tv The Civil War Battle of Wilsons Creek CSPAN October 20, 2019 10:00am-10:56am EDT
she explained that the conflict, august 1861. while not widely known, is significant because it was the first major battle west of the mississippi river. this talk was a part of a symposium on "forgotten battles of the civil war" hosted by the "emerging civil war" blog. >> our next speaker will be speaking on the battle of wilson's creek. that is kristen pawlak. she is a native of missouri and specializes in the trans-mississippi. in 2014 she graduated from gettysburg college with a bachelor of arts degrees in civil war studies. she received her master of arts in webster university in 2018. she has worked for the misery civil war museum in st. louis, the american battlefield trust, and the gettysburg college special collections. she currently serves on the board of directors for the missouri civil war museum and the marine scholarship foundation. she is working on her first book in the emerging civil war series on the battle of wills and -- wilson's creek.
please join me in welcoming kristen pawlak. [applause] kristen: all right. first of all thank you to all of , you. thank you to emerging civil war. it is such an honor to speak to you all about the battle of wilson's creek which was fought in 1861 in a southwestern corner of missouri, my home state. the subtitle of this presentation is called "this means war: the battle of wilson's creek." i want to take us back to june 11 of 1861 in st. louis, missouri to the hotel which is just downtown at one of the nicest hotels in the 20th -- 19th century.
important early war leaders met there. you have nathaniel lyon, his aide, francis p. blair, and for the secessionist leaders, you have major clayborn jackson, governor jackson's aide. they come to keep the peace if possible. they are there to negotiate they , are there to prevent the outbreak of war in missouri. this meeting will last several hours and brigadier general lion -- lyon becomes frustrated, to the point he looks at the secessionist leaders and has
-- tells them this. rather than concede to the state of missouri that my government will not bring troops into the state or move troops at its own will into, out of, or through the state, rather than concede to the state of missouri for one single instance the right to dictate to my government in any manner, however unimportant, i will see you and you and you and every man and woman and child in the state dead and buried. this means war. seriously. that's exactly how it was said, too. i tried to dramatize that for the crown. in order for us to understand what happened that day, we need to go back a little bit, a few months prior to write around
1861.860 into i like to claim that missouri is an american borderland. this is part of a series of works on the state of missouri. i think that gives i guess that is a great take on what it was like, but in american borderland, we typically think of it as the trans-mississippi west. it does not fit any of those descriptions. most of missourians who are nativeborn, they actually come from the south. many are kentuckians, tennesseans, virginians, carolinians. many are bringing their slaves. we all know the missouri 1820 does not have
limits on slavery and it also brings maine in as a free state. this is how the stage is set. however, missouri is not just white folk or the enslaved coming into its borders. we have a large population of immigrants that have poured into the state. we have the germans and the irish. they are dominantly pro-unionist. many of them are proslavery. they started to concentrate in single us in the missouri river valley. to give you a better view of the state in what it looked like, i have this map here. the green, the green shade means the european immigrants, their population, where they were concentrated. the darker the shade, the higher the percentage that was in
enslaved. -- enslaved. missouri has 1.2 million within its borders by 1860. at about 10% of that population are enslaved. so is about 115,000. i want to jump ahead to april, 1861. we all know where for sumter was, but there were a few things going on in missouri that well impact wilson's creek. the newly elected governor of missouri claiborne jackson has outright rejected sending volunteers from the state. he has outright rejected it. mind that there in the liberty arsenal
liberty, missouri, just do east from kansas city. the liberty arsenal is the second largest arsenal and it had fallen to secessionist in april. ahead into may, the same arsenal that was pictured in the background, this is right around that time. it was quite large. it was one of the largest, if not the largest in 1861 in the south. there are 300,000 arms at the st. louis arsenal at that time. so it is key for the unionists in missouri and st. louis to protect this at all costs. to do this, they request the help of captain nathaniel lyon who was in command of company b of the united states infantry regiment, he was stationed at fort leavenworth when these civil war officially began, but
he was transferred to st. louis where he would bring about 100 men to guard the arsenal. he does realize the arsenal will take a lot more men than 102 -- 100 two protected, especially knowing that governor claymore jackson has been working with the confederate government, conspiring with them too, in his eyes, bring misery into the confederacy officially enjoin -- and join these rebellious states. he is calling for the militia. the northeastern district of missouri militia has gathered outside of st. louis. this is where the st. louis university campus is today. they gathered there in camp jackson. there are about 600 or so.
there is anywhere from 600 to 900 depending on which records you look at. he has got quite a few men with him in this militia. at the same time, they began to congregate. governor jackson is awaiting a package to be shipped from baton rouge, louisiana. arriving in early may are more guns, four cannons, including siege guns. jefferson davis authorized that movement to help governor jackson and the militia capture the st. louis arsenal, but that's my point to happen because nathaniel lyon has been able to recruit 6000 men. it's not the veterans reserve corps, but the u.s. reserve corps, a specialized unit founded in st. louis in 1861.
this includes augustus bush and anheuser. in command of the militia is actually this man here, brigadier general daniel frost. he is the brigadier general of the state militia. he is in command. nathaniel lyon on may 10 will bring his 6000 troops around cam jackson and force is to render. -- surrender. this is what he writes to general frost. it is my duty to demand, and i do hereby demand, of you an immediate surrender of your command. general frost has no choice but to surrender. lyon himself is trying to in -- imprison these militia and prevent them from ever forming
up again, but he realizes there's not enough space for several hundred militia to be kept at the st. louis arsenal. so what he decides to do is that them andng to roll humiliate them, so he gathers all the militia he captured, marches them through the streets of think lewis. as he does that, a crowd of angry onlookers begins to grow. somebody is throwing rocs and stones. another pulls out a gun. i have an account from someone you probably have heard of. the man had in his hand a small pistol and the ball struck the leg of one of the staff. the regiment staff. there was a moment of confusion firethe soldiers began to
over our heads in the grove. i heard the ball cutting the weeds above our heads and i saw several men and women running in all directions, some of them were wounded. a woman and child were killed outright. two or three men were also killed. and several others were wounded. of course, i could no longer defer action. that was william tecumseh sherman. he went -- witness the event. both of them would write about this in their memoirs. of camp jackson this , is like a lightning bolt. ultimately 28 civilians have been killed and 75 wounded. this is not just an event that shook missouri. this was an event that shook the core of the united states and to this event will spiral out of control for the state of missouri. in response to this, missouri is mobilizing for war. within a matter of days, the
state legislature in jefferson city convenes. they have what is known as the military bill. the military bill was really the ability to give the governor, governor jackson, this unprecedented control over the state militia, these very powerful powers for commanding the military. it also creates this defense force known as the missouri state guard. it also places the former missouri governor and mexican-american war hero, sterling price, in command. just let you know, the missouri state guard is not a confederate sanctioned force. it is a state force. when i refer to the state guard, i will call them southerners just because they are not confederate yet. they will later on down the
road, a few months after this, and after the battle of wilson's creek. now, the commander who is in command of the department of the west in st. louis is a gentleman known is william harney. he is not an ardent unionist who is willing to do what ever he can to protect the union. however, he is trying to keep the peace. he is trying to prevent the outbreak of war. i think that is really important to remember with him. but because he is not a strong unionist, he is quickly replaced by the lincoln administration and nathaniel lyon will take over that command temporarily until you get john fremont being put into command later on. lyon has the ability to recent troops. he is officially promoted to
brigadier general at this point and he actually raises 11,000 men. that includes reserve guard units and home guard units that will be used to guard rail roads and rivers throughout the campaign. as a reminder, june 11 is the hotel meeting and that was the official declaration of war and this will spiral out of control. following this, it's a master of -- matter of two days later, lyon will get his troops mobilize. he is ready to maneuver and advance and start to boost state guards and the pro-confederate government. so, this is his strategy beginning june 13. lyonl lyon -- make daniel
nathaniel lyon is looking at two columns. the first column, the column to the north, st. louis to the capital. jefferson city, he will take 1700 men with him by steamboat across the missouri river where he will serve the government. there we go. franz sigel will take a column to springfield and the goal is to secure the wire on the telegraph road and the branch to the pacific railroad. those are the main lines of communication. coming in from leavenworth, kansas is major sturgis. he will have the u.s. regulars, which includes infantry, cavalry, artillery. he will also have the kansas
volunteers. the first and second kansas will join them and they will begin their movement into the state of missouri. the goal here is to knock out the state guard, as well as the state government and drives him them out of state. remember, too, nathaniel lyon, he is a connecticut native. he has military experience. he is definitely going to be using the tactics he learned at the academy. beginning june 13, the plan works. lyon has split his forces into two. he is able to easily get to jefferson city. the government flees. governor jackson will make a request to the rest of the state
for 50,000 missouri guard troops to rendezvous at boonville. boonville is upriver from jefferson city and that's exactly where they go. governor jackson will move up to boonville where he will hopefully, in his eyes, meet up with the rest of the guard. lyon is able to do that. he is able to maneuver at the battle of boonville. lyon's troops will engage with a small contingent of state guard, easily driving them from the field. sigel will take command of this column. thomas sweeney will remain in st. louis and secure supplies and supply lines and create a base. so they will be moving from st. louis to springfield. lyon is also expecting sturgis to arrive. sturgis will me -- meet at
clinton. lyon will leave boonville a little bit later, july 3. at the same time, after the guards have fled, governor jackson will take a column of men and start moving toward the southwestern area of the state. sterling price is actually sick during the initial stages of the campaign. he has diarrhea. he is actually up in lexington until he feels a little bit better and then he is making his way to neosho. during this maneuver, those columns are trying to recruit. they are trying to build up the army and utilize this threat of the u.s. army advancing through the state as a call to arms for many missourians. many of them do. ultimately, sigel arrives in springfield.
what he is planning on doing as jackson arrives, the missouri state guard takes their positions and they will rendezvous with jackson. neosho, heptures will clash with jackson's column, which will result in the first confederate victory in the campaign. the confederate general in the indian territory has a brigade of men he will begin to advance into the states. -- state of missouri. some historians believe that this is the first confederate invasion of the north. some may argue differently. i have heard both. this is obviously one of the first. i will say that.
as a fun cartoon, this was done after the battle of boonville. the battle of boonville. you can see nathaniel lyon chasing governor jackson. you can see price holding his belly. he is obviously sick. the third and fourth stages of the campaign, lyon and sturgis will rendezvous in springfield. they begin to go back to their encampments. the troops still need to train. this is a very low part of the states. mccullen has worked with the governor of arkansas.
he is just down the border. he is waiting for the next stage of the campaign. he has just gotten permission to move into missouri if the situation calls for it. one last thing here, both of the armies at this point, they are looking for a fight. by august 1, nathaniel lyon has departed springfield. he is not entirely sure yet, but mcculloch's force has united with price. late july.t in they've maneuver toward springfield, also knowing that lyon is there. both of these armies want to fight. they have a skirmish while mcculloch will take camp at the wilson creek valley.
creek,ng is with wilson it's wilson creek valley, not wilson creek. i will throw around wilson creek and the battle of will sing creek. -- wilson creek. they have an interesting relationship, one that is full of tension. a lot of it has to do with the 's troops atof price boonville. a lot of doubts in mcculloch's my about whether the state guard can perform. these are green troops. they are armed with squirrel rifles. they have other weapons that do not fire. they are a ragtag army. there's a lot of doubt.
so that causes a lot of friction. he also does not believe that price is a competent commander. this has caused quite a bench of -- bit of tension. this is a reminder the army will , settle in wilson creek valley august 6. mcculloch has full command. arkansas troops, missouri state guard, and his brigade on august 4 and that was the result of price pestering him, we've got to move. it was mainly he did not believe the state government was ready to fight. there was that. things do change in the coming days. remember, we are not talking very long. the thing is, nathaniel lyon is a genius when it comes to intelligence and securing springfield and lines of communication. making sure that his army is
locked when it comes to letting anything leak out about his plans. the strength of his army, all of that. so it has been very difficult for the western army, very difficult for them to get any word of what happened until august 8, two days before the battle. august 8, two women from springfield arrive in the western army camp, alerting mcculloch and price that lyon is anxious. he is growing nervous. he knows that he is outnumbered. he is actually outnumbered over one.e wo to
he doesn't know this yet, but they also know that he knows he is outnumbered. it's just what degree? lyon is contemplating falling back and that would be a safe route. that is something they are considering. mcculloch advises price, we got to move. we need to move. price finally gives in. ok. the orders go in. they will attack at dawn the next way. however, thunderstorms begin to roll in, forcing mcculloch to call off the attack. that mainly has to do with the troops not having cartridges. but here's the thing. after mcculloch calls of the attack, he actually forget to put out any advance guard. they have no forewarning if
n attack.a there's about 12,000 troops. about 10,000 that are able to fight. you can see how these are broken up -- the missouri state guard underprice. the arkansas state troops, brigadier general nicholas pierce. the army of the west. there is springfield right now. they've got 5400 to give you an idea. under sambrigade is sturgis, the second under sigel, and they are armed little bit better. they are armed mainly with rifles and mexican war era muskets. up in springfield, there's a lot of contemplation by lyon and his
subordinate whether to attack or retreat. he knows that he is outnumbered. just not how much. fremont is in command of the western department. he has been contemplating how he could distribute any new true. -- troops. he has been mainly sending them to the southeastern corridor. there's a lot of movement there. there is a big threat of a confederate invasion. fremont is occupied with that. there's also a significant number of expiring enlistments. 's army has been bleeding. the vast majority are scheduled to expire by the end of the month. he knows that. he is crunched for time.
overwhelming emmy -- enemy numbers, he is completely outnumbered. he will not find that mcculloch has united with price until august 9 when some of his men that are out on recon stumble -- i believe it was a farm. they stumble in and somebody told them, yeah, we had texas troops up in here. texas troops? they were under mcculloch's command. so they do know. that was the confirmation lyon needed to know. i am outnumbered over two to one. a very scary situation. believed theates army needs to fall back here if they are running low on ammunition. they need to get back, get more men. lyon is a little hesitant.
there was a council of war on august 9. after the meeting, thomashis sweeney comes up and has a heart to heart with him in his tent. trying to convince and we need to attack. that's what he decides to do. he will attack. strategy,o offers a instead of attacking head-on along the road straight to the valley, he is offering a double envelopment. divide the army. typically we think of lee at chancellorsville for dividing your army even when outnumbered. well at they as battle of wilson's creek that happens as well. men at 5:00der his p.m. to depart springfield on
august the ninth and begin their movement towards the valley. they go along the road to the southwest and as they approach wings, lyonboth will have 4200 men or so. have 1200. they will branch off off of the wire road and they will do a double envelopment attack. they will halt in the early morning hours of august the 10th two rest before they begin their actual attack.
>> he is beginning to run into some of these troops. some southern troops thinking this is the picket line but in fact it wasn't. these are members of the missouri state guard who have gone on a foraging expedition to get some more food and as they are doing that, they are running into an entire advancing column of federal troops. they begin to run back and alert colonel james call thorn, who is in command in front of the eight division. he is allergic to it and he will dispatch one of his regiments under colonel dewitt hunter who will then approach this column. hunter slows them down.
hill,l move from bloody there is a ridge just behind bloody hill that they will take positions on. they are trying to slow down lypon. it takes him in our to get the line of battle and begin to attack into press the forces off the bridge. nathaniel is going to continue move towards bloody hill which is a large plateau with lots of ravines that he sees being a prominent position for his and further launches attack. we will figure out why that name sticks as we get later on the battle. nathaniel sports -- spot the ravine. just to the north of bloody hill.
infantry regiments along with battery of the second u.s. artillery. still sends them surging forward. hopefully to get on top of the actual hill. he's also going to send one underment off to the east captain joseph plummer. he is also going to take with him several home guard. they will cross the creek and their goal is to secure the wire road. they know they have to control that. as the first kansas and first missouri as well as cotton battery get to a prominent position on bloody hill. the polasky battery hears of that. they hear the fire coming from
bloody hill and what they do, they begin to open fire. cotton battery is starting to pummel the polasky battery. batteryurs between the and the polasky battery here. time, sterling price is in a meeting at the edwards property which sits at the center of the battlefield on the west side of the creek. as i wentmodern image to the battlefield. recently that's the cabin. one that was built by the family, it's just not the original. ben will meet with mccormick. they can't hear anything. what they don't know is they are
in an acoustic shell. and we know what it does, you can hear anything around -- acoustic shadow. we know what it does, you. i was at the edwards property, my dad was a few hundred feet away and he was apparently shouting to me when i was right there right on the spot. so you can imagine what it was like for them. buthey can't hear a thing they begin to hear reports coming in from various messengers to give you an idea this is what sterling price would say in his after report. i received a message that the enemy were advancing in great force from the direction of springfield. a second message or came immediately afterwards and came from general raines to announce the main body was upon him. the general was with me when
they came and left that once per his own headquarters to make the necessary disposition of our forces. iny get these reports finally on the second messenger that comes, they know this is serious. the battle is up -- has occurred. just after this meeting as ben went over to his headquarters, his headquarters on the east side of the creek. but joseph plummer is making hidden moves. he will cross the creek at the property. crossing the creek there and then will push south. his target is the road. what he does start to see. here's cannon fire coming in and sees the polasky battery firing on bloody hill. them and he thinks he
can take the polasky battery. at the same time as all of this is occurring, they shoot back it is headquarters and he dispatches the third arkansas and the third louisiana to stop this force. managers --ut 300 under his command. between the riflemen and the third louisiana, that's over 1000 men. they are outnumbered three to one. it's not a very difficult battle between the two. but those louisiana and second arkansas smash in because the corn was all the way at the height of their own heads so they couldn't even see the enemy coming. the devoidhappening, battery has moved up on bloody hill. they see what's happening. they see plumbers trying to fall back. they start aiming their guns towards the third louisiana and
begin to shell them. forcing the third louisiana and second arkansas to start scattering. plumbersjoseph battalion to finally fall back to safety and they are able to do that. this helps save the day. there will be no more fighting on the east side of the creek. here's a quick visual for you. this is a modern-day photograph of the cornfield or part of the cornfield at the northern end but i thought i would show you this. we have the regular battalion, this is north here and towards the south you can see kind of what that would have looked like. that's just before august. this would have shown you what it could have looked like by this point. sigel proposed a
double envelopment strategy. with the second grade -- brigade he will try the southern half of the army. he is able to get from springfield all the way to the southern end of the battlefield without being picked up by any thing -- anyone. that was an intelligence masterpiece. untiln't even detected his battery started opening up. he is first positioned over here on the eastern side of the creek. he positions back off the battery just across the creek here to fire on the southern camp. all along the farm in the winston creek, causing them to scatter. sigel will begin to position his men along what's known as the sharp double field and get to advance, driving away more and more of the arkansas state
troops and the members of the brigade out. here is a quick visual and this is moving.ere sigel to give you an idea, sigel will move through the field into the cornfield of the property. his goal is to secure the wire road, that's a very important line of communication, it of supplies. the whole point of him securing this road here along the sharp themridge is to prevent from having any line of retreat. --mccolick, who the arkansas and
louisiana. they make their way towards the camps. then he will call on the third louisiana again. detachment, they were beat up pretty badly. across on thehem wire road. hashis point, sigel completely -- is complete silent because he sees gray clad troops moving south along the wire road. 's troopsthose are lyon , the first iowa greyhounds. so he halts but until it's too late, until he realizes that those are not the iowa greyhounds, that is the fact they are louisiana, it is too late. they were able to rally about a thousand men from the state guard as well in this formation and the easily drive back si
gel's men. he and his second brigade are done. idea of what quick it was like. the sergeant of the third missouri will take some time to reflect on this, he says this after they had been routed. one driver got eight bullets in him and lived about an hour. the artillery forces roughed -- rushed into the infantry column and all of them were mixed together, all running to the south. they were done. the entire brigade has been routed. back towards the northern end of the battlefield we have a series of multiple attacks on bloody hill. at this point, this is from 6:30 in the morning until 8:30. lyon gets established. he will send out the first
kansas and missouri. they are his first troops he sends out. they begin to push out and their goal is to probe the southern position just south of bloody hill. they just want to find out what the strength is like for the state guard. they know the state guard is there. so they begin to get into a skirmish here. while that is happening, the rest of his line will move up and as you can see he has his infantry and in between his infantry units he also has artillery such as the battery appear, part of kotten's battery and another part altogether. this pointuard at will also have mcbride's division storming, trying to turn the right flank of the federal army off of bloody hill. it does not work.
idea, thise you an is right around with this section is. the one part of his battery on bloody hill. begins righttack around 9:00 and these times i'm listing a relative. just based on the sources i've been able to find, but around 9:00 in the morning you begin the second attack. sterling price will once again to pullttack and try off army of the west. he's got about 2800. the first missouri in the first kansas begin the probe, the center of the state guard line nearly penetrates the center of the federal line and nathaniel iowawill call on the first for the southern right flank and he will himself rally the second
kansas to slam into this portion of their line that had almost crumbled. unfortunately, just to give you an idea, this is what bloody hill looked like at the second kansas position. when the faneuil is calling up the second kansas, he had been wounded twice. wounded in the head and the right thigh. -- i would say discouraged at this point. but he is wanting to rally these men and finish this engagement, seal this off and he is able to do it. he shouts to the second kansas come on my brave boys, i will lead you forward. afterwards he struck in the heart and falls off his horse into his aid's arm. he dies right there. to give you an idea, this is a
very romanticized image. there is the death marker done in 1928.lyon we think it is actually too far forward. but he is probably further farther back on the hill. puts majorm dead it sam sturgis in charge. just before the third and final attack by the state guard, sam sturgis is a quick counsel where they decide if we do not hear from sigel, we have to withdraw. that's the key. withdraw. so sam is waiting. waiting for any word and it hasn't come. now at this point he had already been routed. from able to move away was going on at the southern end
of the battlefield and focus on the northern end. as many of the forces as possible and they slam against the army of the west position on bloody hill. is able to the west hold them back. they never heard from sigel. he is convinced they need to withdraw and that's what he does. they pull out. they pull out with no one else noticing. not even the enemy. the enemy falls back at that point and they try it again. when they get to the top of bloody hill, no one is there. -- unfortunately they last left nathaniel lyon's body. so now his body was in the southerners hands. but the aftermath. at this point, sam sturgis has pushed back -- has withdrawn back to springfield, ultimately
about 2500 casualties around 17% of the armies or both of the armies combined has casualties. a 24%my of the west had loss. a quarter of their army. many of the wounded are being treated at springfield and those left on the battlefield are taken by the southerners. the federals who are able to be evacuated from the battlefield ultimately get sent back up to st. louis for further treatment at places like jefferson barracks. many are buried there or at springfield national cemetery. this battle forgotten? why do we need to remember it? researchleast from the i've done, is the most successful union general in 1861. he is the most successful in terms of what he's been able to accomplish. lincoln and davis
administrations to react and send more troops to missouri and arkansas. fremont will declare martial law for the state including his information -- infamous emancipation order. two state governments will also be in control of the state of missouri including a rogue look -- that passes the ordinance of secession in early november of 61. and then there is the unionist government put in at jefferson city. secure many to major lines of communication that ultimately secure missouri for the union or at least set the stage for that. wilson's creek is a stage setter rather than a definitive battle. just to keep in mind, the southerners will never regain the initiative like they had it
wilson's creek and when they advance north to lexington and took the federal fortification. this would be a very difficult rest of the four years for them. just before i finish up here, this last quote i would like to leave you with. aide tofrom thomas, an governor jackson and says this about lyon. "lyon had not died in vain. through him the rebellion which blair had organized into which he had himself given force and strength had succeeded at last by wisely planning, boldly doing and bravely dying, he had won the fight for missouri." thank you. [applause] >> we have time for one or two questions. is kevin truax's
to introduce his wife. any questions? so one of the questions i have for you is wilson's creek seems to be one of those battles that a lot of people had heard of, so maybe not be forgotten but it's a battle we don't know a lot about. how do you define -- how do you explain that difference? >> that's a great question. for those unable to hear it. why do i consider wilson's creek to be forgotten? i think what forgotten means to me is that it is a misunderstood battle. when we think about missouri and the civil war, we think of wilson's creek, guerrilla warfare. but what i wanted to share was how many times we think of wilson's creek when we think of the civil war do we think of it
all the time. typically i think people remember gettysburg or antietam. wilson's creek will set the stage and i don't think people necessarily always realize that. it's not taught in the history books. i was flipping through a textbook for my brother and saw his history textbook will mention manasses but there is no discussion of wilson's creek. 1861,an essential part of a part of the mississippi west and i think coming up and sharing the story is so important because it's another one of those battles people ought to remember even more than what they do and understand more the context behind it and what it resulted in. [applause] >> thank you everyone. [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] >> this weekend on american history tv. today at 6:00 p.m. eastern on
american artifacts during the annual army heritage day in carlisle, pennsylvania we visited a world war ii u.s. army battalion station. >> this is a mobile emergency room. like any emergency room, what we stabilize and we we get them out. >> at 8:00 on the presidency. the work, interesting contributions of first lady pat nixon 50 years later. >> we are conscious of this burgeoning women's movement and . nixonnixon real -- mrs realized republicans were losing ground on this. democrats were proposing legislation and bills that support women and she worked very closely with the office of women's issues in the white house to get more appointments of women in the federal government. passedore our nation's