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tv   The Civil War Battle of Wilsons Creek  CSPAN  January 2, 2020 9:49pm-10:47pm EST

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national cable satellite corp. ... 1861. she explained that the conflict, while not widely known, is significant because it was the first major battle west of the mississippi river. this talk was a part of a symposium on "forgotten battles of the civil war" hosted by the "emerging civil war" blog. >>
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our next speaker will be speaking on the battle of wilson's creek. that is kristen pawlak. in 2014 she graduated from gettysburg college with a bachelor of arts degrees in civil war studies. she has worked for the misery civil war museum in st. louis, the american battlefield trust, and the gettysburg college special collections. she currently serves on the board of directors for the marine scholarship foundation. she is working on her first book in the emerging civil war series on the battle of wills and creek. please join me wilson creek. please join me in welcoming kristen pawlak. >> all right. thank you to all of you. thank you to emerging civil war. it is such an honor
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to speak to you all about the battle of wilson's creek which was fought in 1861 in a corner of southeastern southwestern missouri, my home state. the subtitle of this presentation is called "this means war: i want to start off, kind of setting the stage and also talking a little bit about what we mean by this means war. i want to take us back to june 11th 1861 in st. louis missouri. to the planters house hotel which is just downtown, it's one of the nicest hotels in the 19th century. but six of the most important early war leaders in missouri have met together at the planters house hotel on june 11th. we have brigadier general of u.s.
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volunteers nathanael lion, his aid, as well as unionist leader and missouri state senator francis pete blair. for the secessionist leaders, we have governor claim or jackson, sterling price, and governor jackson's aide. they come together at this meeting to keep the peace if possible. they're there to negotiate and prevent the outbreak of war in missouri. this meeting will last for several hours. brigadier general line grows frustrated as the minutes ticked by. to the point where he gets up out of his seat, looks at the secessionist leaders and tells them this. rather than concede to the state of missouri, the right to demand that my government shall not analyst troops within her limits, or bring troops into the state whenever it pleases, or move troops at its own will
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into, out of, four through the state. rather than concede to the state of missouri for one single instant the right to dictate to my government, in any manner, however unimportant, i will see you, and you, and you, and every man, woman, and child of the state dead and buried. this means war. seriously that's exactly how it was said, i dramatize it a little for the crowd. in order for us to really understand what happened at the planters hotel meeting that day we need to go back a few months prior, to right around late 1860 into 1861. i like to claim that missouri is an american borderland. as we can see here, this is one of george kaye lynn begum's famous paintings, part
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of a series of works that he did on elections in the state of missouri. i think it gives a great take on what it was like in the mid 19th century. an american border land. missouri does not fit description of north, south, east or, west. we think of it as the trans mississippi west, being west of the mississippi river, but it is not fit any of those descriptions. in fact, most of missouri and who are native born. they actually come from the south, many come from kentucky, virginia, carolina, many of them are bringing with them their slaves. the missouri compromise of 19 1820, does not put any restrictions on slavery. this is how we get the stage set. however, missouri is not just white folk, for the
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enslaved who are coming into its borders. we have a very large population of immigrants that poured into this state, including the germans and the irish, and european immigrants they come into the state. they themselves are dominantly pro unionist, they are anti slavery as well. they begin to concentrate themselves and st. louis and throughout the missouri river valley. to give you a better view of the state and what it looked like for the european populations as well as for the enslaved i have this map here. the green, the green shade means the european immigrants and where they're concentrated as well as the shaded counties that you see. the darker the shade, the higher the population is enslaved. in total, missouri has about 1.2 million and its borders by the census of 1860. about 10% of the population is
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enslaved, about 115,000. i want to jump ahead to april of 1861. as we all know, we know one fourth some tour was. but there were other things going on in missouri that will impact what will happen and how we get to the battle of wilson's creek. i want to first say that following forth some target, the newly elected governor of missouri claim were jackson, has actually rejected lincoln's proposal and has requested for regiments of volunteers. he has actually keeping in mind, that, there was the liberty arsenal in liberty missouri, which is located east of kansas city. on the western border of missouri. the liberty arsenal is the second largest arsenal in the state of missouri and it had fall into secessionists and april. if we bump up ahead to make, the st. louis arsenal,
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which is pictured here as the background, this is right around that time, of the civil war. as you can see it's quite large. it's actually the largest in any of the border states. it is one of the largest if not the largest arsenal in the entire south by 1861. there's over 300,000 arms at the st. louis arsenal at that time. it is key for the lincoln administration in the unionists of missouri and st. louis to protect this at all costs. to do this, they request the help of kept in the tanya lion, who is in command of company be of the second united states infantry regiment. he was stationed at fort 11 worth when the civil war began in april but was then transferred to st. louis where he would bring 100 man to grab the arsenal. he does realize that the arsenal is going to take a lot more men than just 100 to
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protected. especially knowing that governor claim or jackson, who has been working with the confederate government, conspiring with them, to in his eyes, hopefully bring missouri into the confederacy officially and join these rebellious states. what he is planning to do, is calling for the militia. the northeastern district of missouri militia has gathered outside of st. louis at a place known as liberals grove. it's actually where st. louis is the university campus is today. they gather they're, known as camp jackson, there's about 600 to 900 depending on what records you look at. he has many men with him, these militia. at the same time, as these men began to congregate a
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cap jackson. governor jackson is awaiting a package to be shipped from baton rouge louisiana up the mississippi. arriving in st. louis, early may, our for guns, cannons, that have arrived including 2:32 pound siege guns. jefferson davis had authorized the movement of those candidates to st. louis to help governor jackson and the militia captured the st. louis arsenal. that's not going to happen, because in the tanya line is going to bring 6000 men. he has been able to recruit 6000 home guard, and u.s. reserve court. it's not the veterans reserve corps but the u.s. reserve corps. it's a specialized unit founded in 1861 in st. louis. including augustus bush and ever hard and highs are. they are part of the
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western reserve units in command of the militia, is actually this gentleman here. brigadier general daniel frost. he's the brigadier general of the state militia. he is in command. matt annual lion on may 10th will bring 6000 troops, surround camp jackson, and force it surrender. this is what he writes to general frost. it is my duty to demand, and i do by hereby demand of you, and immediate surrender of your command. general frost has no choice but to surrender. line himself is trying to imprison these militia and prevent them from ever forming up again. he realizes there's not a lot off enough space for several hundred militia to be kept at the st. louis arsenal. what he decides to do is parole them, but wants to humiliate
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him first. he gathers all the militia that he has captured, marches them through st. louis, and as he does that, a crowd of angry onlookers begins to grow. they begin to surround the approaching column of prisoners and guard. people are throwing rocks and stones while others another pulls out a gun. i want to read this account from someone you've probably heard of. the man had in his hand a small pistol which he fired off. i heard the ball had struck the leg of one of the staff. the regiment snapped, there was a moment of confusion when the soldiers of the regiment began to fire over our heads in the growth. i heard the balls cutting the leaves above our heads and saw several men and women running in all directions. some of whom were wounded. a woman and child were killed outright. two or three
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men were killed also. several others were wounded. of course, i could no longer defer action. that was williams sherman. he witnessed the camp jackson event as well as ulysses as grant. they will both right about it in their memoirs. as a result of cam jackson, 28 civilians have been killed, and 75 were wounded. this event not only shook st. louis and missouri but it ship the core of the united states. this event will spiral out of control for the state of missouri. in response to this, missouri is mobilizing for war. within just a matter of days the state legislature in jefferson city convenes and pass a military bill. the military bill was the ability
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for the general assembly to give the governor unprecedented control over state militia. it gives them these powers for commanding the military. it also creates this defense force known as the mystery state guard. it also places the former missouri governor sterling price in command of that defense force. the missouri state guard is not a confederate sanctioned force. it is a state force itself. when i refer to the state guard i will call them southerners just because they are not confederate yet. they will later on down the road, a few months after this and the battle wilsons creek. the
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commander of the department of the west is william harney. he has been doing everything in his power to keep the peace. he is not an ardent unionist, he was willing to do whatever he could to protect the union, but he's trying to keep the priests and prevent the outbreak of war. because he is not a staunch unionist and he is not taking those bold actions to stop sterling price and the governor, he is replaced by the link when and ministration. nathanael lion will take over. lion, with the ability to raise troops, has officially been promoted to brigadier general. he raises 11,000 men including the united states reserve corps
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unions and that will be used to guard railroads and reverse throw the campaign. as a reminder, june 11th is the planters house hotel meeting. remember that was the official declaration of war by lying to the secessionists. this will spiral out of control. following the planters house hotel meeting, two days later, lion will get his troops mobilized. he is ready to maneuver, to advance and start to boot the state guard and pro confederate government out of jefferson city. this is his strategy in the summer of 1861 starting june 13th. that annual line is looking at two columns coming out of st. louis. the first column to the north, st. louis to the capital. jefferson city, he will take 1700 men
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with him by steamboat across the missouri river to jefferson city where he will overthrow the government. france eagle and thomas sweeney. brigadier general of militia. they will take a column from st. louis onwards to springfield in order to secure the telegraph road and the south the western branch of the pacific railroad. the main lines of communication. coming from fort lebron worth kansas is in major samuel sturgis. sturgis will have the u.s. regulars including cavalry and artillery and he will have the kansas volunteers, and they will begin their movement into the state of missouri. the goal line has in mind is to basically create
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a pencil movement and knock out the state guard as well as the confederate government from jefferson city and drive them out of the state. nothing new lion is a connecticut native, he is west point class of 1841, he has military experience. he will definitely be using the tactics he learned at the academy. beginning june the 13th, the plan works. lion has split his forces into two, he is easily able to get the jefferson city. the government actually fleas. governor jackson will make a request to the rest of the state for 50,000 state guard troops to rendezvous at boone ville. it sits just upriver from jefferson city and that is where they go. governor johnson and his administration leave
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jefferson city where they will hopefully meet up with the rest of the guard. he is able to maneuver at the battle of boom ville, lions troops will engage with a small contingent of state guard easily driving them from the field. france eagle, thomas sweeney will remain in st. louis to secure supplies and the supply lines and create a base that they can have abdullah. they will be moving from st. louis to springfield. line is also expecting sturgis to arrive. sturgis will arrive at clinton hoping line will rendezvous their. at the same time, after the guard have fled
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jefferson city and been defeated, governor jackson will take a column of men and start moving towards southwestern part of the state. sterling prices actually sick during the initial stages of the campaign with diarrhea. he is staying up in lexington till he feels better. during this maneuver, both columns of state guard are trying to recruit. they're trying to build up the ranks and utilize the threat of the u.s. army advancing throughout the state as a call to arms. many do take up arms. ultimately seagull arrives it springfield. as jackson moved from boone ville to the town of lamar, general rains and slack
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will take the two divisions to rendezvous with jackson. we will clash with jackson's column at the battle of car things will result in the first confederate victory in the campaign. the confederate general in the indian territory has a brigade of men that he will begin to advance into the state of missouri on july the 4th. some historians believe that this is the very first confederate invasion of the north. some may argue differently, but i've heard both. this is one of the first, i'll say that. this cartoon was done after the battle of boom ville, showing the great lion
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hunt. but then you line it is chasing price, who is holding his belly, sick. the four stages of the campaign. line and sturgis will rendezvous its springfield. they are green troops and they still need to train there in the low part of the state the southern part of the state. he has gotten permission from the government
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to position himself in missouri if the situation calls for it. one last thing, both of the armies at this point are looking for a fight. by august the 1st nathanael line has departed springfield and gone after this column. both of these armies want to fight and so they do.. to commanders at
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odds, something to keep in mind, price and my colleague have an interesting relationship. he also does not believe that price is a competent weapons that do not fire. there's a lot of doubt. so that causes a lot of friction. he also does not believe that price is a competent commander. this is a reminder. the army will settle in wilson creek valley august
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6. mcculloch has full command. arkansas troops, missouri state guard, and his brigade on august 4 and that was the result of price pestering him we've got to move. it was mainly he did not believe the state government was ready to write. so there was that. things do change in the coming days. remember, we are not talking very long. the thing is, nathaniel lyon is a genius when it comes to intelligence and securing springfield and lines of communication. the strength of his army, all of that. so it has been very difficult for the western army, very difficult
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for them to get any word of what happened until august 8, two days before the battle. august 8, two women from springfield arrive in the western army camp, alerting mcculloch and price that lyon is anxious. he is growing nervous. he knows that he is outnumbered. he is actually outnumbered over to the one. he doesn't know this yet, but they also know that he knows he is outnumbered. it's just what degree? lyon is contemplating falling back and that would be a safe route. that is something they are considering area considering. mcculloch advises
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price, we got to move. we need to move. rice finally gives in. ok. the orders go in. they attack at dawn the next way. however, thunderstorms begin to roll in, forcing mcculloch to call off the attack. that mainly has to do with the troops not having cartridges. but here's the thing. after mcculloch calls of the attack, he actually forget to put out in advance guard. so they have warning. there's about 12,000 troops. about 10,000 that are able to fight. you can see how these are broken up the
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missouri state guard underprice. the arkansas state troops, brigadier general nicholas pierce. the army of the west. there is springfield right now. the first brigade is under sam's verges. the second under sam sturgis, the second under sigel, and they are armed little bit better. they are armed mainly with rifles and mexican war era musket. muskets. there's a lot of contemplation by lyon and his subordinate whether to attack or retreat your it again, he knows that he is outnumbered. just not how much. fremont is in command of the western department. he has been contemplating how he could distribute any new true. he has
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been mainly sending them to the southeastern corridor. there's a lot of movement there. at threats of a confederate invasion. fremont is occupied with that. there's also a significant number of expiring enlistments. the vast majority are scheduled to expire by the end of the month. he knows that. he is crunched for time. overwhelming numbers. he is completely outnumbered. he will not find that mcculloch has united with price until august the ninth when some of his men that are out on recon stumble i
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believe it was a farm. they stumble in and somebody told them, yeah, we had texas troops up in here. texas troops? they were under mcculloch's command. so they do know. that was the confirmation lyon needed to know. i am outnumbered over two to one. a very scary situation. most important, he believes the army needs to fall back here if they are running low on ammunition. they need to get back, get more men. lyon is a little hesitant. lyon is asking do we attack or what after the meeting, thomas when he comes
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up and has a heart-to-heart with him. china to convince him, we need to attack. it that's exactly what he,. you can say as well, at the battle of wilsons creek, that happens as well. so lion will actually order his men at 5 pm to depart springfield on august the 9th and they begin their movement towards the wilson creek valley. they go along the wire road towards the southwest. as they approached the wilson
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creek valley, both wings. here line will have 4200 men or so, they will branch off the wire road and they will do a double envelopment attack. that's the plan. they will halt in the early morning hours of august 10th to rest before they begin their attack. paul opening attack. nothing new line will order his army to wake up at 4:00 in the morning to move out if you look at the map north is this way, south is this way. the tanya line will storm he will go at the double quick as he pushes his way south. as he
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does so it begins running into southern troops. he thinks it's the picket line but it wasn't. these are members of the missouri state guard who have gone on a foraging expedition to get more food. as they are doing that, they are running into an entire advancing column of federal troops. they begin to run back, alert colonel james hawthorn who is in command of the cavalry brigade in the eighth division. he is alerted to it and actually dispatch is one of his regiments under colonel hunter will approach this column. the goal is 400 to slow them down. he has 100 men with him he will move from bloody hill over to a ridge behind bloody hill where they will take position. they are trying to slow down
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nathanael line. it takes. nathaniel lyon we'll continue to move towards bloody hill, which is a large plateau with lots of ravines which he sees as being a prominent position for his artillery as well as a line of defense. a good position to further launch his attack so he goes for bloody hill. we will learn why that name sticks as we get into the battle. nathaniel lyon spots a ravine right here, just to the north of bloody hill. he is going to send his first kansas and missouri regiments along with battery f of the second u.s. artillery. he will send them marching forward because
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it is a steep ravine. he will send the rest of his column around bloody hill, hopefully to get on top of the hill here. he is also going to send one detachment off to the east. under captain joseph plumber. he commands 300 men,. they were going to cross the creek and their goal is to secure the wire road. which gets them back to springfield. they know they have to control that. as the first kansas and first missouri get to a prominent position on buddy hill. the enemy hears of it and here's the fire coming from bloody hill. the battery begins to open fire on the
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enemy battery. at this time, sterling price is in a meeting which sits in the center of the battlefield on the west side of the creek. this is a modern image as i went to the battlefield recently. that's the edwards cabin, it's not the original,. this is where the state guard encampment is. benn will meet with price to discuss their strategy, at 5:00 in the morning, they can't hear anything. they are in an acoustic shadow, that means you can't anything around you. i was there and i can attest to
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this. my father was a few hundred feet away and he was shouting to me when i was right there, right at this spot and i could not hear him at all. you can imagine what it was like for benn and sterling price. they can't hear thing. they begin to get reports from messengers. to give you an idea, this is what sterling price will write in his report. i received a message from general rains that the enemy was advancing in great force from springfield. a second messenger came afterwards from general rains to announce that the main body was upon him. general ben was with me and left it once towards his headquarters to make the necessary dispositions.
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finally on the second messenger, they know this is serious. the battle has occurred. after this meeting as ben mccaul like heads to his headquarters. joseph plumber is making his move he's going to push south. his target is this wire road. that's a dual between both batteries. he hears them and he thinks he can take the poll last key battery as all of this is occurring ben mccullough who is at his headquarters, he dispatches this second arkansas
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mounted rifles and third louisiana to stop this forest. polymers men, number about 300. they're out number three to one. it was not a very difficult battle between the two. third louisiana and second arkansas smash through plumber. they could not see the enemy coming as this is happening,. they see plum are beginning to fall sterling pierce back and begin to show them. joseph lumbers battalion to fall back
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to safety. there would be no more fighting on the east side of the creek at that point. here is a quick visual for you, a modern-day photograph of the cornfield, or at least part of it, at the northern end. to give you a visual, this is north here, towards the south, so you can see with that would have looked like. just before august, when i took this picture. remember franz siegel has proposed a double envelopment strategy, with his second brigade. he will try to attack on the southern end of the western army. he does this, he's actually able to get from springfield all the way to the
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southern end of the battlefield without getting picked up that was an intelligence master piece. he wasn't detected until his battery opened up. franz siegel position on the western side of the creek. he positions his battery to fire on the southern camps, all along the sharp farm and along the wilson creek. he begins to fire upon them causing them to scatter. and fully.. it they will begin to advance and driveway the state guard, and the members of ben mccullough out. here's a quick villa visual this is
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about franz siegel where is moving. this would be the sharp farm. story about that everyone. to give you an idea franz siegel will start moving into the shark property. his goal is to secure the wire road. it is a very important line of communication and supply it is also the whole point of securing this road is to prevent mcculloch from having any line of retreat. as he is positioned there, mcculloch who is just finished sending over the third louisiana and the second arkansas, but has scattered. they begin to make their way towards these caps. ben mcculloch would call on the third louisiana again. he will lead just a detachment of third louisiana they were beat of hadley from the cornfield
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fight. he believed them on the wire road toward siegel's position. at this point, siegel has stopped firing his guns. he has completely silenced because he sees troops moving south along the wire road. he thinks those are nathaniel lyons troops. he thinks those of the first iowa greyhounds so he halts but until it is too late until he realizes that those are not the iowa greyhounds that is in fact the third louisiana. it is too late. mcculloch was able to rally about a thousand men in this formation and they easily drive back siegel's men. it is a complete routing. siegel and his second brigade are done. to give you a quick idea of what it was like, a sergeant of the third missouri will take some
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after the war to reflect on this. he says this. 14 will driver got eight bullets and lived about an hour. the artillery horses rushed into our columns and we were a big crowd of men, horses, guns and case on all mixed together running to the south. they were done area the entire brigade had been routed. going back toward another and of the battlefield, we have a series of multiple attacks on bloody hill. this is from 6:30 until 8:30, lyons is established. he is first going to send out the first candle and first missouri. those are his first troops he sends out. they are some of his most reliable did they begin to push out and their goal is to open the
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southern position just south of bloody hill. they want to find out what the strength is like for the state guard. they know the state guard is there it's just a matter of where. they begin to get into a skirmish here. while that is happening, the rest of the line will begin to move up. as you can see, he has the infantry and in between the infantry units, he also has artillery such as two boys battery up here, part of cottons battery and another part altogether. the state guard at this time will also have mcbride's division storming trying to turn the right fight of the federal army off of what he hell it doesn't work area and they are repulsed. to give you an idea, this is right around where the section is. that's just the one part of the cottons battery on what he hell. the second attack begins right around 9:00 and these times i am listing on him
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on here are relative. around 9:00 in the morning, you begin the second attack. sterling price will once again try to attack and try to pull off the army of the west right off of bloody hill. in total, he has about 2800. the second kansas or the first missouri and the first kansas begins a probe. the state guard line nearly penetrates the center of the federal line and living alliance himself will call of the first iowa to slam up against the southern right flank and he will himself rally the second kansas to slam into this portion of their line that had almost crumbled. unfortunately, this is bloody hill what it looks like were the position is. when nathaniel
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lyons is calling up a second kansas, he had been wounded twice. in the head and the right side. he is discouraged. he wants to rally these men and initial this engagement to stillness off. he is able to do it. he shouts to the second kansas come on my brave boys i will lead you forward. soon after, he is struck to the heart and he falls off of his horse into the arms of his aid. his last words were london i am going. he dies right there. this is a very romanticized image that was done. there is the death marker for nathaniel lyon done in 1928. we think it is actually too far forward. he
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is probably further back on the hill. with nathaniel lyon dead, it puts major sam sturgis and command of the army. just before the third and final attack by the state guard, sam sturgis has a quick they decide if we do not hear from siegel we have to withdraw. that's the key word, withdraw. sam sturgis is waiting for any word from siegel and it has not come. at this point, siegel had been routed. mcculloch is able to move away from what was going on at the southern end of the battlefield and folks from the northern end consolidating as many of the forces as possible and they slam against the army of the west position on bloody hill. the army of the west is able to hold them back however,
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they never heard from siegel. sturgis is convinced with we need to withdraw and that's what he does. after the guns fall silent, they pull out and they pile out without anybody noticing not even the enemy. the enemy falls back and at that point, they try it again and when they get to the top of bloody hill nobody is there. unfortunately, they lost nathaniel lyons body there on bloody hill so his body was in the southerners hands. at this point, sam sturgis has pushed back or has withdrawn back to springfield. ultimately, there are 2500 casualties around 17% of the armies combined had casualties. the army of the west had a staggering 24% loss. many of the wounded are being
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treated at springfield and those on the battlefield are taken by the southerners and the federals who are able to be evacuated from the battlefield gets it back up to st. louis for further treatment. many of them are buried at jefferson barracks or later at springfield national cemetery. why is this battle forgotten? why do we need to remember it? lyon is the most successful union general in 1861. not over a course of one year but he is the most successful in terms of what he is able to accomplish area it's going to force the lincoln and davis administrations to send more troops to missouri and arkansas in response to this battle. fremont will declare martial law throughout the states including his infamous emancipation order that was rejected by lincoln. to state
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governments would be in control of the state of missouri including a legislature that passes the ordinance of secession in late october and early november of 1861. then there is a union discover meant that is put in at jefferson city. lyon is able to secure many of the major lines of communication that will secure lines for the union. wilson's creek really is a stage setter rather than a definitive battle that when the fight for missouri. to keep in mind also, the southerners will never regain the initiative like they had at wilson's creek and when they advance north to lexington and took the fortification there at lexington. this would be a very difficult rest of the four years for them. just before i finish up, this last quote i would like to leave you
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with from thomas sneed is an aide to governor jackson and the chief of staff of major general sterling price he says this about lyon. lyon had not died in vain. through him the rebellion which blair had organized and to which he had himself given force and strength had succeeded at last. by wisely planning, by boldly doing, and by bravely dying he had won the fight for missouri. thank you. >> we have time for one or two questions. my big question is kevin chose to introduce his wife which was a landmine waiting to happen. any questions? one of the questions i have for you is wilson's
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creek seems to be one of those battles that a lot of people have heard of. it may not be forgotten but it is a battle we don't know a lot about. have you how do you explain that? >> that's a great question and it's like why do i consider wilson's creek to be forgotten? what forgotten means to me is that it is a misunderstood battle. when we think about missouri in the civil war we think about wilson's creek and guerrilla warfare. the thing i wanted share with you tonight is how many times do think of wilson's craig lang think of the civil war? we think about that all the time? i would say people remember gettysburg. wilson's creek will set the stage and people don't necessarily always realize that. it's not hot in the history books. i was flipping
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through a textbook for my brother and i saw that his history textbook mentioned manassas but there is no mention of wilson's creek. it is an essential part of 1861 and the trans-mississippi west. coming up. sharing with you this story is so important because it's another one of the battles that people ought to remember even more than what they do and that you understand more of the context behind it and what it resulted in. >> thank you. '
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s grant's lesser-known petersburg offensive. at 8:00 p.m. eastern, it's lecturer >> i'll be, >> the petersburg campaign certainly has quite a bit to discuss. for the sake of our c-span audience, who we deeply appreciate i want to run through a few highlights of our keynote speaker. wilson green is the former executive director of pamphlet historical park and the national museum of the civil war soldier located

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