tv Aisne- Marne American Cemetery World War I Memorial Ceremony CSPAN August 17, 2018 1:10pm-2:54pm EDT
ladies and gentlemen, please be seated. [ speaking french ] welcome to the 2018 memorial day ceremony at the aisne-marne american cemetery. thank you all for your presence here this morning as we honor and remember our fallen. [ speaking french ] >> we would first like to welcome the following family members, present with us today. the guedoc family, in honor of private frank guedoc. mr. steven girrd in honor of
>> i now invite secretary william mats, host of the ceremony and host of the mempb battle monuments commission to provide the welcome message. good morning. what a wonderful beautiful day in this french countryside. in this beautiful american cemetery. minister davisec. madam ambassador, secretary spencer, mr. prefect, ladies and gentlemen and gentlemen from the french parliament and the senate and regional and department
counsels, madam mayor of belleau. commandant neller and fellow general and flag officers and distinguished guests and ladies and gentlemen, on behalf of the american people, and president trump, good morning and welcome to the aisne-marne american cemetery memorial day and world war i commemoration. the american battle monuments commission was established in 1923 by the united states congress and it was established to commemorate, memorialize the service, the achievements and the sacrifice of u.s. armed forces. today abmc commemorates memorial day in 26 of our american military cemeteries located in ten countries across four continents. folks, i'm very honored to be here with you at this cemetery to pay tribute to the sacrifices these americans made in the cause of freedom. such are the men and women, who lie here that they received each
for their own memory, praise that will never die and with it, the grandest of all tributes, an everlasting home in the minds of their countrymen and the thanks of generations yet unborn. we're gathered here today, 100 years later, on the very same ground. that american forces under the command of general of the armies john black jack ber shing may forever hallowed with their struggle, their blood and their sacrifice.pershing may forever hallowed with their struggle, their blood and their sacrifice. we honor the brave french soldiers who fought valiantly and who had already endured the trials of four years of strife so as a fellow infantryman and paratroop paratrooper, thank you for being here to represent those hard-fighting soldiers. we're honored that so many of our french friends and neighbors have joined us, as you do each year for this memorial day commemoration. france is america's oldest ally
and i'm honored to stand beside you as an ally and a friend. and we recognize the valor demonstrated on both sides of of the line as brave german soldiers struggled here, too, today germany is an ally. we welcome general jacobsen and his troops who are here with us today, the aisne-marne cemetery honor those who fell in the aisne-marne campaign. 10 united states army divisions and one u.s. marine corps brigade fought alongside the french fifth, sixth, ninth and tenth armies in america's first major offensive campaign in the war. buried here, shoulder to shoulder, are more than 2600 soldiers and nearly 500 marines. who died during that campaign, with the common goal of making the world safe for democracy and bringing a final peace to
europe. today, folks, the guns are silent on this now deathless field. and the men and the women at rest here are part of a largely forgotten generation of americans. they came of age in what seems a distant time. where lives respect profusely and ideals offism seemed quaint. they watched the falls of empires, witnessed the rise of fascism and naziism and opened an american century. they presided over an inauguration of a violent age they could never comprehend. they were 18, 19. 20 years old. so today, we must remember them. they shaped the modern world, underpinning it with all of its current virtue and depravity. our world and our generation are yet their legacy.
and the character of a country, can be determined by the way it takes care of its war dead. and is also a very measure of its heart and soul. so to you, who sleep here silently, we give our promise, we will never forget, we shall remember you today, as when you were reverently, lovingly placed in this hallowed ground. the cause of freedom and liberty for which you traveled across an ocean so far from your homes, rings true today. our nations and our armed services must bind together in service to other freedom-loving people and nations whenever democracy is threatened. today lands kept free by the sacrifice of men and women dedicated to that freedom, we come to honor their service and their heroism. in the words of general pershing, our commission's first
chairman, time will not dim the glory of their deeds. thank you and merci. [ applause ] ladies and gentlemen, mrs. nadia papier, mayor of belleau will present her welcome message. [ speaking french ] >> translator: mrs. minister, mrs. ambassador, secretary spencer, mr. prefect, ladies and gentlemen, members of parliament and the senate, rentive of the president of the regional council, president of the departmental council, generals and admirals, commissioners. ladies and gentlemen, members of the regional council, and the
departmental council. veterans and dear guests, ladies and gentlemen and gentlemen. the memorial day ceremony in this centennial year will have an historical dimension. assembled in this place bathed in natural serenity, we're going to live through and share moments of intense emotion that will forever be enshrined in our hearts and in our minds. 100 years ago on this land of south aisne, our soldiers of all nations were fighting each other. they were brothers, they were sons, husbands or fathers. they were young, they were men.
these men in the flower of youth were thrown into the most extreme inhumanity. so much so that those who will come out of this hell, the hell of war, will barely be able to speak about it. and yet, 100 years later, we did not forget. throughout the years. generation after generation, our nations have worked to honor their memories. they maintained their memories and doing this, they managed to find their way to peace. so we can say that their sacrifice, which still troubles us, has not been in vain. let us pursue our commemorations again and again so that our humanity never stops its progress, welcome to belleau and have an unforgettable memorial
[ speaking french ] >> translator: knight of the legion of honor awarded the french military medal cited in dispatches four times, paul richarme, was training ton a priest, he served in france's 152nd regiment battalion. for the entire did your ration of the first world war. thanks to the respective offered by a stretcher bearer, he wrote everything he saw, felt and understood, every day, very simply. listen to this man telling of the difficult days in belleau wood. friday may 31st, we get up early, it's a wonderful day, and there's still no cannon fire as if we weren't on the front line.
10:00, soldiers from all units are falling back, we ask them, have you been relieved? one of them answers, yes, by the germans, indeed in the distance, we can see the iron gray uniforms. soon we start seeing the gunshots. the battle is raging. our machine guns chatter. we have wounded. lieutenant guerlain is killed with the fifth company, his orderly has both lungs pierced bay bullet. we give him injections without much hope of saving him. sunday june 2, we are woken by the coldest of the morning, the sky is cloudless. it looks like it will be a hot day. german planes started flying over us. on the road, a poor old woman is fleeing with her husband and a goat. and they stayed until the last minute. we have received orders to stop falling back to hold our positions at any cost.
6:00 in the evening, i have gone back to the embankment, a barrage begins on the lines with mortar fire and shelling, how road is the target. shells pass over its top and explode, just a few yards from us. 7:00 in the evening, the attack begins, shelling gets more intense, the germans stream out of torsey. 8:00, we fall back. the sixth company is coming towards me. it's a sight worth seeing, they're all walking like infantry men. the sixth goes into the woods, i follow. the woods are dense, we get hooked on undergrowth everywhere. we arrive on a plateau. this is where the battalion is taking position. an american regiment takes up position in front of us, at the edge of the woods, we think we're being relieved. 10:00 in the evening, we leave our bags, the officers hand over their horses to the orderlies,
we begin to understand we won't be relieved this time. we're probably going to attack. monday june 3, 6:00, we must engage the enemy. the entire battalion comes out of the woods, we so exhausted that we walk dumbly, resigned. we advance 100 yards at the most and then the german machine guns hidden in the wheat fields spatter us with bullets. the enemy blitzes the edge of the woods. we have massive casualties. soon, all my stretcher bearers are busy carrying the wounded. midday, we're going to attack. about 100 american volunteers in shirt sleeves join us. the fifth company has an especially high number of wounded. the plateau in front of lucie is stiflingly hot. the track is blitzed with gas shells. a group of americans are torn to pieces on it. later in the evening, an american company approaches us. they have thefty spades and dig
deep trenches, they watch us and don't duck any more than we do when the shells whistle past. >> now deputy sergeant paul zimmerman of the 40th rifle regiment. >> translator: i'm sergeant paul zimmerman, first company, 40th regiment of riflemen. in two weeks i will be 25. one month from now, i will die in a field hospital. i have fought in other places, verdun. and on the marne. today i'm in belleau wood where
a wave of enemy forces is overwhelming the riflemen and will drown, one after the other. soon i will find myself and a handful of comrades surrounded. how can one stay alive in front of these soldiers? no, waves of grenades rain on these soldiers, a rifleman falls, on we go. we jump from rock to rock, from tree to tree. i hear a muffled cry from a comrade. they were still trying to hang on to life. and as the blood red sun sets behind the belleau wood, i hear screams between the trees. there i find the stretcher so endlessly slow. i cannot find rest. >> sergeant first class terrace witnessmer of the u.s. army will
provide ludger toussaint of the 26th division. good morning. please open your hearts for a few moments with me and reflect upon a young man who gave his life just over these hills. born five june, 1896, private ludgere toussaint hailed from vermont. he was a student of the middlebury college and joined the army at the age of 20 in 117. he served in the 102nd machine gun battalion of the 26th yankee division. his unit was one of the first to see direct action against the enemy. he wrote often to his friends and family as most men did. he was about two years ago that his family visited this cemetery and shared his story with us and it is thanks to them that i may share his story with all of you
today. as he began his early training, his letters show excitement and a sense of adventure. however, arriving in france in october 1917, his tone quickly changed as homesickness set in and he discovered a france devastated by years of war. allow me to share some entries from his letters home to family. for november, 1917, i wish that i could be with you this christmas, i guess it can't be for some time. never worry, dear dad, someday i'll be with you again. war is terrible. i wish that we would have peace, but i guess we won't have it for some time. 5 november 1917. how does pa feel about my being in france? does i worry much? i hope not. please tell him and make him believe that this is not a hard life and we'll never have to fight, for the war will be over this spring. lord knows whether or not i'll ever return to the usa. but i don't want him to worry before he has to. moving forward a few months now,
22 february 1918. we go back to the trenches very soon. it isn't all fun, and we have to take things as they come now. this is a great experience and we'll surely have much to tell you when we get back and sadly, much we will never share. i only wish that i could see the villages that we've gone by. all of them, all of their beauty has been destroyed. i've taken the $10,000 life insurance since i've been in france it may come in handy to someone someday. 1 may, 1918. did you read about the first grade american clash? it was terrible. and i was there. it happened on april 20th, i only wish it was permissible to tell but what resulted. it is hard when you can't write what you would like to write. you folks at home do not know what war is. thank the lord that you do not. i hope that the war will be over before any more of our family has a chance to come across.
i've seen some awful sights. we never know how long we'll last in this game. but only trust in god in getting us through safely. 22 may, 1918. days before the german forces break through the french lines, we expect to move to another place soon he writes. our furloughs were canceled, so i guess we'll have a rest only if the war ends. if they only declare peace, we'll all be glad. my birthday will soon come and i hope i will never spend another one here. 5 june, 1918. the day before the fourth marine brigade leads a second division into belleau wood for the 20-day battle, clearing out german units. ludger writes, we can't be as comfortable as we were in god's country. today is my birthday. i only wish i were home today and could go fishing, but cheer
up, the war can't last forever. 18 july, 1918. if we remember back when the allies began the aisne-marne offensive, he writes, we will on the front line soon. no doubt you know about this front, it's in all of the papers, we sleep in the woods on the ground, we are mighty glad to get rest whenever we can. what a hard life this has become lately. i will not be able to write often now as there is too much activity going on. don't worry now and cheer up. for everything will turn out okay. >> two weeks after his 22nd birthday this was his last letter this was the last letter he wrote as his unit went on the attack through the fields that surround this very cemetery. he was killed on the 20th of july 1918. and his final resting place, is
plot a, row 8, grave 23. thank you very much. >> lastly united states marine corps captain will present major edward b. cole of the sixth machine gun battalion of the u.s. marine corps. >> edward b. cole was bore on september 23edrd in 1879. and he graduated from harvard university and after working for a mining company for accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in the united states marine corps in may of 1904. by 1916 he was working with headquarters marine corps in developing tables of organization for machine gun companies and serving as the war
department's machine gun board in washington, d.c. he became one of the united states leading experts on machine guns, inventing a tripod. redesigning a machine gun cart and notably publishing a field book for machine gunners about which he is quoted as saying, someday my two fine boys will be able to read this fine little book and apply it. perhaps by that time, the machine gun will be as obsolete as the queen anne's musket today. or better yet, war itself will be obsolete. until that arrives, i want my boys to keep in condition and they must remember that a good soldier must keep a clean mind and a clean body. he was promoted to major in may of 1917, it and later that year was ordered to quantico to form a machine gun battalion to be sent to france. on june 10, 1918. during the battle for belleau wood, major cole moved forward with the first battalion sixth
marines, crossing open ground towards machine guns, they were spotted by the german, but the germans weren't able to turn their guns around so they hurled gren aides, two of them wounded major cole he grabbed one and it exploded and shattered his hand and fragments went to his face and body. he died from his wounds on june 18, 1918 and major cole's final resting place is here in aisne-marne, american cemetery. for his heroism at the battle of belleau wood, he was awarded the navy cross, distinguished service cross,
died during the belleau wood battle. and all their comrades who died during the first world war. under this ground, so many are sleeping. so far from their farms, from their villages, their neighborhoods and their cities. so many died during the battle, so many gave their lives for others. so many who had no idea what to expect and how tough the fighting would be. we want to thank you for their courage, and their dedication to service. even though they knew death could come any time. they fought. so that justice and freedom would win. lord our god, preserve us from
any false peace, preserve us from all evil, hatred and resentment. grant us the same courage, the same sense of responsibility. the same loyalty. we pray for all who have such responsibilities. for our political leaders, for our military leaders, grant them oh lord wisdom and clear understanding in their decisions. we pray for all our comrades everywhere in the world, who serve peace. renew their courage and their strength. in your name, we pray. amen. >> please remain standing. chaplain brit w. scott rear
admiral u.s. navy. chaplain of the marine corps will now say a prayer in english. >> eternal father, strong to save, we gather on hallowed ground to remember the sacrifice that was made in these wooded hills 100 years ago. and to remember a great war that ultimately left nations bare of an entire generation. the scriptures say that there is no greater love than this, that one lay down his life for his friends. and today we pay tribute to the greatest measure of brotherly love, so freely, so willingly
rendered in this sacred place. we remember our friends from france whose history has always intertwined with our own. as she fought bravely across these woods. and against unbelievable odds. france loved here and it cost her greatly. we remember young men from distant america, who rushed in to a gap on this bloodied soil. marines, sailors, and soldiers alike, who would taste the sting of death and never return to their families. they loved here and the markers all around us remind us that it cost them grate graetly. and finally, we pause to remember all sons, brothers, and fathers of belleau wood. and acknowledge the differences
that your grace has made in the making of peace so that we can now count the people of germany our friends. a century ago, this land was pierced by violence and the deafening sounds of war, and today, there's a different sound, that of peace. bought with the deepest measure of love and for this, we are grateful, and for this, we continue to pray. amen. >> ladies and gentlemen, please be seated. traditionally, teachers of the st. joseph high school in chateau-thierry ask their students to create a poem on a theme related to world war i. the theme selected for this year
was 100 years ago, these heroes, and the winner of the contest will read his poem in english, and candice will read the poem in french. [ speaking foreign language ] [ speaking foreign language ] >> a hundred years ago, these heroes. and there were fit or buried those who reached the sky, the sky that probably contemplated
one hand on their weapon or on their heart. these heroes fought a hundred years ago, and yet the echo of explosions can still be heard in some streets just like a hundred cries of suffering can be heard in this cemetery. brothers, fathers, mothers, sisters, are all gone, but they are still there so that peace can be preserved. the cemetery must be the first of a hundred others, for even if they are buried under our feet, they will remain in our heads and our hearts. [ speaking foreign language ]
>> major general vincent, deputy chief of staff of the french army, will now present his memorial address. [ speaking foreign language ] >> translator: mrs. undersecretary of defense, madam american ambassador of the united states in france, mr. secretary of the navy, mr. prefect, ladies and gentlemen, elected officials, madam mayor of belleau, the general demander of the u.s. marine corps, generals and veterans, officers and c.o.s and soldiers of the u.s. marine corps, of the german and french armies, ladies and gentlemen,
representing general boser and through him the entire french army, it is with respect and emotion that i come here to pay tribute to the memory of those who fought here on the soil of belleau wood where the blood of the gallant american, french, and german soldiers mingled. we remember that on may 27, 1918, 30 german divisions launched an offensive which made a breach in the front line, opening the way towards paris. as of 31st may, as the french units were delaying the skbrege advance, especially in the area of belleau, with the action of the 152nd infantry regiment, the second u.s. division with its 27,000 men came to reinforce the sector entrusted to the 6th french army near chateau-thierry. with these reinforcements, the german advance was held back, and the allied troops were already preparing the counterattack.
integrated into this second division, the fourth marine brigade made up of the fifth and sixth regiments as well as the machine gun battalion participated in the counterattack on june 6th. the point for it was to recapture belleau wood and the village. for three weeks, the marine brigade fought a fierce fight against a numerous battle-hardened and well settled enemy. against this new opponent, the german high command was determined to immediately break its moral strengths by causing massive losses right from the start. it is here, between hill 142 to the west and the village to the east, faced with a dense network of german machine guns in the roar of the guns bent under the shower of iron and fire that the marines, led by impetuous
leaders, wrote with their blood a spectacular page of their history. on june 25th, with 1,800 dead, and 8,000 wounded, they seized, after a dreadful fight, the last acres of land of the wood and the village. for these feats of arms, the fourth brigade received as early as october oak leaf cluster. the marines of the glorious fifth and sixth regimens today still proudly carry it. having experienced in their bodies and souls the hell of belleau, the devil dogs gained some immortality there. this ceremony and your presence today bear testimony of your unfailing attachment to the memory of your forefathers and elders who fought for this piece of ground. it has been since then part of your and our historic heritage. after the commotion of the history of the 20th century, the bonds of friendship uniting our
three great democracies are assurances for the future. in our world where the balances are uncertain, our countries know that the end of the story is not near yet, and that we have to remain vigilant. the scope of the challenges ahead of us naturally calls for a collective answer in which each nation shall take its proper place. in afghanistan yesterday, in the middle east today, or still tomorrow in the saharan strip, our soldiers fight and will keep fighting, side-by-side, to defend our values of freedom, right, and democracy. in 2018, preserving the memory of our glorious elders who died in belleau wood or in the other sectors of fight of the great war, i would like to quote the writer charles pegi, a lieutenant who died in september 1914, and read you a few lines of the poem, "eve." blessed are those who died in
the great battles, laying on the ground in front of god. blessed are those who died on a last high ground among the pomp and glory of prestigious funerals. mother, here are your sons and their huge army. let them not be judged on their sole misery. may god place with them some of this soil that made them lose so much and that they so much loved. >> lieutenant general carson jacobson, commander of the field army and deputy chief of the german army, will now present his memorial address.
>> translator: excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, allow me to say a few words in french. we are today on a world war i battlefield, 100 years after one of its bloodiest combats, a battle that is represented a radical change in the fortunes of war, especially after the big german offensive and more than 150 days before the armistice. if you allow me, i will now switch to english. >> ladies and gentlemen, military cemeteries are like an open history book. whenever you walk through the rows of graves, read the names of the fallen and the dates that are marked in their young lives, the tragedy of war, of every war, becomes personal. military cemeteries and memorials are places of grief, but they also teach us a lesson.
the fallen remind us the following generations of our responsibilities for peace and for the healing of wounds over their graves. emanuel kant reminded us that those who live in the memories of their loved ones are only far away and only those are dead who are forgotten. this is why we're here. today is a day to remember and a day not to forget. the horror of war and violence, of human suffering and loss, is immeasurable on every side. today, we are assembled at one of the countless tombs of the victims. belleau wood is one of the many places that stands for bravery, gallantry, heroism, cruelty, and for those who perished. we know that the battle started on june 1st and ended on june 26th, 1918, when the forest finally fell to the u.s. marines.
young, brave, but often unexperienced dough boys, mainly u.s. marines, attacked against war weary but experienced and well prepared german troops. the fight that followed was tough, aggressive, and intensive, and only too often it was fought at close quarters. after more than three weeks, the american losses amounted to about 1,800. the u.s. marines got called the devil dogs after belleau wood. that alone gives us an idea of the character of the fight. we still don't know the german losses, but 1,600 prisoners were taken, a very high price for a small piece of land. today, 100 years after those bloody days and the turn of war, the fallen are no longer representing a uniform, a religion, a nationality, and origin. many of the fallen americans were immigrants or sons of immigrants of france, britain,
and germany. today, and to us, they are victims that we have come to remember. history teaches us a lesson. we need to stand together today, side-by-side, to deal with the challenges of our days. friendship and partnership are the carrying pillars of europe and our transatlantic alliance that goes for matters of state but also for our very personal relation and contacts on a daily basis. it is, therefore, an honor for me to stand here today and to speak to you. ladies and gentlemen, the first world war is rightfully called the great catastrophe of the 20th century. millions fell victim to it, soldiers and citizens, and the inability of the survivors to find a lasting peace led to an even greater disaster. the graves of those who rest around us here today must therefore not only remind us of the horrors of war but call for us to do everything in our power
to avoid more war and violence in future. we bow our heads to all our fallen. thank you for allowing me to speak to you. [ speaking foreign language ] >> translator: german comrades, a cordial thank you for your ties with our friends and allied comrades. we honor our dead, our grandfathers, and comrades. >> general robert b. neller, commandant of the united states marine corps, will now present his memorial address. [ speaking foreign language ] >> it's been 100 years since
this countryside saw war firsthand. with machine gunfire, artillery, mortar rounds exploding, the use of chemical weapons, the many wounded and the dead. it's been 100 years since the third battalion fifth marine battalion commanding officer said in his report to higher headquarters, belleau wood now u.s. marine corps entirely. today, we are performing our duty to uphold the legacy of those that we honor here today, their tenacity and their fighting spirit of those who came before. few places on this earth mean as much to u.s. marines, and few battles bond marines even today so tightly to our history as belleau wood.
as you look over the beautiful countryside today, it's hard to imagine the death, the destruction, the violence that occurred in a 20-day period over a century ago. more than 2,000 marines and u.s. soldiers lie here. along with french and german, who gave their lives on these grounds. to our french allies, before the united states was ever formed, you were the first to come to our aid in our fight for independence. since then, our nations have shared a long and storied history as allies, and today, u.s. marines are committed to strengthening those bonds today. to the local communities that help keep the history of this battle alive and welcome us and host us here every year, my most
sincere thanks. to our german allies today, more than a century ago, the battle lines were drawn, sides fwere taken, you on one side, the united states, england, and france on the other, but today, in our formation, we see how things have changed. u.s. marines, french army, german army, standing side-by-side. once foes, we have all embraced our common values of democracy, rule of law, and freedom, so we stand not just together today to commemorate a battle that took place 100 years ago, but we stand as allies where tomorrow when conflicts against common enemies, those who would reject all that we hold sacred and are willing to die for. to the u.s. forces here today, marines, army, navy, air force,
when you go back to your unit, tell your peers, your friends, your commanders, your ncos, what you leonaarned about this battl. tell them about the discipline, the spirit, the skill, the fitness of those who fought here and the undying spirit to never been defeated, because that's what it takes to be victorious on any battlefield. and use that knowledge to prepare yourself for the next fight. when we choose to serve, for whoever nation we serve, we sign a blank check to that country. the gravestones here are markers of those who paid that price in full. they did their duty. and they expect us to do ours when it's our turn, to ensure that their sacrifice is never
forgotten. so may we all take courage from the example of those who fought for this ground a century ago, the courage that kmecompels us stand up for what is right and to fight for each other, and may we remain lasting allies. and as the u.s. marines, we remain semper fidelis. god bless. >> ladies and gentlemen, we will now proceed with the wreath laying ceremony. the first three wreaths will be laid one at a time. [ speaking foreign language ]
>> mr. edwin felton, vice chairman of the world war 1 centennial commission in the name of the world war i centennial commission. mr. steve arnold, manager and in the name of the commonwealth war graves commission. [ speaking foreign language ] [ speaking foreign language ] [ speaking foreign language ]
[ speaking foreign language ] >> lieutenant colonel retired eddie in the name of the national defense transportation association. mr. aves thompson in the name of the 2nd infantry division association. captain retired monica stoy in the name of the society of the 3rd infantry division. miss tisha carter in the name of the veterans of foreign wars, post 605, paris. master gunnery sergeant,
♪ ♪ ♪ what so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? ♪ ♪ whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight ♪ ♪ o'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? ♪ ♪ and the rockets' red glare the bombs bursting in air ♪ ♪ gave proof through the night that our flag was still there ♪
coming up, how america joined the war and the consequences of that decision. that's followed by war reenactor at an annual living history event in pennsylvania. we talk to those portraying american dough boys as well as french and german world war i soldiers. today's programs, can you see them again tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span3. you can find our american history tv programs any time online at c-span's video library, c-span.org, american history tv week days continues until labor day. monday, a look at how the conspiracy theory culture developed in the u.s. tuesday, life & presidency of andrew jackson. wednesday, historical interpretations of reconstruction after the civil war. thursday, the history of the vietnam war and operation rolling thunder which is the same name as the annual veterans
memorial day motorcycle ride. this weekend on american history tv during real america, our weekly look at historical films, the 1943 war department film "why we fight: divide & conquer" explaining the causes of world war ii. reel america. >> and saturday night at 11:00 eastern, historian rachael explains the psychological trauma and the lessons the psychiatrists learned at the time. sunday, desegregation the u.s. military. author ron james and retired colonel normajean bradford talk about the executive order desegregating the u.s. military and its impact on
african-americans. that's sunday evening at 6:30 and 10:30 eastern on american history tv, every weekend here on c-span3. even my members resistance to me but finally there is acceptance of me and they did. they did. you know i wasn't on that drafting committee only because i was a ranking member. i was on there also i made a contribution. also the acceptance of me as their equal and many of them as their superior allowed me to know that i can negotiate with the best of them. >> in the weeks ahead we'll hear from helen bentley, nancy johnson and lynn woolsey.
watch oral histories sunday at 10:00 a.m. eastern on american history tv on c-span3. u.s. involvement in world war i started 100 years ago in the spring and summer 1918 american soldiers and marines saw their first major combat in northeastern france along the western front. more than 10,000 americans died, were wounded or went missing in the area. next, from memorial day edward lendel, author of "americans and flames." first, we visit the american gd and flames." first, we visit the american eld flames." first, we visit the american el flames." first, we visit the american ged flames." first, we visit the american cemetery to hear about the resting place of many of the american soldiers who lost their lives in f