds of capabilities that we enjoy in the united states and the world are useful tools in the counter terrorism tool kit. i would go a step further and say if building capability in the areas, we help the countries
address the concerns that senator booker raised a moment ago. a state that is capable of preventing a terrorist from coming across the border. is capable of preventing a human trafficker from coming across the border. a state that has courts that will capable of adjudicating terrorism crimes. and human trafficking related crimes. so the ct investment ts we're making pay a number of dividends. across the board. >> thank you. >> both would like to ask more questions. why don't we take a short recess. we can vote on the end of this one. and come back in a few minutes. is that all right with you? with that we'll be in recess. until we get back.
c-span washington journal live every day with news and policy issues. that impact you. coming up thursday morning. washington republican congressman dan new house on friday's government funding did line. and new york democratic congressman talks about moving the u.s. embassy to jerusalem. and senior editor on sexual misconduct on capitol hill. be sure to washington c-span washington journal. live at 7:00 a.m. eastern thursday morning. join the discussion. thursday fbi director
christopher wray testifies for his agency. we'll have live coverage from the house judiciary committee starting at 10:00 a.m. eastern here on c-span 3. epa administrator testifies thursday. about priorities and policies at his agency. he'll appear before the house energy and commerce environmental subcommittee. live starting 2:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span 3. sunday at 7:00 p.m. ooesh. on book tv on c-span 2. former senior advisor to secretary of state tillerson. discusses his book. digital world war. >> content is king distribution is queen. and she wears the pants in the family. if you think about that, the way i like to think about isis and others is that it's we're in a
content war. >> at eight. former news anchor with her book everything you need to know about social media. without having to call a kid. >> everybody can get together. and everybody can join together and do incredible things. and there are stories about what others have done with social media. and it's not really new. all that's new is the delivery platforms. think about it. we have the smoke signals that sort of social media. that's social media. the party line the telephone line. that's social media. everybody on the block can get on the phone. what's dichbt is everything is amplified and within terms of how far you reach. and of course the speed of the communication. for the full schedule go to book ñrtv.org. next, virginia congressman speaks on security threats facing northfr