tv New Books on World War I CSPAN October 27, 2018 5:00pm-6:01pm EDT
american lives. it cost $2 trillion, and i write , and i don't think this judgment will change, that it was one of the biggest strategic lenders in american history. >> james mann, sunday night at "q&a." tern on c-span's >> this year marks the centennial of the end of world war i. next on american history tv, three authors discuss their new books. we will hear about personal tank warfare, the experience of p.o.w.'s on the lesser-known eastern front, and about world war i memorials in france built to remember the american soldiers. the association of the united dates army organized this one-hour event. >> thanks again for coming. our focus this year -- and, by
the way, i've read all the books and they are really good. anyn't necessarily have more time, but i love to read history. our crop this year is really great. .e have some special attendees we have some former authors that have been with us before. some of you have heard the story before. we are focused on world war i, but the fact of the matter is gerald trafford, when he was in the army air corps is actually the individual that launched d-day. nobody has written a book about
this yet. he was stationed in greenland as a young army weatherman in the army, and his job every day was the balloons up to go across the atlantic and it was the balloon he sent up on that particular day that went over, eisenhower's by weatherman, and eisenhower issued those famous reports after the weather report, which was not channel seven or channel four, "let's go." that's your piece of history. for our group, let's go. tothank you for inviting me this book for him. good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. i would like to provide you a brief overview of what persian's pershing's pershing's tankers .
i will then be happy to answer any questions you may have. please. the u.s. army established the tank corps in 1918 to help break warfare.ock of trench the army organized the tank corps with components in the united states and france with british and french cooperation. as plans got under way to train, man, and equip italians, tank or battalions in the american expeditionary forces were initially equipped with british and french tanks to conduct combat operations. only three of these battalions participated in combat operations during the war. other battalions in france were being trained and equipped for lasttions, expected to into 1919, but the war ended unexpectedly on november 11, 1918, before they were ready to be deployed. battalion, equipped
with heavy tanks like the one depicted in the book cover top photo, and the 34043 45th tank the 344th and 345th tank battalion saw limited toion from september 12 november 1, 1918. next slide please. the three hundred first tank battalion supported british in the san quittance sector of the hundred berg line and threeree 44th 45th battalion supported american operations and the same mihiel and muse meuse-aoffenses -- rgonne offenses.
in order was issued to every tank officer in france to record their experiences. the narratives were to be no longer than 1000 words containing all possible local color and human interest and written in the second person to provide a vivid interesting story, not a report. next slide please. it is unclear how many officers memo since alle the original records no longer exist in the national archives. what we do know is that some time after the memo war, the tak school at fort george g mead maryland printed a compilation of extracts from personal reports of tank officers in the world war that contains a selection of 35 personal accounts. later, some additional accounts in the papers of general george s patton, junior, at the library of congress and
washington, d.c. and the papers of joseph byner and the u.s. army armor school at fort benning, georgia. they held positions of authority in the tank corps headquarters. several infantry officers who served in the tank corps during the war also wrote about their personal experiences and papers to their infantry advanced course at fort benning, georgia, in the late 1920's and early 1930's. next slide please. i first became aware of the fort meade reports when i began my career as a deputy field artillery branch historian in the early 1990's. at that time, the fort sill library was one of the best libraries in the army. when i started my career in the early 1990's, i started a file copy of the personal accounted
reports, and i said that these are pretty interesting and somebody someday should get these published. that was in the early 1990's. i had several book priorities and publications before this, so probably about six or seven years ago when i was getting the project dusted off and working on, over the next year or two after that, i had the good in the of living here area. there were about a dozen or so of these personal experience reports, and i was troubled because several of these were not file copies. they were originals. as a trained historian of the army, i said that was securely or. the original should have been retired with the records. what are they doing with general patton's papers echo
the reason i went there was 35 bound volumes had one of its reports attributed to one officer in the exact same report was in the patent papers attributed to a different officer. so i said this is easy, i can figure out who wrote this report. i will go to the national archives and look at the official original copies and see which officer wrote the original report. -- i wastell you what dumbfounded when i went to the national archives and found out that there were no personnel extract -- reports whatever. they were gone. they were never retired to the national archives. so that copy, a field artillery installation, may be the only copy in this hemisphere of these
reports because nobody has ever seen or heard of them in any of the scholarship or researchers that have done any work on tank operations in world war i. so this was quite a revelation. in the process of putting these and the colonel in the headquarters of the aef tank corps, he had some copies in his official papers so the book that i put together is a mostlyp shopping of personal experience reports. there are a few reports of senior commanders, but this is the first time pretty much since 1919 if you wanted to find all these things in one place to read them, this is it. sources no other book or that has it, and they are not
where they should be in the national archives, which is a great loss to the history of the u.s. army because there were hundreds of officers in the u.s. tank corps, and we have no idea where these officers are and what happened to them. the fact that george patton had several of these reports in his papers clearly indicate that he kept these originals, which he should have never done. with that said -- next slide please. i would like to just go over why the book is significant for a few reasons. ago,said a few seconds this is the first time since world war i that 48 of these official personal experience reports are available in one volume. they give the reader a birds eye view of what it was like serving in the adf tank corps.
ofame in contact with some the reports some of the officers did, and, frankly, they were not ready to be included in this book because these officers did not actually participate in any kind of combat operations at all. several of these reports, the officers were getting mobilized, .rained, or shipped over europe the book was kind of limited by the publisher in size and scope that one or two reports that i had that i wanted to include would make the list too long, so i'm happy to say i picked the best and most significant ones. along those lines, there were three tank battalions that served in combat operations. the 301st that served with the british, their battalion commander was wounded late in the war, so he never wrote a personal experience report.
his name was major roger major harrison, as an infantry officer in the late 1920's, early 1930's, when he went to the infantry officer advanced course at fort benning, wrote an extensive report from his perspective as the commander of the 301st. that is included in his volume. it is different than the size thescope of the reports general asked for, as you can this was anause infantry officer advanced course . i was happy that was available to fill an important hole from some of the senior leaders of the tank corps in world war i. in addition to official reports, there are 23 unofficial accounts that appeared in newspaper magazine articles at the time now available due to
digitization of online resources. several years ago before the internet opened up all these wonderful resources, you would never know these articles even existed. small-town newspapers that nowadays if you know what site to go to or where to go and you just have the right keyword search, it pops up. this is a tremendous advancement of our times, the ability to make these additional reports available. they are unofficial because they a commercialfor publication or newspaper article, versus official ones written for the army. the official reports were never intended for civilian eyes to see. ,hese were for the army's use so the reports that make up the bulk of this book are the official reports. i have edited all of them because when these young officers -- primarily young officers -- were writing these things, their spelling of french
towns and places was deplorable, so i had to make sure we could raise the level on the editing to get the correct names and nomenclature of what they are referring to, and that was a task, but that is real value added in this book. in addition, i've included several personal letters to george patton, who began his armor career at this time, wrote to his wife and father, which provide insight into his thinking about service with the tank war. one of these lentils -- one of these letters is highly .ontroversial george patton earned a distinguished service cross in world war i. a commander on foot. had some of his tanks off on the right flank, and there was some infantry men being tied down by german machine gun fire. were dead, and george patton with his small, immediate staff about him, tried to get these infantrymen to
advance against this german machine gun. they would not do it. he went on to get a machine gun , and his attempts to discharge a machine gun got him and he wrote his wife after the event that i think i killed an american soldier this morning. he would not advance and i had to whack him over the head with a shovel. that incident if it had ever been reported to the chain of command probably would have resulted in a court-martial. finally, of all the books written about world war i, there is no other book that has been written that provides the depth and breadth as beijing's -- pershing's tankers. if you are all interested in what life was like for the tank corps, you will want to consider adding this book to your personal library or recommending it to a friend or colleague who is interested in the subject, and i will be happy to field any questions. thank you. >> thank you.
[applause] move acrossing to the front to look at it from a different perspective. >> thank you. good afternoon. traditionally, research on the first world war has focused on the stalemate on the western front with less attention given to the very different conflict in the east. current research on the first world war and its eastern front, however, has brought forth new voices, many from former east block areas. the forgotten front, this book you are seeing right there, the war in the east 1914-1915, as a unique contribution to this growing discourse. it is a collected volume of historical writing that brings together 22 academic authors from austria, britain, germany, poland, russia, switzerland, and
the u.s. it is my pleasure to be here today to represent the book's who unfortunately could not attend today. ausa forike to thank the opportunity to translate into english. you pk and aat superb copy editor. title ofect to the this panel, the united states and the road to armistice, as we know, america had no boots on the ground in the eastern front. when the russians were no longer in the war, germany moved 50 divisions to the western front. their concern over the
continuing arrival of large numbers of troops from the american expeditionary force into france hastened the conduct of the german offensive of 1918, which ultimately broke the back of the german army. as a result of the western allies' experience on the western front in the war, what seared into our collective memory is the static war, the horrific trench warfare. in thisthe writings volume testify, the mobile war between russia and the central powers of germany and austria until its end914 was at least as horrendous, at least as deadly, and arguably had an even greater role in shaping the world history in the 20th century and beyond. it saw the dissolution of four empires -- the german, austro-hungarian, ottoman, the russians, and the unleashing of the worldwide communist movement.
this speaks powerfully for the importance of deep research into the many layered aspects of culture and events of the war in the east. the articles in this volume are divided into three basic themes, the first dealing with political at theitary issues outset of the first world war. this first section opens with a discussion by oxford historians on the historical background and context of the first world war. further articles provide not ast a campaign history, but solid grounding on the operational perspective beginning with the outbreak of discussioncluding a of the leaders, tensions between the german high command and the german military commander of the leaders, tensions between the german high command and the german military , the pressures effaced
from its partners, and the long-term impact of germany's .ccupation regime in poland also found here is a discussion of the multi-ethnic key, the challenges of leading multicultural and multilingual in wars, differences aims between germany and austria brutality ofthe the offensive. one chapter is devoted to the war as depicted in works of literature. another chapter discusses a .ell-known novel further, an american scholar offers a close look at life with his combination and track connie
in law and its civilizing life with a look at lawcombination of draconian and its civilizing mission. another chapter discusses prisoners of war on the eastern front, which, more so than in the west, was a mass phenomenon with a range of living conditions, while in some instances, international pressure brought relief. there still remained extreme use ofons such as prisoners for forced labor and discriminatory policies aced on nationality, all in violation of international law of the period. a further article discusses how each side regarded its aspect of enemy and how this was influenced by various ideologies or social groups. and russia, the figure of kaiser
wilhelm became a symbol for reveredand was widely and caricatured. in germany, the slavic enemy was viewed as lazy and regenerate. the british and french were perceived as more civilized and as such, more equal opponents. once on russian soil, german soldiers faced boundless expenses and unimaginable bricks mix oficities -- ethnicities, and primitive living conditions. there was the sense of needing to protect one's own against what was perceived as chaos. this also speaks to a larger issue treated in a later chapter that is tracing possible continuities between the eastern front of the first world war to that of the second. as is emphasized more than once in these chapters, however, germany's aim from the eastern front of the first world war was distinctly different from those of the second. this was not intended as a war
of annihilation. the third and final section deals with remembrances and memorials of the war in the east and of the first world war in general. in russia, as one author notes, the memory of the war with germany and its losses in that war were all but obliterated amid the russian revolution and civil strife that continued until 1922. as an example, author christine janik a discusses the brothers and soldiers cemetery in moscow whose varying state of repair or disrepair mirrors the ever-changing political beliefs in today's russia concerning what in russia is called the war of imperialism. the most poignant chapter for me, having been a military spouse and having experienced lossesy deployment and from the perspective of the home front had to do with the process for selection and burial of
unknown soldiers and france, britain, italy, and the u.s. these ceremonies provided a focal point where nations were able to honor their fallen publicly and together as a people. this contrasted with the lands in the east and in germany where citizens turned inward and grieved more privately and in isolation. for students and scholars, this material offers an expanded horizon of information beyond what may be commonly found in the first world war. it taps into modern research methods and uses personal histories, then personal narratives. it provides a wealth, perspective, and new avenues for investigation. as the writings such forgotten front become available, we are able to expand our notions of the war in the east and more fully understand on the later seismic
century. the 20th thank you. >> well, thank you very much. [applause] my reading of the book generated an amazing amount of interest c. thank you. >> well, thank you very much. to that side of the war and practices that i had no idea. so it was very well. we are now going to move to what i call a little bit of america, sort of paraphrasing what the british talked about with their overseas cemeteries. if you have not been to one of our cemeteries overseas -- and i have been fortunate enough to travel to a large number of them both in the pacific area and the european areas, this next work is a wonderful historical piece and an eye-opener of secret for families and soldiers
that are really a little bit america to paraphrase for famils that are what the british used in their missions. >> thank you. i want to thank all you ladies and general and for turning out for this panel and also express my appreciation to joe craig, roger cirillo with the ausa book program and all the good fellows at the university of kentucky press as well. i'm a first-time author, probably a last time out there as well, but very excited for this book and happy about this opportunity to talk about it -- asbably a last time author well. some of you may be aware that war and remembrance has already been taken as a book title. the novel "the winds "war andalled remembrance," but i propose this title because i thought it ,uited the content of the book i learned apparently book titles cannot be copyrighted, so there
we are. i wanted to say something about theabm see first off -- agencyrst off, what the is, what its mission is. the agency, of course, is charged with the mission of first building and now maintaining and preserving overseas cemeteries and to the soldiers who died mostly in the two world wars, although they have a larger mission than that. there are some cemeteries -- there's one cemetery in panama, for example, a cemetery in mexico with dead from the mexican war all the way back in the 1840's. and a couple of cemeteries have been recently added. one is a veterans cemetery by the old clark air force base,
and the philippines and a small cemetery just added a couple of 50 graves ofnd members of the lafayette a schedule, a world war i air unit with volunteers who fought and france, so the 26 cemeteries altogether and a couple dozen monuments, both world wars principally. warreason i titled the book and remembrance is because the agency is the result of a war -- the first world war -- when there were so many thousands of losses so far from home that we were presented for the first time in our history with an insurmountable challenge in terms of repatriating all the bodies from that war, so families were, in fact, given the choice when the first world war ended if they wanted their , the deadands soldiers repatriated or if they
would consent to have them buried permanently overseas and exact -- -- 39% to be chose to have the bodies left overseas. created toagency was administer this program of first building and then keeping the cemeteries. the same choice was given to families at the end of the second world war. new cemeteries had to the created for the dead from that remembrance is the mission now of the agency because it is dedicated to promoting the honoring and the remembrance of all the sacrifices made. really, i think we can generalize it to all the .ighting personnel the agency is committed to commemorating veterans who survived is?
i knew first of all that the story was little known, and i've been visiting these cemeteries for more than 40 years. i worked on the book for 10 years, so i've had a lot of experience meeting the personnel andseeing these sites, also, knowing that the story was so little known. i found out early in my investigation of whether this would be a good topic that no one had ever done it. i thought that is every author's dream, to come up with a topic that no one had ever really explored before. davidrts with victor hanson who has a book out called "second world wars." i owe him a great debt for
encouraging me and setting up initial contacts between me and agency. the second reason i wrote the looking for an opportunity for my entire career write a bookn to or had something to do with the first world war ever since i read barbara tuchman's book back in the late 1960's. that story is had me in its gri ps. there is an imbalance in the book of that i freely admit, it .avors the post-world war i there are chapters dealing with the second generation of that story, mainly the aftermath of world war ii, but this was a very good opportunity for me to write about the first world war. how did i do the book? slowly, i guess.
since there were no previous books written, the sources for my own effort toward exclusively archival. the national archives in college park and i mined them over the years. chairmen ofo -- 11 stars between them, and they left personal papers had libraries of congress and in lexington, virginia, so i went through those collections. i also explored archival material and the various cemeteries and the european office of the commission just outside of paris.
that material is somewhat disorganized, but i did find quite a few nuggets in there. one of the things -- the chief of staff by the agency, and mike conley is an audience, i probably should not say this in front of him -- but one of the things i would really like to do before i retire is go over to france for a couple of weeks and t instill some order into those collections. now, somewhatbut difficult to use. what were some of the discoveries? i have a few slides to show, so i will wrap up the narrative portion of my remarks in a minute and we will look at some pictures. to me, it is impossible to fully xcellence of the work is by this agency both
historically and currently w visuals from some the cemeteries and the monuments that they are responsible for preserving. one of the things i discovered was a lot of controversy at the over how of the abmc the united states government would control the erection of them orioles -- of memorials on the battlefield. i am choosing words carefully because they put their memorials on ground that they do not have legal title to, not as a fairly well-designed, and the units did not have the resources memorials. the but the government was rather slow. it took them five years to
establish the american battle n, will oncemmissio the agency was established, one of the first authorities it was given -- the creation of these memorials. i learned a lot about general sayhing's role which was to mentale had an instru and establishing work for the abmc would not come close to covering it. he devoted the last 25 years of his life to the united states and practically all of those years, he was retired from the army, but he devoted himself heart and soul to the creation of the first generation of memorials and really setting the stage for the continuation of the work of agency after he was gone. general marshall made his own contributions, but he exercised his authority as chairman with a much lighter touch than general pershing.
the copious biographies of both of these men, pershing and marshall, pay little attention to their service of the abmc. i have been happy to bring some of that to light. final area of interesting discoveries was how the monuments fared during the second world war. how did they fare during the period where the germans overran? of course, the war came back through those same areas in 1944, but with remarkably, little damage as it turned out. let's look at the slides now. this is the major world war 1 memorial. it is on the battlefield on
mount falcon, the site of the american troops took on the second day of the battle in late september 1918. is a column with a statue of liberty on top of it which is an that scene deck and is of the bloodiest battlefield of american history. over 122,000 casualties dead and theded, and it stands as bloodiest battle in american history. . ranked thesershing battles. it was held a little earlier in 1917. it is a top a hill which can be seen from miles away, and they also have commanding views from them.
pershing said he wanted these monuments to outlast time itself and be forever a memorial to the american contribution. third slide. this is the third of the big memorials that sits on a hill in france, about 37 miles east of paris. the american troops played an in stopping the the fence in 1918 which threatened to take paris. we will try to run through the rest of the slides. next, please. of one of therial first engagements of american troops. mapsof these memorials has and some effort to explain the action that occurred. next.
another one of the smaller monuments, a place in the champagne region in france. this is what the cemetery actually looks like. quite a different look from what you see in a national cemetery and united states -- in the united states. crosses and the star of david for the jewish dead. graves, our largest cemetery from either war in europe. chapel, all of the cemeteries have chapels. that is the interior of one, are awood, i believe end number of names that commemorate the missing that are on the walls of the chapel. this is a piece of privately donated artwork in the cemetery. but it was
donated by the daughter of james g blaine who was the republican nominee in 1884. you try to keep the statue out but when he realized who had donated it, he changed his mind. this is the cambridge cemetery and i will probably end as time is running out, but you can see a bit of the different wise between a world war i and world war ii cemetery, but this is one of the two cemeteries in england. e, more thanther 5000 names on the wall of the missing because the bulk of these guys were fliers and a lot of them never made it back. thank you very much. [applause] >> well, that's great.
it is really touching to visit on both sides of the continent. both in the pacific and atlantic, and to do family research. they are all sacred places. so, joe, you what's do questions now are at the end? ok, questions from the audience. we will pass the mic around. sayingyou started off by you could not determine who wrote the report. i may be pulling this out of context. who did? >> no, how many women. all we have is the reports i found was a small percentage of the officers. [indiscernible] you said you figure that out,
how did you figure that? larry: i had some help from patrick osborne who is an archivist who is writing a book about tank operations world war i. we determined which of the officers was the actual person who wrote the report. so, i think that answers your question. was there another part? >> unless he has a follow-up. i am the eastern theater, putting you on the spot. >> you are talking to me? >> yes. >> oh, i am sorry. what was the question? >> how did the translator work? >> the hard way. with copies, notes, computer screen, and chocolate. [laughter] >> and page by page?
>> page by page, yes. >> no dictionaries sitting on the desktop like i had in college? >> i have glossaries all over my study. people give them to me for presents. fascinating. is ing session, we will get back to the eastern front. was athrough the book, it geography lesson and a history lesson because most americans do not pay any attention to the eastern front. if you were a bad soldier, that is where you are sent. >> thank you for your comments and for reading the book. it is a tough read, i think. >> if i can ride a bit, my wife read it before i did. [laughter] >> thank you. >> yes. [indiscernible]
>> mr. khan are, you said the cemeteries in europe did not get damaged during world war ii. was that intentional or happenstance? >> it was intentional. there is no evidence at all that the germans carried any kind of systematic vandalism. certainly not of the graves. when the germans moved into the cemetery sites in the spring of 1940, they often ransacked the buildings where there were gasoline, supplies that they might find useful for their own military purposes. they intended to take over the ent's quarters, that kind of thing. there is one very funny story about 20 or 30 german soldiers signing the guestbook at a
cemetery, but there was damage the, very limited in initial fighting in 1940. a shell hit the chapel at bella wood. you will see the market that was left and the chapel was deliberately left that way. general marshall about a good idea to leave some sign of the first war. even after the second was over. instance ofright vandalism that i saw any evidence of was against some jewish headstones, but the minute the german commandant found out about it, he put a stop to it. there is good reason to believe it was actually american tank shells that damage the monument
as well, but the germans were there in 1944 when we were liberating france, so he fired at the monument to get them off the hill, and the damage had to be repaired. it was a remarkable story. general pershing turned 84 years old at walter reed hospital in september of 1944. general eisenhower who had in thewith the abmc 1920's, i actually read the letter of recommendation that general pershing wrote for eisenhower in the late 1920's, but he sent a telegram to pershing on his birthday that, you might like to know that i sent officers out to inspect all of the cemeteries and they made it through with remarkably good shape. yes, question.
carl smith. i was at gettysburg and took an interest and tour of the park service with the camp set up in spring 1918 to train tankers. the story was that captain eisenhower was diverted from his ship going to france to set up that camp to train tankers. he started from nothing, eventually ended up with one, old french tanks to train on. the that have any impact on the tank corp? >> the short answer is no. i focused exclusively on aef because they were tasked to do these personal experience reports. insuch tasking for tankers the continental united states to do anything based on their experiences and what they did. that is why my focus stayed on
the aef and did not bring in people who would later earn a claim such as eisenhower. the that answer your question? -- does that answer your question? feeljust wonder did they that they had to train them on the job? >> oh, yeah. absolutely. i am sorry i missed that point. what was going on for training in america was pretty much disconnected to training in the aef. tasked his first officer to join the tank corps and start setting up training. he was a captain on general within as staff and year, he was a temporary colonel.
he deserves a lot of credit to which was dealt with in personal expense reports about how patton helped things get mobilized for training, but they were at greater disadvantages in europe trying to get literature translated from the french to figure out what kind of tactic they should follow and even getting equipment. they were at a much greater this advantage in the continental united states because they do not have the equipment they were going to be using in europe and they certainly may have been translating french manuals and the doctrine on their own, but they were doing it independent of what the aef was doing. i do not know that answers your question. >> other comments or questions? >> i have two questions. your discussion of tankers.
interesting, up in touristrg, there is a and you get some of the guys up charge, andking made it very difficult, but eisenhower's tanks, he did most all of the training. it was done in the states at gettysburg. he talked to some of the natives up there and i will even show you where the eisenhowers lived in world war i. that was my first point. >> i did not of the story about the tanks and the training, and certainly deserves a book and its own right of what the tankers were doing. >> he was a very prolific guy. he did not miss much. had toer question i had
do with the cemeteries and so forth. id who retired and somehow got caught up in burials in europe. army executedtes 99 soldiers in one or two. -- in world war ii. only one was done by firing squad, and they wrote a book on the execution of slovik. is in the book and it is called, it will come to me -- not "the -- it was the somet
hing. what it was is this fella went around and took a look at the nine executions to see what happened to them because one the general made a touching speech at the cemetery when they opened the much, he regretted very that these people were alive when they were killed in close proximity. he came across this and found out there were 89 executions and done a lot ofhad the study on any of this stuff. book and ity of the was absolutely fascinating.
them [indiscernible] and there was a story of the whole battalion of black hungers in sicily was because of all the rapes in sicily and that was proved. there were a couple of studies s weret, i think the id involved. the title and are doing -- the title intrigued me. it is the only battalion in the army that is had its antecedents in the revolution and allison or hamilton was the battling commander. -- alexander hamilton was the battling commander. ont is the only outfit
active duty that has been on active duty all of these years. there was one other comment i wanted to make on that business. author, have you ever thought about doing the book on the pacific? common people did we execute in -- how many people did we execute in the pacific, and he said, gee, i thought about that, but my wife will not let me. [laughter] some of this stuff is really an and that is one is youinteresting points go to one of the world war i the chief, and behind caretakers and there is a break wherees and behind that
they have transferred all of the bodies from sicily and italy and so forth, there is no identification except all small plaque with a serial number. that is all. kin workhe next of queried as to whether or not the relatives brought back whether they were in this category and they did not ask to do that, so that is why they are still over here. >> that particular plot is that at law's aim cemetery -- is the wazane cemetery. decided that is what they would do with those said,, the entry in 1950 we will create this plot, but we
do not want any knowledge of it to get out. i think that is loosening now. my first visit there was 2010. i do not think visitors will ever be encouraged or even allowed, but on limited basis, the people who are responsible for maintaining the cemetery know that one is serious about wishing to see it, and they will show it to you. >> yes. >> hi, chuck from air force. question and a comment. if you go to the german cemeteries, near bella wood, we found some oddly placed german jewish headstones that
were put back after world war ii in not places. de found some very oddly place jewish headstones from the german army in world war i that are just not in the row with the rest of them. something to think about. typhus againstut napoleon's army, are there any accounts of the role that typ hus could have played against the other armies in world war i? that is the only mention i remember offhand, but it was not insignificant, i will say. thank you. >> one final question and then we are -- eating into the next panel's time. >> for all of the battalions in
the aef, most personnel and national army? >> i am hesitating because i am not positive. i believe so. there were three combat battalions that participated in operations, but there were many other battalions being the -- being trained and equipped that did not do service. i have to hesitate and say i am not positive. the number would it seem to indicate they were national army, but then you had a few regular army commanders. deal with the explanation somewhere in my book, but i do not remember. the numbers designate the 300 series numbers for the battalions. designatedhey were as national, but i am not positive. i would have to check that. >> i would like to thank the panel. [applause]
certainly generated interest and good reports. -- get your gun, gun, get your gun take it on the run mrs. kramer: -- >> this year marks the centennial of world war i which ended in 1918. american history tv will devote 48 hours the weekend of november ofand november 11 with tours battle fields, interviews with reenactors, archival films, and discussions with historians. the centennial of world war i, all weekend november 10 and 11 here on american history tv. the drums tumbling everywhere ♪ war,xt on the civil
nursing a story and amelia grabowski talked about clara barton's experience as a field nurse at the 1862 battle of antietam. ms. grabowski argued that barton learned valuable lessons that she later applied when working with the european red cross, an experience that lead her to create the american red cross. this 45 minute talk was part of a conference on the battle of antietam that took place at shepherd university. >> great to see so many of you out here with albeit soggy conditions outside. shepherdprovost at university and my most frequent question is what in the world is i'd like to say the chief academic officer or breaking it down for the students, the boss of the faculty or by default, whatever the president would like for me to do. on behalf of the president, i would like to welcome you to shepherd