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tv   The Civil War Clara Barton the Battle of Antietam  CSPAN  October 27, 2018 6:00pm-6:49pm EDT

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war, nursing a story and amelia grabowski talked about clara barton's experience as a field nurse at the 1862 battle of antietam. ms. grabowski argued that barton learned valuable lessons that she later applied when working with the european red cross, an experience that lead her to create the american red cross. this 45 minute talk was part of a conference on the battle of antietam that took place at shepherd university. >> great to see so many of you out here with albeit soggy conditions outside. shepherdprovost at university and my most frequent question is what in the world is i'd like to say the chief academic officer or breaking it down for the students, the boss of the faculty or by default, whatever the president would like for me to do. on behalf of the president, i would like to welcome you to shepherd university, west
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virginia's public liberal arts institution. homee so proud to be the of so many important centers including the george tyler moore center for the study of the c byrdar and the robert center for the congressional history and education where today's events are being held. at shepherd university, we pride ourselves on partnership that benefit our students, faculty and staff, and the communities we serve. i have already done a little business this morning talking about expanded internship activities that some of the organizations that are students are currently serving. if you have the need for an intern, whatever field, look me up. this morning is no exception in those partnerships as we celebrate the events for our daylong seminar, a collaboration between shepherd university
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. develop andnered to sponsor and recognize this important event which reflects our shared commitment to education and public programming in our local and regional communities. the focus of today's events is remembering the violence of antietam and throughout the day, speakers will discuss the culture of commemoration, the and memorialization that grew out of the civil war and in particular, the battle of antietam. antietamdience knows, was the single bloodiest day of american history. 23,000 casualties. how did the soldiers remember the fight over time? in what ways that american society commemorate and memorialize this important event?
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today is speakers will discuss these vital questions through the interrogation of archival resources, visual, and material culture, monuments, and distort landscapes. as i loop back to opportunities, this crosses so many fields outside of just history. the digital humanities, the digitization and memorialization of these important events . is happeningo what this morning, there will be three lectures this afternoon and i have it on good report, the rain is going to let up right down the road, and you will be on the battlefield itself as well as the national cemetery. putting on these types of collaborative efforts, we are especially appreciative of funding support through the nationaly of antietam
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battlefield, shepherd university, the george tyler moore center for the study of civil war, and now, onto the main event so we can get started. we are always pleased at sheppard to see the success of our graduates and to welcome them back home. it is my pleasure to introduce keith snyder who is a graduate of shepherd university and worked for the national park service. to himworked at nt national battlefield for the last 26 years and currently serves as the chief of resource education and visitor services. [applause] [applause] keith: good morning, thank you for the introduction. thanki want to echo and shepherd university, gettysburg college, and eastern national, who helped fund this event.
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also want to give a special thank you to jennifer, where is jennifer? i think she is still working in the lobby taking names. historians insix five different locations on task to bring you this event. that is no easy task. [applause] i wish he was in the room. -- she was in the room. thought and practically every battle of the eastern seaboard, he wrote about antietam battlefield and he compared antietam to the other battlefields he had seen. what he said was that antietam surpassed all in manifested evidence of slaughter. jonathan jackson wrote, at the carnage on both sides was terrific. put more simply, sergeant thomas
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galloway from ohio who fought near the sunken road said, what we see now looks like systematic killing. he had tom childs, deal with the result of all of this carnage and he asked, who it, to see or feel that our power is in existence to against masses of men each other, slaying each other by the thousands, it is almost impossible. but it is so, and why, we cannot know. from the moment the guns of fell the soldiersietam, who fought, the families who suffered, the veterans who returned, the historians who have examined, the visitors who question -- all have tried to understand and give meaning to this event in american history. to make sense of a place that general george gordon remembered
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as, a hellish carnival. where there are four times as many american casualties as y, six times asa american casualties at pearl harbor. as we have heard, the worst single day in american history. for 166 years, people have worked to preserve, commemorate, and explore the field and farms around maryland. just in the last quarter-century that i have had the privilege of working at antietam battlefield, $100 million has been spent on your national park. 7 million people have made a decision in their lives to visit this place. disclaimer, we will not have the answers to all of these questions at the end of today. have his six
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different perspectives on the people, the events, the landscapes, and the extraordinary place as we remember antietam. our first perspective is the making of the angel of the battlefield presented by amelia grabowski. is a public historian and she has worked at a variety of historic sites including the national museum and the clara barton's missing soldier officer museum. pbs'ss appeared in visible content. she is also on the editorial aam of nursing pleo, collaborative blog about the history of medicine. she has a masters degree from brown university and an undergraduate degree from gettysburg college. please welcome amelia grabowski.
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[applause] thank you so much. that was a wonderful introduction and so nice to see you all today. start off by also thinking everyone who brought us here today. moore center and especially jennifer, who as you heard, was the angel of the seminar getting us all here. i want to thank the director of interpretation who is very helpful in putting together today's presentation. ,ne little bit of housekeeping my place of employment requires me to say that i am not here in an official capacity of a because i love civil war history.
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that is our similarity, but our difference is that she is a hero and i'm a public historian, and you will see her heroics. ado, i will get to the reason we are all here. the making of the angel of the battlefield. over the next hour, we will look , her experiences on the battlefield and how those it shaved her 50 year humanitarian career after the war which wrapped up at age 90, another thing i will not be doing. [laughter] before we begin, i'm going to take a few moments to give you barton's back story. when we talk about clara barton, she is dropped onto the hills of sharpsburg to save the day, and then disappears again until she starts the american red cross a decade later. but that is not how life works. antietam, she at
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and thea lot of living, informational be very important and that works to her benefit because her older brothers love to spoil her and think that it will come in handy for the humanitarian career. her brother falls off of the roof of the barn and she spends two years nursing him back to health. this is the sum total of her medical training before the war. young woman of the day would have been expected to help with medicine around the house, without the benefit of advil and steak well, it is a lot more difficult and 1820's than it is today. sessional medicine is not an option open to most women. professional medicine comes through the civil war through the army medical corps
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and civilian volunteers. 30's, when's and barton is looking for something to do, she does not have the options. the options available as teaching and she is a fabulous teacher. she advocates for them to have better assets to education. father whon her wants to open the school in town in the middle of the wealthy neighborhoods all of the benefactors and their children will be pleased, and she says we should move it 10 miles that way so it is equal distance between that neighborhood and where the mills are, the children of the mill workers can get to education as well. she wins. she will go on to get a post secondary degree in teaching and moved to new jersey and open the first public school system in border town. on the new jersey turnpike, there is a rest stop named after clara barton. she advocates for herself as well. she famously said, i would be
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willing to teach for nothing, but i will never do a man's work for less than a man's pay. her refusal to legend or conventions defined her will serve her well. they are not as effective in teaching. she never earnings equal work for equal pay in teaching and shemately frustrated, leaves after being passed over for a principalship, and decides she will go to washington dc. i do not know why she thinks that is a good idea, but it is, amazingly. ae gets a job as a clerk and patent office and one of the first women to work for the federal government and eight -- in a clerkship. it is a very rocky road. all that to say, that is where waris in 1861 when the
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breaks out. she will write to her brothers for not supporting lincoln and off. she is a facebook friend commenting on your political blocked i would have her in the first week of 1861 so i would have missed what happens she really gets brian to the war effort by the riot. i grew up in maryland and i thought everybody knew everything about the riot and i discover that is not the case, so forgive me. to takes place over week after the battle of fort sumter, april 1851. the regiment passing through baltimore on their way to dc, they need to switch trains. getting offis meant of one train and getting to the other track, but it does not mean that. it means getting off at the president street's station where the aquarium is today, walking the downtown where the harbor is
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to camden yards and station where the baseball stadium is today. baltimore is a confederate sympathizing city, and they are not happy with the union troops marching through, and they are greeted by confederate sympathizers. the penning on whose account you read, someone else through this first stone. are literally pulling up the cobblestones of the streets to throw at each other. rs and 12 civilians are killed. the baltimore police, and to break up the riot and they want to get the soldiers out of the town. anyone mobile enough to move is put on the train to washington. the train leaves baltimore. news makes it to washington dc before the train does and outside to seet what is going on and know the latest. barton is one of these.
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sayingcribed this moment she was indignant, excited, alarmed, and she fell into the current. she saw 40 men covered in blood and helpless born a way shelter and medical treatment. she followed and she will follow them to a makeshift infirmary that pops up at judiciary square and helps to route the night using basic medical training she had as a child to assist. she will go home, get rest, return, and many of the men who do not need medical treatment have gone to camp, camping on the floor of congress. describes as an armed city with another regiment arriving every 12 hours and they do not have anywhere to put them. you just pick a flat sur face. this regiment picks the floor of
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the congress. clara barton goes and sits in the vice president's chair and holds court. she will hear about the riot and the soldiers experience and they do not have the supplies they need to recover. they do not have sewing kits, they do not have enough food, and they do not have the cut the read to eat it with, and she thinks, this is how i can help. she'll go back to her boarding house rooms, gather what she has, go to the merchants and purchase five picnic baskets full of goods, and bring them back to the soldiers the next day. they cheer for clara barton and she thinks, this is how i can help. this idea is reinforced as her children are coming to town sharing that they do not have supplies. battlefieldeave the leaving wounded soldiers behind.
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she does what development professionals do today. she tells personal stories to people who have personal connections to what is going on. these are our boys, these are my former students, i can see what they want, and get them to them. at this and then she collects to warehouses full of supplies. it boggles my mind. is the easylies parts but getting supplies to the soldiers troops to be difficult because you need permission to do that. the better part of the year writing to every elected official she can think of and hearing no over and over again. she finally gets a meeting with the quartermaster and explained
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she has warehouses full of supplies to give to the soldiers and suddenly, life gets easier to get permission. on an a few days, she is train headed south and she will end up at a field house but all outside of cold ever, virginia and the aftermath of the battle of cedar mountain. she writes her siblings this note on her way. dear brother and sister, i leave immediately for the battlefield and i do not know when i can return. if anything happens to me, you must, and take all of my assets and julio know how to distribute them. love to all, clara. she has not been to the battlefield before, she has seen things in bc, and she goes to mansion house. she will end up at the field hospital, not on the battlefield itself, but outside where people are evacuated to. the civil war version of mash.
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she rolled up her sleeves and learns on the battlefield. she is bringing people food and drink because she does not have training. she is being called over by doctors that if a soldier is delirious or dying, she can stand in letting them believe it is their sister, mother, or wife that has come. assistants with her. one is a man, cornelius, and he will go from battlefield the battlefield with her until he has to retire. the other two women do not make it through the first battlefield experience. one glasses of exhaustion, the other hearing that fighting is getting closer and closer, leaves on a train. barton does not give up and she does not sleep for days. she proves yourself. she does not go home after this but goes to another field hospital and continues helping. this cycle of gathering
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supplies, going to battlefield, what normalnd humans can do as far as lack of sleep and bravery proves search of the army. this is going to be the first time that happens for barton, the quartermaster says to her, you are not like other women. the level of trust and unusualness sticks out to me in that they do not let her get out by herself but send army wagons to take her. she recalls this later on saying, it was a miserable night. there was a sense of impending doom. armies ofat the great 80,000 men were lying there face-to-face only waiting for the battle to begin. dawn comes, the battle begins, and from her vantage point, they can see the fighting starts and decided to aim for findone side of it to
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the field hospital. it becomes easy because they follow the wounded men to the homeouse barn, where the and barn have been turned into a field hospital. ready to workut and the doctor meets her at the door. she has met the doctor before in virginia and he remembers her and knows where presence means exclaiming, you remembered us. how did you get from virginia here and so soon? we have nothing but our own instruments. all herea bandage and shall wounded men bleeding to death. they have run through not only the supplies they had brought, but all of the linens and are using corn leaves to wrap wounds.
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barton has a wagon full of supplies and gets to work. she describes the most famous episode from her time at antietam in a lecture, and i'm going to read it to you and her words because they are much more poetic than mine. a man lying upon the ground asked for a drink. i stopped to give it to him having raised him with my right hand and holding my cup to his lips with my left when i felt the twitch at the looseleaf of my dress. the poor fellow sprang from my hands and quivering in the agony of death. cutting through to the sleeves of my dress and passing through the chest from shoulder to shoulder of his body. there was no more to be done for him. that is how close she is to the fighting. a stray bullet can puncture the sleeve of her outfit, that is the moment i would have been so out. but she does not.
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she continues staying outside of the house helping. that story as nomadic as it is, gives the picture what she did is doing and the day. she is largely bringing food and drink to the men. one of my other favorite stories, as the day goes on, they run out of food that she has brought with her. she has brought a case of wine, barton is famous for bringing food and wine. they bring it up after the war. wine, and them the when they opened the case of line, they found that the bottles have been packaged in cornmeal, so they make boozy oatmeal for the soldiers which helps sustain them. she is offering basic medical assistance on the battlefield. she has been to enough hospitals to know the turn it -- the tourniquet stops the bleeding.
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there is a soldier waiting that has a bullet lodged in his him,, and it is bothering so he hands her a pocket knife and says, can you cut this out for me. she does not record the conversation that happens between that, but she says that surgerys it her versus and says that it may not have been elegant, but the patient survived so i consider it a success. it is important enough to hurt, if you go to the clara barton house where she died, in their collection is that pocket knife. she kept it with her all her life and carried it with her in her travel. addition to performing surgery, she is providing less dramatic medical assistance holding tables still. the houses shaking and you do not want that table to be shaking if they are amputating your life, so she is holding the
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table still for the surgeon. doesn't wantt she the shaking is so intense that medical staff is hiding in corners. they are coming from primary source research -- she is her so a lotpress agent, of these things, i thought, yeah, that happened. the great thing, many of these are coming from her postwar lecture where you cannot lie because soldiers are in the audience because they will stand up and corroborate the stories. the thing i find the most astounding, the bullet in the sleeve of the dress is corroborated by the soldiers. ofre is a brief period chaos before anyone takes ownership of it to wear a couple of artifacts walk and certain accounts say they find out blouse with a bullet hole in the sleeve. that, i was not there and i
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cannot say. i do not know how you can tell a bullet hole from a moth hole, but it seems to be true. despite these stories, the biggest thing barton does is bring supplies. beginnings at the with the bandages and we see it towards the end of the day. she comes across the surgeon sitting on the porch watching the candle burned down. she says, what's wrong? are you tired. ofically, i am tired of all the suffering, i have at least a thousand men, 500 of whom cannot sunlight -- without sunlight. and barton says, look up. the barn is now illuminated with light, she has brought lanterns. thebrings, i think, for anterns -- forty l
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for the barn. the rate of operations and lives that can be saved just by having light. i always make sure to tell a lantern story. this shows a different way that she can make a difference. after the day of the battle, she continues helping at the farmhouse. she wades out to look at the battlefield and realizes that the fighting has stopped. the wounded have all been evacuated within 24 hours. she does not reflect because she have to get back to work. she is being called over to a wagon by a doctor with a soldier who will not let anyone touch them or see them. her. -- they request the soldier is not a young man but a young women named mary galloway.
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hundreds of women would enlist under male personas. mary galloway is not one of those hundred. antietam is her only conflict and she is a young girl living in frederick dating a soldier. when her boyfriend marches she borrows the uniform and decides to march along with the regiment and get a great date night n. [laughter] it does not work out well for her and she finds her self in the middle of the bloodiest single day in american history and amazingly survived with a flesh wound. the bullet has passed right here but missed anything important, and barton is able to call marylm her down, gets patched up, and go home. clara succumbs to typhoid fever six.pends a month
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-- sick. one of the churches is been converted to a hospital and a soldier who needs his arm and bit faded and will not -- when she reads the name of the soldier on the card she determines that he is not just calling out for any mary but it is a boyfriend a mary calloway. martin takes the issue in hand. blocks down the street, gets the distraught girl, walks her back down the street. and reunites the young lovers and as far as we know they live happily ever after. first reunion of missing soldiers with their loved ones but this will not be her last. -- dimon says james done returns and runs into barton.
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he writes a letter to his wife regarding her heroics. and he writes -- general mcclellan does not see the angel of the battlefield and thus the moniker was formed. is not really unique and what she is doing at this point. there are many other women gathering supplies and volunteering on the battlefield. what makes are unique in part is that she publishes about it in order to gather more supplies. appearing inare newspapers and her name is becoming a household name. this letter somehow makes its way into the local paper and then is picked up nationally. it is reprinted from the harper about a month after he writes his wife. they begin writing about it and she becomes a household name. soldiers writing home safe that they have met her -- the famous ms. martin. she continues to travel with the army, and continues the cycle of
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being helpful as -- as helpful as you can. and exhausting herself. going home, recovering, and doing it all over again. she will be at the battle of fredericksburg. of fourn the beatles wagner. and concludes the war as the head of nursing. at point of rocks hospital. she is looking for a new project as the war comes to a drop. -- as the war draws to an end. she's all the suffering of the bottle of and teed him and knows the importance of family to the soldiers. the a claim she got and will look for a project that will bring her similar claim. and the project is a missing soldiers office. today, you can visit that office and d.c. she sets up shop in her boardinghouse room on 7th street. originally, the office was founded just a help prisoners of
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war and their families reconnect. barton knows military confusion drop the work but she has never seen confusion like the prisoner of war cam. she cannot find out who is in charge to get permission. she thinks -- i can help these people find their families but once she advertises that, she is inundated with letters and drop eyes from people looking for more than just prisoners of war. hersays of the office with permission of lincoln and hires a small staff. puts a letterbox on her door and receives 63,000 requests for help to find missing soldiers. 22,000 men will be found both alive and dead. is sounds me for two reasons. at first blush, it is about a third of the number of requests. hugeis -- that leaves a number of men unfounded.
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however, it is not a small number. 22,000 is roughly the same as the estimate of the number of casualties at antietam. we know that is the bloodiest single day in american history. men through aany low-tech, small, unfunded operation is astounding. what barton and her staff do is receive a letter, write back to the family saying we received it and have added the name to the list. they are not writing a handwritten letter back. they have form letters on a press, they are that high tech everything else is done by hand. they keep the list. -- this is another way that antietam comes into her work. she is using the doctors that she worked with and the soldiers that she made the difference within the military leadership that she met to write to them and ask if they know what
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happened to a man. if she cannot find people through that, then the name makes it to the role of missing men published about once a year. this is about half of the role you are seeing on the screen. when you see them in person might first thought is the vietnam war memorial but on parchment. these are the names they have not been able to find organized by state. printed in the congressional printing press because it is the only printing press in washington with enough capital letters for all of the names. they are sent out through the congressional privilege. and they go across the country. ,hey are hung in post offices churches, court houses across the country. -- will see it reprinted reprinted in multiple languages. -- i knewht in saying so-and-so and i served with him. this is what happened. and her staff relay that
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information to the family and connect the people so they can can and you to converse. so they can continue to converse. in one case, someone said -- why is my name in the paper? i don't want my sister to know where i am. and she concludes it -- i have the honor, sir, to be clara barton. she will find 22,000 men. at the end of four years she has located about everyone she can locate. is also mentally, emotionally, and physically exhausted from four years of work on the battlefield and watch of years in the office. doctors give the prescription that i would love to get which is to go to europe and take a year of rest. she does go to europe but i don't know if she is capable of resting. she meets there with members of the international red cross. they know of her from her work on the battlefield during the
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civil war and the publications about her. she has not heard about them. they are relatively new. approached the united states during the civil war and were rebuffed. barton knows how important they could be. you can imagine how different the battle of an teedo him could be -- the battle of antietam could be. she agrees to help them. she will spend the next five years in europe with the red cross going from battlefield the battlefield applying what she learned in america during the civil war and on the battlefields like antietam. in 1873 when she returned, she will bring the idea back with her. finding the american red cross. and signing the treaty of geneva during the geneva convention. this will take her another decade to do. chester arthur signs the treaty of geneva during the international red cross and
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barton is credited as the single biggest reason why. so much so that when wonder woman talks about the treaty of geneva in the 1940's, they include a cartoon about clara barton. that is how big her influences. martin's work with the american red cross does not surprise anyone and the connections to the battlefield are obvious. another connection that is less obvious as her work advocating for first aid education in the united states after the war. today, it is hard to think of first aid as something controversial. but after -- in the late 1800s, it is controversial. that civilians applying medical attention could do more harm than good. questions in great newspaper saying -- was the leg broken before you bandaged it, ma'am? she knows better. she is not afraid of a first aid kit and knows what everyone
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having that knowledge could do in terms of saving lives and making a difference. in her 80's, she found the national first aid association of america and runs it for five years. when she retires at the right young age of 90, this becomes part of the american red cross as well as we know it is part of their mission today. the last legacy of the battle of antietam and barton's civil war work is a bit more surprising than her connection to humanitarian work. it relates to women's average. bartond a lot about how wanted to break gender connections throughout her life wanting equal pay for equal work. this might lead you to believe that she wanted women's rights from the get-go. but that is not quite the case. barton does not really care about anyone else getting to do the same thing she wants to do.
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she fights for equal pay for equal work but when she employs people, there is no evidence to say that she pays her employees equally. however, her experiences on the battlefield will convince her that women suffrage is something she should fight for because the other women there are already involved in the suffrage movement especially francis. thee women will explain reasons why women suffrage is important and barton will become a staunch and lifelong advocate for it. not only do her experiences on the battlefield convince her of them tot she uses convince others as well. in 1882, she is invited to the midwest to address a group of veterans about her were experiences. when she gets there she sees this on the poster on the door. we can assure them, the audience, that there -- that they will not have thrust upon them an argument for women's
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rights. barton does not react to this well. she and her lecture includes this statement -- that paragraph, my comrades, is worse then misrepresents me, it maligns me. you clarify the women who made their way to the front to reach you at in your misery and her's you back to life. you call us angels. who opens the way for women to go and make it possible? upon this, other women claimed the right if only to go to an army camp and drag wounded men out of the trench and save them for their families and country.
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for -- gave food to famished bodies are water cure perched lips, you shall bless god for susan b anthony, francis, and their followers. that theyould say rose in a standing ovation and suddenly voted for women suffrage and women got the vote in 1882 but we do know that did not happen. throughout her lectures and in her writing and in one really bad on she publishes, it will continue to be an argument used by the women's movement and through world war i you will see postcards listing everything that women did for world war i. and all they want in return is the right to vote. this is just one way that barton's experiences on the battlefield changed her and she changed the nation for all of us. from helping to wounded soldiers to finding missing once, from
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working in a field hospital to the first aid movement, from the surgery table to the voting table, her legacy stretches long beyond the battle and continues to impact our world today. the story is so much more than the simple story about the angel on the battlefield. she has long experiences that come afterwards and she is motivated by praise. she has a width and will bite back. surfacey scratched the of her personality and experiences. lookedportantly, i have over entirely her work at andersonville which is fascinating and i encourage you to look into it. but through the lens of this one battle and its effect, we can see the legacy of the battlefield. the difference one battle can make in one person and the difference one person can make in the world. thank you for letting me share barton story and i would love to answer of your -- any of your
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questions. [applause] thank you very much. we have time for about two or three questions. >> when she was in europe, did she know or had she heard anything from florence nightingale? >> that is a great question. florence nightingale had been working on the crime here since before the civil war and it is likely that barton would've read her book. when she is in europe she lives on the same street as florence nightingale and they exchanged notes but never take the time to meet which is a polite earned. that iis known as saying am the florence nightingale of america, why does no one ever call her the clara barton of the crimea. [laughter] note, did she
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indiscernible], the founder of the red cross? >> that is a fabulous question. and i don't know the answer to it. i know that she spends time with she could have, i just don't remember. the focuses more on her work with the international red cross. but their website is fantastic. >> i was just curious on the role of the missing --i assume she was helping just the union? >> yes, only the union soldiers in the missing soldier's office.
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have mostly gone missing. what exists today, a lot of it was it -- exist because it was sent out and are in the local records. anything else is put in the attic about boarding house and is left there until the 1990's when they were going to knock it down and someone rediscovers it and saves it. we don't know every soldier that she ever helped. we know she kept the records though they were probably trashed. the mission is just union soldiers. the people on the list are union soldiers or unaffiliated with either side. office, you see a soldier's the missing list. there are not confederate soldiers -- that is not to say that she would not have written letters. she was very proud of helping confederate and union soldiers
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equally when she was a nurse. there are organizations and confederate states done state-by-state to look for missing soldiers which is more effective for how the army was organized their then the federal approach they are using in the union. >> thank you very much. we will take a short break. we have about eight minutes for restroom and we will reconvene for our next lecture. [applause] >> learn more about the people and events that shaped the civil war and reconstruction every saturday at 6:00 p.m. eastern only on american history tv here on c-span3. next on the civil war, former apligen historical director
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wilson greene talks about the 1864 battle of the crater in petersburg, virginia. unioneen outlines operations leading up to the battle including the construction of a mine under the confederate trenches. he also discusses the plant explosion of gunpowder inside the mind which formed a crater punching a hole on the confederate lines. the subsequent failed union assault included a sizable number of u.s. colored troops. this was part of the annual summer conference hosted by the gettysburg college of civil war institute. good afternoon, i am peter carmichael, director of the civil war institute europe gettysburg college and also a member of the history department. it is my pleasure this afternoon to welcome a. wilson green. a. wilson green is giving the robert l bloom lecture this afternoon. the endowment


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