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tv   American History TV Visits Pasadena California  CSPAN  March 3, 2019 1:59pm-3:26pm EST

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adopted state, and that never happened. there were rumors that every german might be a spy or a soldier in the kaiser's army and be willing to fight against their adopted country. another example of fake news is from a center of wisconsin, one of the leading pacifist, if you can believe this, a leading pacifist and leading the pacifist wing of the republican party, a senator quote fighting bob, the pacifist. and he was from wisconsin. he gave the speech i believe in st. paul, minnesota and he was basically saying the germans were not justified in seeking the lusitania in 1916 and there's a transcript of the and there was a reporter on site who wrote the whole thing down wrong and that was then listed in all the newspapers. he basically had him saying he believed the germans were justified in thinking the lusitania and this caused a national outrage. there were people turning him
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death threats, congress threatened to impeach him. it was really, really grumble. -- incredible. >> >> welcome to pasadena, located just 10 miles from los angeles. the city of 150,000 residents sits at the base of the san gabriel mountains. with help from our spectrum cable partners, in the next hour we will visit several sites around the city, including the jet propulsion laboratory, and the tournament house, where we will learn about one of pasadena 's oldest and most celebrated traditions, the pasadena tournament of roses parade.
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♪ >> pasadena is really known for the rose parade and rose bowl game. and it really established the identity for the community over the years. the parade goes all the way back to 1890. at that time it was boosterism to let the world know we had these amazing floral flowers and citrus growing in the winter amounts -- winter months in southern california when temperatures were temperate, while the rest of the country was under snow. so, over the years many people only know pasadena because they have seen the rose parade or the rose bowl game. welcome to tournament house. it is actually the wrigley mansion, purchased in 1914. but for now let's talk about where it all began. we just had our 130th rose
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parade. the first parade was january 1, 1890 and it started with the valley hunt club, which is literally three blocks down the street. and it is the oldest unit in our equestrian. it has been in everyone, quite literally. one of the interesting things about the parade is we never do 1893 itnday because in fell on a sunday, so we decided to hold the parade on the second. the story is if we do not march on the good lord's day, the good lord won't rain on our parade. but actually it was in the days when you would take your horses to church on colorado boulevard on sunday, they would be hitched up and the tournament organizers were afraid the horses would be spooked by all the noise and commotion. the parade was basically horse-drawn carriages until the early 1900s.
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then floats developed into bigger and bigger and bigger things to where we are now with floats that are 100 feet long and could go 50 feet in the air. dos is the place where we all of our planning for the parade. work in each of the rooms of the wrigley mansion. it was purchased by the wrigley's in 1914. it has 18,500 square feet, 22 rooms. it has only five bedrooms. and it has 2000 square feet of closet space. there is a long story to that. mr. and missus wrigley bought it in 1914. missus wrigley thought this was her parade. she had a chair upstairs where she watch the parade. 19ly she got very ill in the 40's and in 1950 h e died. her family decided there was no better place to put it then in the hands of the city of pasadena.
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the wrigley's gave the house to the city of pasadena with the proviso it would forever be the headquarters of the tournament of roses. at the paradeok there are three major aspects. the magnificent floral floats, the incredible marching bands that come from across the country, and we also have our equestrian. if you look at the tradition of the parade, we want to maintain that historical perspective and those components that make up our parade. when you talk about the cost, it is not cheap. it is very expensive to put on this parade. the tournament partners with the city of pasadena and we basically split the cost. we pay for half of the costs and the city pays for the other half. security is the cost that is fastest rising. a 5.5 mileecure
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parade route with other incidents going on around the world, we want to make sure it is safe for everyone coming to see it. so the costs are covered by the a float orof putting unit in the parade. we have major sponsors that we work with. and we do a lot of events throughout the year that generate revenue for the tournament and allow us to fund the parade. the parade generally has a strong economic impact for the entire region. we did a study this year that was completed for our parade last year, the 2018 parade. our direct economic impact is well over 200 million dollars. annually we are generating over 200 million dollars for the southern california region. pasadena takes a good share of that, but with other events that we do in downtown los angeles, we do some things in orange county and also throughout the region.
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we know that we really generate a lot of economic activity here for this region, at a time that is traditionally slow. traveling for the holiday season has been completed, coming up to new year's day. it is good for this region to have this kind of economic activity going on at new year's. come on up to the second floor. i want to stop first to show you this extraordinary silver trophy. it is the extraordinary trophy which was, of all things, won by a woman in 1914, 1915, and 1916, isabella coleman, who was still in business building floats when i'd earned the tournament of roses in 1977. take a look at this float which is indicative of the early floats. it is bedecked in flowers. if you look at this next float, that is the kind of change in float building that coleman
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championed. that is not that different from what we do today expect -- except they are larger, grander, and heavier. down here, all these trophies we have collected. we have two archives. one is upstairs which has all sorts of things in it. these are trophies that have been given to the tournament of found int people have their garages or addicts over time. we are on the second floor. there are five bedrooms but they look like offices. i will take you into the first bedroom, which we call the grand marshals room. meet various i committees. i think i have been here for float entries, equestrian, a small committee for parade operations. have hadok around, we a large number of grand
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marshals. now, what is interesting about it is today, the president is the one who will pick the grand marshall. best-keptof the most, secrets in the world. i have never known ahead of time who the grand marshall is going to be. we have got some dignitaries. of course we have got, the best one is the follow-up here, dr. francis, who was 1890 and six other parades. down below we have shirley temple, who was the grand marshall in 1939. she was also the grand marshall in 1989 for the 75th rose bowl 1999 when again in the theme, also picked by the president, this echoes of the century. we have had a number of dignitaries, we have had a supreme court justice. if i can find it, right here is
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earl warren. that was the last time it rained in the parade until 2006 when a grand marshall was sandra day o'connor, another sitting justice on the supreme court. we have a rule now, not written but stated, we will never again have a sitting supreme court justice as grand marshal of the parade. the firstchard nixon, of two times he was a grand marshall. this is one he was a senator. we are going to see gerald ford. somewhere buried in here is a guy named ronald reagan when he was governor of the state of california. if we look up above, we are going to see we do not always have a grand marshals. kermit the frog, mickey mouse. we had sully sullenberger, who landed the plane and saved under --people in the hudson river 128 people in the hudson river several years ago.
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we should go take a look at the queen and court room to talk about the rose queen. let's take a look at the portrait of the wall of the 2019 rose queen, the 101st for the 130th parade. this is queen louise. that is basically the way we we for to the queens, just queen and their first name, the same as a princess. the crown on her head is worth about $180,000. gazillion pearls. there.here's an example of the older crown. the one i liked the most is the one down here in the second row. the 1939 rose queen's crown. what is interesting about it, she got to take it home. because it breaks down into ns for the blouse,
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and bracelets. now we are going to go into a room which is not used at all for planning of the parade but rather for the rose court. this is a room in which the rose queen and her six princesses gather to prepare for the 150 events they have had so far this year. maybe i should tell you a little bit about how we name the rose queen. women,50 to 1000 young 17 to 21 and in the surrounding pasadena community, come in for interviews. they are fairly extensive. then we wind up with 35 and then down to seven, which we take off on a retreat and you can really tell the queen, as she is the one who bubbles to the top as the leader. i have got some interesting
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queens for you. queen, who is40 still alive and comes down for two events every year. she comes down for the coronation in november, and she comes down for the queens luncheon in december. queen, she is a 1940 has met every single one of the 101 queens. an incredible community with a lot of volunteerism. the spirir of volunteerism is huge. everything we do is at the initiation of volunteers and is facilitated by our staff. we do not have a large staff, but we have a large volunteer base because these events, everything we do around new year's are all volunteer-driven. volunteerism is
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because of the people in this committee, the kind of people who want to engage in giveback. not to sit back, but to actively participate because you get way out of the committee if you are involved in giving back as opposed to being an onlooker or bystander. i say that is one of the reasons that year in and year out we get so many people that apply. the first requirement of course is that you have to give up your new year's. so you cannot go out and party on new year's because it will not happen for the most part with our organization. you also have to be somebody that is in the spirit of public giving and involvement in community connectedness, is the best word i can call it. the interesting thing about us on the volunteer side is we take a variety of people. in the first six years, you are doing the same thing as the other volunteer. it is the ultimate equalizer. for example i have a bankruptcy
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judge, a docor, a business person, a dentist, i am a lawyer. we all roll up our sleeves and do the same stuff. you have to think there is something about this organization that entices people to want to volunteer and do that and i think it is because of what we represent. >> join us as we take you inside the gamble house. charlese was built by and henry greene for the gamble family of procter & gamble. >> there are people who come here just because someone dragged them here while visiting pasadena and are astounded by what they have seen. there are people who come here from around the world and around the country and say i have always wanted to see the gamble house and here i am, this is my
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chance. then there are people who live in similar houses around southern california who feel an affinity for the gamble house because it reminds them of the more artistic and grown-up version of what their house was inspiring to be. the craftsman movement was something that drew people who had a more bohemian instinct to them. materialsoncern for and the natural qualities of materials, with the origins of those materials are. there is a lot of landscape surrounding the house, a lot of stones and granite boulders which have washed down naturally from the hills. it is that idea that things have washed down and are being used and picked for their particular qualities to be included in the landscape of this house.
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the garden design being something that is drawn from the landscape around it. that moves up onto the terrace's and when you see the exterior of the house and this natural woodsey look at has, it is a surprise to come inside and see how refined the materials are, to see it's a lot of exotic hardwoods used in the interior of the house. that kind of continuity between the woods and the way the materials are used, the structural language the exterior of the house has, to see that reflected inside is what holds those things together. even though there is a level of refinement here, it is different from the houses that are more in the classical vein that were more popular with people in pasadena around 1910 to 1912, just before world war i. david barry gamble and his wife mary gamble were the force behind this house. they started coming to pasadena a few years earlier and it would
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stay at the maryland hotel, which was one of the big resort hotels in pasadena a lot of people would come to for the winter season. after a few years of that they decided they wanted to have a place in pasadena they could call their home for part of the year. mr. gamble was retired at that point, so he had the leisure to do that. they purchased this property in 1907 and right about that same time engaged to bring in green as architect. this house is really considered to be the most complete example of green and green's work in pasadena. they were architects who were brothers. 1869were born in 1868 and in st. louis. they had done their architectural training in boston. they gave you a choice of doing a two-year program for your program. theythey had done their architectural training in had -. they had a good deal of training
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at their high school level. they went directly into architecture school for those two years. once they got out, they interned with a number of firms in the boston area in order to get the experience that they needed to actually become architects. so, they were exposed to a lot of the shingle-style architecture was popular around boston at the time. to the greatosed houses of the east coast that were being built in the late 19th century and brought that aesthetic, some of that aesthetic and a lot of that sensibility to pasadena. the one thing we are always sticking about is that relationship between people who make things and the things that they make and the people that make them for. here, the greens, particularly charles green, had a relationship with the family where they were talking and really -- in real detail about what would be included in the house. charles green had a very hands-on way of working with the
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materials, working with the craftsman. it was the same group of craftsmen who did everything from the rough framing of the house to the finished work and also built the furniture over the following two years. charles and henry greene were kind of the leading lights of the arts and crafts movement on the west coast, to some extent, with bernard maibach in the bay area and julia morgan as well. so, they are one of just a small handful of architects who lead that movement. people knew their work around the country but most of the work was really in the pasadena area, specifically pasadena itself. into aheading neighborhood called park place. it was first developed in the 1880's. it is now called royal terrace. behind thedea architecture was making connections between the
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landscape and the houses. ideas outthe design into the landscape. this was not true of all cressman architecture but was important for green and green. they had a real interest in landscape architecture. they would do things like, there is one house herein pasadena -- here in pasadena where he designed an entire orange orchard in someone's backyard. back then there was a time when there still were orange groves in pasadena. it is something that would have been familiar from the landscape. for a domestic setting, i think that is intriguing. here you can see with the more typical houses were like around 1910. there was an interest in neoclassical architecture which really has a much more formal and very different feel from it, much less local connection
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compared to the craftsman architecture in pasadena. you can see some of these retaining walls with the mixture of the brick, that kind of misfired brick that you see. they loved to use that for landscape work. granite boulders which are very carefully children for the shapes -- chosen for the shapes. the biggest ones are at the bottom and it rises up from there to this battered profile these walls have. a really dramatic feature of what was essentially a fairly simple house. green and green came back to this house later. henry greene designed that driveway. a of these houses that kept coming back to over the course of their careers. people would invite them to come back and make changes and additions to the houses as their needs changed. , this was here charles green's sister-in-law's.
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they got to live next door to their sister. wife, her family had some money and they were able to finance the purchase of this lot and in the construction of these two houses. you can see how the retaining wall kind of lines the street here and has these garages tucked in. the houses are kind of elevated a bit. we are talking about this idea of a work of art. landscapeend from the to the property itself onto the house, then inside the house are furnishings included with the house. charles green had written an article entitled architecture is a fine art, and that tells us a lot about the way he saw house. it was not just going to be the walls heave -- he built and fill
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with beautiful things. the house itself would be a thing of beauty and would have a level of craftsmanship, a level of materials, and that relationship between who was making things and what they would produce. if we look at the hanging light fixtures in this house, it took charles green to decide what that fixture was going to look like, it took the woodworkers he was working with at the workshop to fabricate the wood parts, and it took the glassmaker they worked with to make the glass parts of the lantern itself. it was really a collaboration between the person conceiving the work and the people who were executing it in all these different media for that one object to come together. this is something that you see in room after room in the house, where there is not just someone who says go pick and make a light fixture. there is also a process of running through different
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artists to make that thing actually happen. it also goes down to smaller levels. if we look at things like the redwood in this room, this is something you do not see another houses of theirs. they are experimenting in some way to fill that space between the top of the doors and the ceiling. you see if you go from house to house how they found different solutions for that, a way to make that interesting and express something different in each house. here in the gamble house, it has a very distinctive pattern in the grain of the redwood. you can see how they have chosen that scene that is depicted in it based on what they read in the grain. in might be a grain pattern that looks like an old tree, or it might look like water or wind or something like that. and so they have let the piece of wood itself guide what will be depicted in it. the interesting thing about a
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green and green house is there is always something special that can exit particularly that commission. for us it is really the front door. the front doorn is really distinctive in terms how it spreadsd across all the different panels and the side of the screens. that glass door something special and people identify with the gamble house. thegamble family moved into house late 1909. untiley had the house 1966. it was in the family for a very long time. they really understood the value of it. collectionskept the intact and -- intact and in good condition. it was two generations of the family who lived here. the first generation built the house and lived here until their in 1923,r. gamble
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missus gamble a few years later. sister whole had a we know is angeli appeared -- aunt julia. she was in the house probably the longest of anyone. she died in 1943. in the late 40's the family was deciding what to do with the house. decided if they wanted to keep it. pasadena in the 1940's is like nothing from pasadena in 1908. the past -- it had grown so much. it had very strong businesses and institutions which had made the city more of a year-round city and not just a place he would come during the winter time to get away from the weather. the family really had some decisions to make about what would happen to the house.
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usccity, the family and have always been the ones who have had their role in shepherding the house and what actually goes on here. ns are veryadena happy with what goes on here. big goes beyond what happened during the craftsman period. i think the gamble house plays a big role in that. it has been in the public eye for 52 years. people in pasadena are very proud of going to do their business at city hall and having it be this fantastic spanish renaissance palace, essentially. and to drive through the neighborhoods and see this wonderful legacy of the trees that were planted in matching rows down the sidewalk.
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and the parks that were designed historically, and what is left of the old resort hotels, which are major landmarks around town. vista,ital green, the which is now the ninth circuit court of appeals. so, we live with these buildings in our midst, and we are really proud of them and want people to come and see them. so i think it is something that comes out of that self-consciousness that pasadena was founded with. nasa's opportunity rover explored the surface of mars for years. information gathered will be used to plan future trips to the planet. this nasa mission was carried out by engineers at the jet propulsion laboratory in pasadena. we will visit the facility to learn about its origins and the ongoing mission to better understand the universe.
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you are a place that we actually call the center of the universe. it might come across as a little egotistical, but this is the original mission control for j pl. here at jpl, jet propulsion laboratory, we explore all the solar system. we are paving the way for human exploration elsewhere in the solar system. and of course people are very proud of what we do here. i think it helps the community spirit to have a place like jpl, or caltech in your backyard. >> tell me a little more about how jet propulsion laboratory got its start here in pasadena and why is it here in pasadena. >> it is a very interesting story of something that was not planned, that fate made it happen and circumstances.
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young student named frank molina who came from texas, came out here to do his graduate work. and he got interested in rockets. something thatas the future was about. back in those days it was considered buck rogers stuff. academicsld not go to , it was considered a nice science. -- beneath science. who wask had a mentor originally from hungary. he was considered the very best at understanding aerodynamics. aviationhe era of coming on big time in the 1930's. karmen liked folks who were
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off the edge trying to do things differently. so they forged a relationship. at the same time, some non-caltech people came to caltech and said we want to build rockets, too. so they hooked up with the caltech students, and they began to build rockets. they became known as the suicide squad, because they were using a lab at caltech and they basically blew it up. .xplosions going on as a result the kicked them out of caltech. they said go somewhere where it is safe. and about six miles from caltech is the area here that was totally deserted, it was nothing. they started doing rocket
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experiments here and were the first ones. it was halloween day 1936. it did not go that well. they were basically testing the motor and it would not shoot off, but it did shoot off, not towards the sky, but down and around. they had to scramble and go running for their lives because of the danger of the rocket. 1930's, the german military became very interested in rockets. this is when the nazis came into power, they took over some of those rocket members, particularly von braun, who wound up building the saturn five which took us to the moon. he became the leader of their effort to build a rocket called the v2 in world war ii. it was used against the allies
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in the latter part of the war. when allied intelligence became aware of the fact that germany was building these rockets, please ballistic rockets, they looked around and said we need to get a rocket program going. and they turned to what was these amateurs working outside of caltech here in this area. basically in shacks. the military started giving money to caltech to start developing a rocket. the first rocket built was called private. kind of military hierarchy. it was basically seeing if we could get one off the ground. to whatre, they went was called the corporal. aboutrporal was basically completed at the end of world war ii. states was not
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really into the rocket business until after the war. braun hadt point, von come to the united states and many of his german engineers. they were put in texas for a while and an operation called operation paperclip. and literally caltech, jpl, which by that time jpl had been braun'sname, and von group worked together to take one rocket that jpl built and another he had built, and to basically go up almost a space. we almost could have gone to space with a satellite before the russians did. corporal, we did the sergeant. isthis point, basically jpl interested in the ideal of
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guided missiles for the particularnd those guided missiles were nuclear-tipped. first rockets in europe to defend the nato alliance at that point after world war ii. decided, with caltech, that we did not really want to be building weapons systems anymore. we particularly were not as interested in the missile as we were in what could go on top of the missile for science reasons. and as a result of that, we began working in the late 1950's on building a satellite. we were not supposed to really be doing that, we were kind of on our own. when the world was surprised by
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sputnik in october of 1957. >> today a new mood is in the sky. a 23 inch metal sphere placed in orbit by a russian rocket. >> eisenhower first turned to the navy for another project they were look -- working on to build a rocket and spacecraft. it blew up on the launchpad. live on national tv. great embarrassment. then the eisenhower administration turned to jpl and the army and von braun. they said, can you do it? we did it in about 60 days. because we had a satellite already. what was interesting about that to me was that the foresight to hadin that satellite actual science instruments. counter found out,
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that what surrounds the earth are these radiation belts which are checked earth from the sun and particles from the sun. that would essentially kill us. our molecular structure would break down. the very first time there was a space discovery, it was here at , in what is called the vanallen radiation belts. was aboutut life, it how precious life is here because of the way our earth and the radiation belts are arranged. the interesting also -- is thereng thing also is not nasa yet. what jpl wished to do was science discoveries.
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these were turned to a new organization called nasa. oals?had two g one was to have a human program and go to the moon, and the second was explore the solar system. we took the lead in that. >> how is the jet propulsion laboratory funded? >> we are funded essentially by nasa. the federal government. we do little defense work, too, for non-nasa work. >> how has funding changed over the years? relativelybeen steady depending on what we wish to do. if budgets go up or down we can go up or down, too.
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places, we a lot of have been very fortunate. we have shown the world what we can do. they keep coming back and asking us to do more. the interest in scientific research and even things like change in administration affect the funding that nasa receives and therefore jpl receives? >> it can. the great thing i have seen over the years is the bipartisan support for exploring space. people get it. they see the public is excited about it. they see it is popular. and they see the benefits. people to become scientists and engineers, what we do here. to our huge boost technological capability.
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we learne things that to do here, it gets filtered out through our society. it is a progression. a country like the u.s. is very important. this is one experience of that effort as well. the nation's leaders regardless of party have been very supportive. >> what are other major discoveries that have been made by the work that has been done here at the jet propulsion laboratory? first to do many things in space exploration. ,e were the first, for instance before we went to the moon as an
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american space program, before the apollo action on's did -- astronauts did, we landed to make sure it was safe. there was some concern the apollo action on smite si - -astronauts might sink and not be able to come back up. we were the first to go to venus. first planetary flyby that ever happened to understand what kind of a tortured, scorched world that wears. -- that was. we were the first flyby to orbit mars. going out into the solar system,
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we had to build an infrastructure of communications. we have something called the deep space network we sent out to go out to other spacecraft. ist was involved in that basically the ability, the kind and your cell phone, the technology in there, is out of the communication work which happened here. usedechnology is being year, year, year, and year on as a progression of this technology. the same thing in your cell phone or when you turn on your camera. digital photography was first used when we went out to see mars. so, the sort of things that we do are not just an instrument that lasts for short time, but
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some of our technology is very long -- has very long-lasting effects. >> what is the next big thing, or the next big moment that they are looking for? >> well, i have not mentioned what we do in earth science. bigink one of the very things is understanding what is happening to our planet. climate change. that's an ongoing effort tha will be so important in the days to come as we see more and more change. consistent drumbeat coming back from our missions that circle the earth. looking ahead beyond that in terms of exploring the solar 's going to2020, it be a huge year at mars. we are sending another rover to mars, launching in 2020.
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the european space agency is planning on spending a rover to mars in 2020. it's going to be getting very busy over there on mars. >> blaine, where do you see the future of the jet propulsion laboratory going, and what is next for the folks working here? we talk about going on quests. thatave questions to answer are so large, we call them quests. for instance, fundamental questions like are we alone in the universe. can we find life? can we begin to answer the questions of how the universe began? what is its destiny? ise, huge questions jpl really starting to dig into.
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we want to understand our own better planet better and what is happening to it. provideormation can we to decision-makers to make this planet a much more habitable, safe place in the years to come? forwe're paving the way human exploration elsewhere in the solar system. >> the rose parade, a long-standing to vision -- tradition in pasadena again as a way for early settlers to promote their new city and its mild winter weather to parts of the midwest and eastern u.s. the archives at the pasadena museum of history help tell the story of the city, from a winter retreat for the wealthy, to a multicultural city in the los angeles area. libraryis our research and archives.
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we are in the reading room of our research library and archives. today we have pulled a few things from our archives. a lot of photographs, some ephemera. we have a few three-dimensional objects as well. ofill tell you the story pasadena. as best as i can. a groupll started when of people in indiana, they were very tired of the really cold winters there. they decided they wanted to move to warmer weather. by dr. thomas led , with a he recruited few other people, his barry.-in-law, daniel m.
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he came to southern california to look for land with plenty of water supplies that they could colony.e and settle a so, he came to southern california and did an expensive search for this perfect piece of land. very tired and at the end of the 35 days, he finally came here, right here. and he fell in love with this place. and he found his land. so, this was in september of 1873. they wasted no time. in november the same year, they established san gabriel orange grove association. poew people came together,
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oled their money, bought land, and they immediately did cultivating land. citrus,nted grape wine, started building houses. these are very early pictures of groves,s and orange citrus groves. this area was known with many names, such as california colony sanndiana, indiana colony, gabriel orange grove grapestion, muscat, the they wanted to grow here. they wanted a really good name. so dr. elliott actually, he wanted a name which would mean crown of the valley, or key of the valley, or higher point of the valley. and he wanted that name to be
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indian. so he actually talked to people back home in indiana and he was suggested pasadena, which meant off the valley in chippewa dialect, native indians back in indiana. name, ita great perfectly describes the location, and it sounds beautiful and euphoric. so they chose that name and pasadena was born. los angeles and saint gabriel rell rolled -- railroad came to pasadena in 1885 and that made pasadena very accessible. so at this point, walter raymond, he recognized the need hotels, for tourists coming all the way from the east to escape the renters.
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thehe started building first luxury hotel in pasadena in 1883 and it was finished in 1886. that is the first raymond hotel, which unfortunately burned down in 1895 on easter. and the second was built in 1901. , many luxuryt hotels started springing up in pasadena. green,d hotel, hotel oyo, these were all luxury hotels. pasadena actually became a resort city where all the rich cominglthy people were to spend their winters here.
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of course the weather was beautiful, the climate was perfect. it was warm but not too hot. it was dry. so, it was really good weather and climate for people with any respiratory diseases. pasadena became a place where easterners and midwesterners were coming to get away from cold winters to the resorts. started falling in love with this place and they started moving here. beautifulf them built mansions on orange grove boulevard. on the groundse a one such mansions, built by matriarch artist and a very
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successful businesswoman. with influx of all this wealth, they also needed middle-class and working-class people to work in the hotel industry, or serve these rich people in their homes. so, pasadena board of trade started actively advertising pasadena, and they created beautiful brochures like these about pasadena. beautiful pasadena, california. orange groveeets, avenue in pasadena where people , and beautiful colorado street bridge, which was built in 1913.
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it was one-of-a-kind in those it.s, that had a curve in there was no other such bridge at the time. were all these resorts like the maryland hotel. also -- they were also trying to entice people to come to bass edina -- pasadena with these brochures and city guides and city tours. so, luckily, most of these early settlers of pasadena, since they were from the midwest and east, peoplef them were union and abolitionists. famous leader, his
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and also came to pasadena made the hills of pasadena other home. the early black settlers in --adena, they did not really they faced very little discrimination, and they had access to most public institutions and accommodations. which of course changed later when people from all over the u.s. and abroad started coming in. alsothe blacks in pasadena started feeling this termination and prejudice, not probably unlike anyplace in the country. jumping to the 1980's, we
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the museum actually, reached out to the black community in pasadena and created a beautiful documentary called changing rose. process, many distinguished personalities and families in the black humidity were identified and -- black community were identified and interviewed. the result was to be a full documentary and our wonderful black history collection. 1940, the population was growing. and the first black-owned hotel in pasadena. said, it wasi hotel carver, the first
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black-owned hotel. there were other businesses as well in the same building. onyx was a barbershop, servedub, which wonderful creole cuisine. the hotel was operated as a family business. operatedd his sons hotel carver. a place toks had stay when they came to pasadena. there are many success stories. important people doing important things in the community. earl grant was one of those people. he was a real estate agent, and he started family savings and loan association after he
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realized that blacks cannot get any loans from the banks. so he started this bank which was very successful. so, here are some pictures. that is the groundbreaking from the bank. and that is the building. the building was actually built architectcan-american called paul williams. he is a very successful architect. he was the first member of american institute of architects . he actually had built a lot of houses of hollywood celebrities and other important buildings like the ymca building on 20th street in los angeles. riddle.ralph he was the first police officer in pasadena. he joined the police force in
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1946. people have been trying to apply for those kind of jobs from early on, but in 1946 he became the first police officer. product of all pasadena schools, and he was very successful. and he paved a way to these kind of jobs for the rest of the black community. ralph riddle was also good -- ray with ray barklay bartlett. ray bartlett came to pasadena when he was only six months old. was aike ralph riddle, he product of all pasadena schools. he was always at the top or near the top of his class. accoladesy awards and
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throughout his career and lifetime. all four four sports, major sports when he was in junior high and high school. he continued playing baseball and football at ucla with jackie robinson. he was his childhood friend and a lifelong friend. veryartlett was a accomplished man. -- he served in the u.s. army in the second world war. when he came back from the war he joined the police force with it was note, and easy for them. it was difficult. in the police, not the public. they had difficulty with other police officers. but they pressed on and he
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served for 20 years as a police officer. then he started working with l.a. county supervisor estes deputy. -- as his deputy. and he retired as public information officer for the los angeles fire department. he won a lot of awards and accolades throughout his lifetime. he was also the grand marshall at the torment of roses, and he was representing jackie robinson , and he was given that honor because he was his best friend. there are a lot of things on other minority communities as well must tattered throughout
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our collection. one great example of that is right here. this is a story of a teenager during the second world war. , allg the second world war people of japanese ancestry were interned. fiercely thought for the rights of japanese americans during that time. he also worked to bring back esther so she could be enrolled in school and doing what any girl her age should be doing. he was successful in that endeavor. family, alongs
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with his wife and four kids, they welcomed her in their home until her own family came back to pasadena. it was very nice, she got a good reception at the school. pasadena welcomed her. there were many people who welcomed her at the college, but there were many people who .idn't like that she was there written in the press said that less than 10% of the people didn't like these actions. that speaks for the pasadenans.
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were tolerant people. i would like to read this paragraph. the complaint shows in opposition to all people of color, our chinese allies, our negro neighbors, and all people of japanese ancestry, ancestryce of race or is such a complete denial of the principal for which our american that it ise fighting not strange that practically all of these messages were anonymous. i have absolutely no sympathy for people in this country who deliberately trying to stir up race hatreds, as has been the case to some extent with a few of the statements in regard to american., a loyal
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he also tried to help them secure an apartment and to help them as much as he could. i want to emphasize that this is only a part of our collection. on all collections americans, including mexican-americans, chinese-americans, and acolle collection on that too. there are things on minority groups, which is part of our overall collection. art, culture,ry, and sciences. >> the pasadena robinson
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memorial honors jackie robinson and mack robinson. right now, we will visit the jackie robinson community center . we are at the jackie robinson community center, one of the centers that represents the robinson family. of communityt outreach that happens here. that is part of the reason we celebrate black history. with a lot of the activities, not only the activities, but some of the significant things that people in the black community have accomplished.
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by two or three of the staff. four or five community members that came together. there was a festival that took place there where they had different food vendors and different things for the children. yeare conclusion of that they started saying it would be great to do a parade in that city. the following year, they implemented strategies to start a parade. they had a lot of people who wanted to be partners with that. and got financial support were able to put together that parade. this is the longest running parade. the biggest thing that stands
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out for me is the community that we are in right now. that was my foundation and my building block. not only myself, but others in the community. areason park was a huge when we were growing up that can us the hope that you obtain things. you can be something better. the businesses in this area, that is primarily where the black resources and things were. this was the caretaker, if you will, of me and others within the city.
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it was where you went. it was who you were a part of. majority ofre the blacks lived in the northwest area. the black history celebration means respect, leadership, celebration, it means bringing people together, of diverse backgrounds. -- all of the stuff that has been done, and all the development that has been done, we have played a significant part in that development. making sure that everybody understands that and everybody wants to come together to be part of the great resources within the city.
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. my district encompasses the foot of the san gabriel -- send gabriel mountains. they are a national monument. they are the jewel of los angeles county. huntington gardens. this is the library with the -- theecious treasures copies of the canterbury tales. i have to tell you that it reflects diversity. it has the most authentic chinese garden in the united states. they painstakingly brought pieces of garden from china and
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re-created it right here in the san gabriel valley. this is a sight to behold. if you want to think you are walking in the garden in china, go to the san gabriel valley. there is also the jpl. you can call and get a tour. this is the site of the most amazing launches in the world. they are the ones responsible for the mars curiosity rover in 2012 that ended up being 350 --d here and flew 350 million miles to mars. [cheering] rover like ad a little jeep driving around on mars. every time they had a launch , where they
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successfully land those instruments, people from around the world tune in. --a new inspire age generation of scientists. talking about how this district is known, all the time, when i'm talking to my fellow congress , what is yoursk district? if i say something like monterey park and rosemary m a i get a -- i get a distant stare. if i say where we have the rose parade, they say, oh.
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that is our signature achievement. i have been very active on getting greater access at the capital for smaller businesses. i just got a business past from the house which increases access for a particular loan fund to a high-growth startup business. it is called the sbic, or small business investment company, guaranteed by the small business administration. i've also worked hard on the opioid crisis. we are seeing more and more senseless opioid death. it was a representative of my district who came to me and said there is not enough quality assurance. we introduced a bill that was signed into law last fall that has qualitative standards for sober living homes. as we work to address our
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nation's opioid crisis it is important we talk about addiction. after seeking treatment, individuals need stable and living environments and pierce support to maintain their sobriety. the opioid crisis is of tremendous concern to this country. it is the leading cause of death. these are senseless deaths. the thing that bothers me the most about this -- doctors prescribed too much pain medication. people get addicted to it. my guest to the state of the union's ryan hampton.
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he was a promising young man who was an intern in the white house who had a knee injury. he was prescribed and opioid and got addicted to it. deemed an attic -- , heddict to buy medication ended up on heroin and on the streets. he did his recovery right here in pasadena. when his bestoken friend died of a drug overdose at a sober living home, a death that could have been prevented. that canve medications reverse the effect of an overdose easily. there weren't enough quality standards at the sober living homes for them to have that medication there.
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say that perhaps we aren't as deeply affected as some of those small towns in the east coast and the midwest. there are some towns over there where there are 10 times the amount of pills distributed over the population of that town. they are being inundated with these pills that are opioids. that's not right. that has to stop. alike to think of this as wonderfully diverse district that is a coalition district. 37% asian-american, 31% white and 32% latino and african-american. people pride themselves on getting along with others and working with one another. on interreligious
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tolerance and an appreciation of diversity. muslim why when the iavel ban was first started, went out to the airport to help those travelers with a green card. i've introduced bills to stop the muslim travel ban. my most recent bill would say that there would be no federal funding for the muslim travel ban. the present won't sign it since he is the one who is such a proponent of it, but it is an thereant bill to put out that wethe community won't stand for this senseless intolerance, and these horrible
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stereotypes resulting in attacks and hate crimes. >> do you solemnly swear or affirm that you will support and defend the constitution of the united states against all enemies foreign and domestic and that you will bring true faith that you will -- well and safely discharge the duty of the office on which you are bound to enter, so help you god? >> i do. >> congratulations, you are now a member of the united states congress -- [cheering] >> i take pride in being a clinical psychologist, and being in congress is part and parcel
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of my desire to help people. i take pride in being the first chinese-american elected to congress. it should not have taken so long. chinese americans have been here i believe it's is because we were disenfranchised by the chinese exclusion act. it disenfranchised chinese-american so they could not even become naturalized citizens and could not vote. it did take a long time to recover from that and to become full-fledged participants in this american democracy. i am the result of this but i am also the result of the greater toning up of democracy people of all kinds of
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backgrounds. i take huge pride in this last elected moree we women to congress than ever before. diversitye greatest in this congress. we have the first two muslim american women, the first two native american women who have been elected to congress. it shouldn't have taken so long, but when i was there on that day, i looked around with pride. our democratic congress has really opened up. i love the history of pasadena. the fact that we have two incredible icons, jackie and mack robinson, that actually
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grew up and then went to break the color barrier. mack robinson competed in track at the olympics. jackie robinson broke the color barrier through his career in baseball. pasadena. symbol of the people who came here and made it what it is, and to represent the change in pasadena, the diversity that we should be proud of. i also appreciate the change that has occurred in pasadena. change, i at the would recount the history of the tournament of roses parade. this is the parade that has been but it wasthe 1880's
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, but it was very hard for people to break in. you have to be involved as a volunteer, and is a member of committees,e's, -- and then you get to be on the governing board. it was very hard for these people of color. there were some in pasadena who were so disturbed that there was a demonstration that stopped street traffic on the street in front of the tournament of roses headquarters in 1993. slowly but surely, the doors opened up. i'm proud to announce that as of
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this last year, the first african-american was appointed as the chair of the tournament of roses parade. everyear, the first latina was appointed as chair of the torment of roses. has so parade itself much diversity. now the parade is reflecting america. -- this -- as chair of the tournament of roses. now the parade itself has so much diversity. now the parade is reflecting america. it is important to get involved in government, and politics. you can get into an internship, you can volunteer for a political advocacy organization. you can get involved in the campaign and experienced what it
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is like to be involved in an election. why would say ultimately is that your voice is important. heard, youce is not will be in the dustbin of history. wrong, yousomething need to be the voice that changes it. your voice can count in this american democracy. power cities tour staff recently traveled to pasadena, california. learn more at c-span.org/citiestour. >> tonight, u.s. army veteran eileen rivers on her book beyond
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the call about three women who went beyond the regular duties. -- one experience that sheena me was that with she felt there were men who were trying to break her and test her. they had heavy year and weapons and were carrying it on this road march. aside and her women said no matter what happens don't you dare start crying and try to keep up. i have a feeling they will try to test us. and that is what happened and her women kept up step for step. >> on june 14 to my the u.s. supreme court ruled that students could not be forced to salute the flag. in arule was overturned
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ruling that upheld mandatory flag salute. coming up, two jehovah's witnesses recall their experience when they were to saluteor refusing the american flag. this program is part of a theong event to commemorate 77th anniversary of the west virginia state board of barnett first amendment case. it is about 45 minutes. >> you are in for a treat. as the cofounder, we are thrilled to have this opportunity to commemorate one of justice jackson's foremost opinions, if not his number one, west virginia versus barnett. wee

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