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tv   Today in Washington  CSPAN  November 25, 2009 2:00am-6:00am EST

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practicing it. people like me, media consultants who made television adds became important as opposed to back room who anointed candidates to represent them. suddenly campaigns who could bring their message to people became powerful force and go yont the structure party. what's happening right now is equivalent. most importantly the -- it's empowering a whole new side of politics. .
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nobody in the republican congress is supporting what he has done. and somebody -- some of them believe that he should apologize. and he did apologize. there is a lot more civility that will go on in washington and in politics around the country, but civility is not news. i will try not to bash the media. we had some early discussions about comprehensive immigration reform, where a truly bipartisan group of senators got together and almost got this done, not quite, but there were a large number of democrats and republican senators who were
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working on this. that was in 2007. john mccain was running for president, even though he and ted kennedy were the leaders, the authors of this bill, you never saw them together in public during those discussions with the immigration reform. that is because ted kennedy said to john mccain, we cannot be together in front of television cameras or you will lose new hampshire. this shows how the press promotes incivility. >> when you are a political minority, the only way that people hear you is if you are more noisy and obnoxious. clearly, democrats, we have spent many days talking about this during the presidency of george bush. we did this to george bush, and
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now the republicans are doing this to barack obama. you do not have to do this with the media. if you are watching c-span on saturday, when the house was voting on the health care bill, and the women were trying to talk about the amendment on abortion, and one after another, the republican congressmen would stand up, and they would be objecting and not liking -- not letting anyone speak, and they did this for 45 minutes. >> with the microphone there? >> you are talking about how the french is rewarded for saying things that are extreme. what is the future and what do you think the future of the independent voter is going to be in the political system? are they going to be lost in the extremism that is going on? >> i think that you find in the
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elections that just happened in virginia and new jersey, the independent candidates were driving the election. i think that the candidates will have to continue to talk to the language that the independent voters are wanting to hear. what they are saying, they will turn out the partisans on either side. [inaudible] >> we do not need microphones. if you will handle the microphone -- >> to follow up on what you were saying, give an example, health care reform. is it significant that the republicans who broke ranks, and crossed the aisle, they were the least safe republicans in the
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house. >> this is significant, but again, there is a major issue where people just disagree, or you will not get these parties together, on some fundamentally different things. but unless the leaders of these parties try to do this on the big issues, to do something in the nature of the consensus, it will never happen. >> there is a hand way in the back. >> i feel that you are focusing on the behavior of the politicians. the key component to politics is seen is through the media. you can see how they are slanting the current news. you can see this on msnbc and fox news. >> i start with rachel.
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you have -- the person on cnn -- >> >> the answer is, you have 24 hours of cable channels, and you have to choose a little bit of everything. people are attracted to the concept that will play over and over again. the difference between the media and cable television, and a lot of the journalists -- they really resent being lumped in with cable television, or at least the four hours at 9 -- >> or talk radio. >> or what dominates the perception of cable television,
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as opposed to most of the day when this is straight news is that this is opinionated television. nobody is pretending that this is not. i do not think that the viewers believe that this is not opinion television. over at cnn, the ratings are down because people like hearing opinions. i think that viewers are much smarter than the conversation is allowing. they can distinguish between an opinion and news, and they know when they are reading mainstream newspapers, they are getting a greater factual story. i do not think that if you survey the voters, were people in general, they are confused by the information that they get.
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sometimes you do not have -- you do not have your choice of exactly what you want, but i do not think that this is confusing to people. >> i will get in trouble in many different quadrants. by i am at believer in the free market. i think voters have a responsibility. i have spent most of my career as a communications director for a press secretary. i cannot think that everyone voting -- everyone who was watching fox news is voting like roger ailes. i work with people like carl cameron on stories again and again. there is an editorial debate. i also think that when we look up, and we say that there is no audience that is monolithic, we have a better chance of reaching
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people. as a partisan press staffer, i have to pay attention and make certain that everyone else is with me so that i am moving every avenue that i can get in the discussion. do i think fox has made decisions that disagree with, yes. i think this is in this. does that mean i cannot take the health care plan to this channel? no. >> we are in the middle of a profound transformation in communication. this is like radio to television, and now television to the social media world. 100 million people watched the end of "mash." now this 20 million people, perhaps 40 million people. when you have cable television,
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the top rated cable television shows have an audience of 4 million people. this is small against the population, but gargantuan in a 300-television channel universe. people are watching politics across the cable networks. this is the audience share, that is probably six or 7 million people among the cable networks. this is no different than the u.s. the fighting channel, or the mediterranean cooking show, people go to the places that they will select where they want their opinions reinforced. you do not sit, waiting for the radio to play your favorite song. you get to choose what you are exposed to, and what you hear. i think that this reality, coupled with what we were talking about earlier, if you call the president a liar, during the state of the union,
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and the result is that you raise a million dollars in the next 24 hours, that is the world that we live in and there are profound implications for the civility between the political parties and in civic discourse. >> there were two people holding their hands up. i would just ask you to quickly say your questions together, and the panel will come out of the questions from this. >> he mentioned before that no one will unilaterally disarm -- nobody will stop using those advertisements. in my mind, you look back to a race in the early 1990's between oliver north and chuck robb. he said that he is a frayed -- free-basing, cocaine dass used -- cocaine-using candidate, and then he said, oliver north line
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in front of congress. where is the line? >> where is this? >> i am going to address the premise of taking the poison out of partisanship. you wanted the panelists to talk about whether partisanship is a negative thing. if this is poisonous. and when this can be good, if there is a way to make partisanship less -- perceived less like poison among the american people. is there a reason to make people understand that politics is about conflict in people with different perceptions and ideologies, and that we should sort of celebrate that, rather than denigrating the differences, on the principles? >> the common theme is when
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this crosses the line. we will start on the other end? >> i will pass this on to steve. >> things have to be based on the truth, and you have to tell the true story. you do not cross the line unless this is something that is legitimate. i went through that campaign and that was not -- they were not talking about that, those were ended ended groups that had nothing to do with the process. i think that if you cross the line, with really ugly advertisements, that are unfair, you will be punished by the voters in every instance. they do not typically work. i think the market of these politics, that is ultimately how this is regulated. >> we saw this in the last year
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in 2008 with the celebrity advertisement, and we just saw this again. john cornyn sign -- jon corzine called chris christie fat. this made them think, he was not focused on their problems. i would end with saying that, the woman who was asking about the independent voters, this is really the dirty secret of a partisan campaign strategist. the independent voter has all the power. everyone is focusing on the right and left, but the independent voter is the one who is making the decision. >> i was actually working with him in that campaign, and we tried to convince people -- those were very tough advertisements. but the reason that we did --
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nancy reagan said that oliver north was a liar. i thought that was there and that is where you draw the line. what is true, what is accurate, and if this is powerful, you need to deliver this. >> there are three things to follow. the record, the rhetoric, and what is relevant. there was a 16-year-old child who got this -- who received driving under the influence -- is this relevant? no. if you were able to fix the ticket? this is relevant. >> we are not in a poisonous time compared to the elections in 1800, or the election of andrew jackson. and the grandson of ben franklin was a vicious talking about john adams, and he was thrown in
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jail. do you like this idea? the big difference back then is that they really did find common ground when it came to the big issues, issues of war and peace or the economy. thomas jefferson and alexander hamilton, who were about as hard as you could get, -- about as a part as you could get, did find a compromise. this is the ability to find the common ground and make a compromise. franklin once said that a compromise does not make a great hero but it makes for great democracy. if you are compromising, you are considered and principled, as opposed to somebody who can find common ground. i want to thank the panel. you were very good and we appreciate this very much.
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>> you have a very short break while the next panel comes up. thank you. >> in a few moments, the state dinner at the white house for the indian prime minister, followed by the news conference with president obama. after that, a discussion of how climate change and the economy affect poverty and hunger. and a news conference with the astronauts aboard the international space station. >> tomorrow on "washington journal" we will look at the health-care effort with a member of the center for responsible politics. you can write your questions to
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the former head of the center for medicaid and medicare services. and david pryor will talk about his new autobiography, and his 20 years in the united states senate. this is live on c-span every day, at 7:00 eastern. the center for american progress will have a forum on the u.s. education system tomorrow morning, including remarks by the education secretary, arnie duncan, and new york mayor michael blumberg. this is 8:00 eastern. >> the yeas are 60, the nays are 39. the motion is agreed upon. >> with that, the senate is moving the health care bill to the floor. starting on monday and through december, follow every minute of
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debate, and see how this would affect access to health care, abortion, and medicare, on the only network that gives you the senate, -- 2-gavel, c-span2. >> -- gavel to gavel, c-span2. >> the president and his wife hosted the indian prime minister. we have our coverage behind the scenes. >> this is the first state dinner of the obama administration, and the third for thindia in one decade. these are being held behind me and we are joined by nia-maleka henderson. who are some of the notable people tonight? >> oprah winfrey was not here tonight, but her best friend was here.
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steven spielberg is there. and there are a lot of hollywood stars. m. night shamalan. people were expecting bigger names, because the white house is like a revolving door for the celebrities. many of them have come through the white house. they thought that brad pitt would be here and this was a star-studded evening. >> and hollywood has been supporting president obama? >> this is very similar to the clinton administration. hollywood has come not to support him. d has come out to support him. support him. use all the celebrities in songs, and they were celebrating him. >> they are coming to the east entrance, why do they call this -- s it called that? >> that is what everybody is
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wondering. the short answer is they used to sell books there. before 9/11, that is where the historical association sold books. there is a rumor that grover cleveland's mother was a bookseller. that is part of the lore of the white house. that is one of the reasons it has that name. >> blair underwood, and some other hollywood stars that walked through that area, called the east entrance or better known as the bookseller around here. >> listen to you. [unintelligible] they are dear friends. [no audio[inaudible]
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>> i'm sorry? i am here as a guest of my friend, alfre woodard she has been named on the president's council -- >> of arts and humanities. >> oh! [inaudible] >> imagine that.
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you got david geffen behind me. that is all you need. thank you very much. just a guess. i grew up a bus boy so i have to resist the temptation to clean up. >> i know this. [inaudible] >> general and mrs.: paul. -- colin powell. >> some of the hollywood stars that are a part of the festivities tonight at the white house. there were also some politicians as well. you are some of the names? >> nancy pelosi, as well as the governor of louisiana.
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the governor of pennsylvania is there. steny hoyer. lots of people who are important on the hill, important on the health care debate in the afghanistan debate. it is very much in evening wear important folks, whether it is the hill or the administration or the indian-american community is represented as well. >> who is not here this evening? >> the big name that is not here is bill clinton. that is a big surprise. during his own administration, he had 30 state dinners. more of a case of then there, done that. he had another engagement. -- the case of been there, done that. everyone was hoping that 0 per would be there -- oprah would be there, but she did not show up. >> there were a lot of republicans who did not show up. >> a lot of congressmen and
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senators are back in their home districts. for instance, representative john boehner went back to ohio. he got the invitation, but he is probably going -- back in ohio. >> how do you r.s.v.p? >> you r.s.v.p. to the white house. it is a very fancy, engraved in by. they get a list from the state department, and there are submissions of names that go on from all corners of the administration and they will everything down. if you are lucky enough to get an invitation, you r.s.v.p. back to the white house. >> how much lobbying goes into getting an invitation? >> there is a list -- the state department will make a list of the indian-american community and indian embassadors and
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representatives of that country who would automatically be on the list. there is lots of jockeying to get there and whittling down over many weeks in the east wing to decide who will be lucky enough to get an invite. >> you mentioned some of the elected officials here this evening. steny hoyer, democratic leader in the house, along with many of the governors. here they are entering through the east entrance this evening. >> the honorable steny hoyer. and his wife. >> good evening. nice to see all of you here. >> [inaudible] >> no. >> everything is game? >> everything is game and everything will be proper. it is a little bit of both. that is the great nature of this job. pleased to have you here.
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nice to see you all. how're you doing? [inaudible]
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>> yes, absolutely. >> can you tell us about your dress? >> i got it in my favorite store in richmond, virginia. >> [inaudible] >> not recently. thank you. >> use of the politicians talking to the press there. you are one of the reporters standing behind the rope. what sort of questions are they ask when they come into the white house? >> they are soft ball questions. they are about what you are wearing. what you want to talk about tonight? for instance, we asked: paul that -- colin powell that, who
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was he wanted to meet? he said he was looking for to keep eating. this is the time to have fun and mix and mingle. we asked marty nesbit, obama's best friend from chicago. people come. in a way, in all of washington, there is a little bit of glad- handing and back? -- back-slapping. >> a fashion as part of the evening, and many people will be focusing on what the first lady is wearing. who design her dress, and why -- what goes into choosing the dress for the first lady? is she trying to send a message? >> she is trying to send a message. they do not always like to talk about fashion and how she makes these choices, but this is diplomacy. we were wagering hope she would
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choose as a designer. we thought she would go with an indian designer. she was using something earlier in the day. she was wearing a designer who -- you see a lot of his actions on the hollywood stars, and you see them on the red carpet. that is what she has decided on. the diplomacy and highlighting the best of india and america is what you see in her fashion. and you see this in the menu choice as well. this is a very modern, elegant gown. >> and the white house kept under wraps, until the very minute when she came out to greet the prime minister. >> the white house was very good about keeping everything secret. we heard more about afghanistan that about this. they were very disciplined about keeping best. but that is always the case with
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what the first lady is going to wear. the east wing is letting us know. >> let's get a look at what the first lady is wearing. they greeted the prime minister and his wife early on this evening. on the front entrance of the white house.
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[no audio] [no audio] [inaudible]
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>> present arms! ♪ >> president obama and first lady michelle obama and greeted india's prime minister singh and his wife earlier this evening. festivities are underway.
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talking what -- talking to us this evening about this. beyond the dress and the coronation, the logistics of the flowers, what type and color of flowers, the linens, the first lady spoke earlier about the meaning behind them. what did she say? >> she had a group of high- school students where she gave them a lesson on state dinners and explained the china patterns. the color that she chose as purple and the significance of that is that it represents the indian peacock, the indian state bird. it is a nod to indian culture. in terms of china, she had china from the bush era and the clinton era. one of the things that you see with prime minister singh is that it is a continuation of what we saw with the bush administration. and using that china, is a nod to the relationship that bush
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was able to establish with prime minister singh. i talked to a white house usher about this -- he gave a figure that is $150,000. to me, it seemed kind of low. the cost of that is already built an and the cost of the manpower is built in. that is the figure that he gave. george bush had smaller events -- $80,000 in the state dining room. this one, 3 one20 guests -- with 320 guests is like a big, lavish wedding. >> to the white house indicate whether or not people feel like they are in a tent tonight? will they need to come back into the white house? >> one of the tricks that they do -- i talked to a white house usher about that. there is nothing fancy about 10. they put a floor on that and they try to keep people's eyes
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up. -- it is a tent. there are wall hangings, so you do not feel like you're in a tent. >> who is the bigger headline, president obama or first lady michelle obama? >> it has to be the first lady. there she was in this gorgeous dress. he is in the commander -- the commander in chief, but he wore a tuxedo. the first lady chose the china pattern. the headliner tomorrow will be "mrs. obama." >> we want to show our viewers to more -- some more of actinides entrances into the east part of the white house, including house speaker nancy pelosi. -- some more of the entrances into the east part of the white house, including house speaker nancy pelosi.
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>> my husband. >> the hon. eric holder. >> i am with steven spielberg, so my kids left me a series of questions to ask. >> pardon? >> who did you? -- your dress? [inaudible] >> [inaudible] >> can you give one or two?
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>> good evening, everyone. how are you? >> gayle king. >> i cannot hear a word you're saying. i am 67 years old and you cannot hear a word. the president and the first lady and the prime minister and his wife. thank you. >> biran abrian and tracy mathi. >> many elected officials, house members, senators, governors here tonight for the obama administration's first state dinner. joining us on the phone is the former first lady laura bush's chief of staff.
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we read in the newspaper earlier today in "the washington post" that this is a party with a purpose. what does that mean? >> it is important. there is important work that gets done at these events. this is bent over several days of important meetings of the prime minister and with the president and with appropriate members of their delegations on each side. there is an important strategic partnership between the u.s. and india, and that is what this state dinner is a culmination of all that hard work. >> how does the white house go about deciding which country, which had a state to throw a state dinner for? >> i think there is a list, a long list, of countries over a period of time that the united states and the president will host as visitors and guest here, but i think what came about with this one, this is 810-year
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relationship -- 810-year relationship. over 10 years, there has really been an important partnership in reaching out on the part of president clinton, on the part of president bush, to really solidified this important strategic relationship. there is so much -- this is the largest democracy in the world, india is. we are the second-largest democracy. there is an important relationship that needs to be nurtured and continue. the national security advisers of the president -- have said that he should which it will recommend others that he should host. and ultimately, that will be his decision. >> we heard earlier that this is the first lady's show. when does the first lady's office began preparing for a state dinner? >> this dinner, likely, or this
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visit started right at the time that secretary clinton hand- deliver the invitation from president obama to prime minister singh on her visit to india this past july. she, at that time, accepted the invitation. i think both countries, the appropriate staff of both countries, started working right away to put together the visit, but as far as the east wing is concerned and the first lady and her staff, primarily under the direction of the social secretary, they will begin to craft what they want this dinner to look like. they will get help from the chief of protocol, she will make a list of things that should be considered in a dinner like this, down to colors that may be inappropriate, -- to display, food allergies and flour allergies. a. n-- and flower allergies.
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developing a guest list. that is something the social secretary will reach out to a number of people in the government, particularly in the white house that will have recommendations of people who should be invited to a dinner like this, that should be there to honor the foreign guests. it can take several months for these things -- to put these things together. >> how involved is the first lady? how involved was former first lady or bush? how involved does she need to be in this sort of event? >> -- how involved was the former first lady laura bush? >> every first lady should take that seriously and they have enjoyed it. speaking for mrs. bush, to answer your question, she was intimately involved in the
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details. she would set the direction of things, expectation she might have of how she would like it to look and what meal she might like to serve. and the staff would come back with recommendations. they would do tastings of foods. there would put table settings together, with the florist, the social secretary, with a variety of people who helped to execute these events. she would make final selections. the president is involved to particularly on the guest list. it will be the president and first lady that will review the guest list and make a final decision. working with a great staff and with the tone and directions set by the first lady, the ultimate result is a beautiful the event. >> how do they go about deciding where people are going to set for this evening, and were there
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ever political calculations that go into that configuration? >> where people sit? >> yes bird >> this is an important function as well. the social secretary will have a great deal of speaking to people across the white house and they know some of these gases, as well as working with the president and the first lady. you try to get -- they know some of the sugse guests, as well as working with the present in the first lady. you try to get to know these people and they help with this event and the opportunity. there are a lot of -- there is a lot of consideration that is going into this. >> how many people are involved in pulling off the united states better? -- a united states better --
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dinner? >> this is under the responsibility of the chief usher. everyone will have something to do to put this together. and the staff has the bulk of the responsibility from the political staff at the white house. the social secretary and her staff, the press office, of course, and it takes a lot of people. what is very important to remember is the military office. this is conveniently located where the first lady and her staff is that, because they work very closely with each other to execute the ceremonial functions of this. let's not forget that these are traditions full of history, with
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these ceremonies. there is a certain level of protocol associated with this, and they have to execute this. >> had you ever had the experience, as the chief of staff of the first lady, with a miscommunication? 's chief of staff, with a mishap or miscommunication moments before or during the dinner? >> minute by minute, you have a very detailed schedule and a sequence of events that you have fought out every single possible detail, from pointa to get -- from point a to point z. you do not leave a lot of room for mishaps. sometimes there is timing it could be off a little bit. the president and the first lady may come down or earlier than
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when a car or the visitor is due to arrive. they are very minimal. the great thing is that there are so many experienced people involved in executing these events. they can anticipate something happening before it does. and it does not turn into an issue. >> we thank you for your time this evening. >> thank you very much. >> the first lady, mrs. obama, previewed this dinner earlier today. >> tonight the president and i will be hosting our first state dinner. and we are hosting for the prime minister and his wife, whom we met earlier today. one of the things we thought -- i do not know about all of you -- is whether you wonder what are the state dinners about? when i was your age, i did not know what they were doing.
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we thought it would be fun to take time to expose you to what is going to happen today and this evening. so that is why you are here today and we are excited to have you. the state visits and dinners are a really important part of our nation's diplomacy. throughout history, they have given u.s. presidents and the american people the opportunity to make important milestones in foreign relations. so these dinners and events are critical to what we do internationally. and they have helped build stronger ties with nations as well as people all around the world. that is what president obama and prime minister singh are doing today. and i know that all of us on our team here in the west wing and the east wing, we wish we could include many, many more people in today's events because it is
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not often that you get to do this. but even with a big house like the white house, there is only so many people we can invite. one of the ways that first ladies in the past have tried to include a broader public in on what is going on is by holding these types of events, where we invite the press to share some of the incredible behind-the- scenes work that goes on to planning and pulling off this amazing day. but today, all we are also doing something different by having you all here. one of the things we talked about that the president and i have tried to do is really open up this white house to our neighbors. -- here in washington, d.c., especially to local students and children in our community. what we know is that even though many of your live just a few
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minutes, maybe all little bit away from here but you are close, these events probably seemed miles away, like they are untouchable. we tried to think about ways to include kids in the community all throughout today's events. at the opening ceremonies, we invited about 50 students from local schools to attend the welcome event. that is why we are happy to have you guys here with us today. for those of you who don't know, these girls are a part of our young women who participate in the white house leadership and mentoring program. we are really thrilled to have you guys here. because this is your white house, and sheep -- we wanted to be a part of what we do here. how do we get this stuff done? the president and i are going to host this really neat dinner outside in the tent. we described it -- it is like a swan. we are calm and serene above
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water, but we are paddling like mad underneath. there is a lot of work that goes into making this happen. we have a lot of people putting this together. it takes everyone at the white house, the state department, and the military officer who worked so hard to put all of the advance together. the guest list, the invitations, the place settings. you have to figure out who sits where. it takes all the folks in the kitchen. we have our incredible white house chap -- chef, whom some of you have met. and the rest of our kitchen staff. tonight, we're going to include a guest chef tonight. marcus samuelsson. he is one of the finest chefs in the country. chris markets in our kitchen staff are working on a wonderful
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menu tonight that you'll be able to share in a little bit. it will showcase the best of american cooking. it will include the freshest ingredients from area farmers and purveyors. because of the hard work of some other kids in the community, we have this wonderful white house kitchen garden in the south lawn, and we will use some of the herbs from that garden in tonight's dinner as well. but there is also more to the dinner than just food. dinners like these also need great entertainment. who do we have? we have got someone you guys probably know -- jennifer hudson will sing tonight. yay. but we also have a.r. rahman. he helped create some of their music for the film at "slumdog millionnaire". i don't know if you guys got to see that movie. we will have a jazz vocalist,
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kurt ellig, a chicago, hometown guy. then we will also have the national symphony orchestra under the direction of marvin hamlisch, one of the greatest composers in this country. it will be an incredible night for a lot of our guests. in a few minutes, you will hear more about the process of state visits and dinners and from white house historian bill allman. he will give you the background of how these things have worked in the past. you will also hear about the importance of protocol from tanya turner, who was from the state department. protocol is critical. how you stand, how you said, who walks were, all of that is really important. tonya will share with us how that works. before i turn it over to them, i
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want to take a few moments to share with everyone here also wide today means so much to me personally. -- why today means so much to me personally. i have been on the other side of these visits and dinners. -- as a guest in many countries. since becoming first lady, i have had the opportunity to visit eight countries with my husband, the president. in each and every country, during every visit, i have been moved by the warm and gracious hospitality that our host and the citizens of the countries that we visited have extended to the president and to meet. it means a great deal. -- when you are visiting and your hosts make you feel like you are at home. -- like they are excited to see you. each visit has also been you need and profound in its own way. it is not just the pomp and
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circumstance and the lights and cameras and fancy dresses, but when we have gone to other countries, we have done an incredible things. we saw the jewish quarter in prague. we visited this it -- we visited the sistine chapel. we have been to the coliseum in rome. and the american cemetery on the beaches of normandy in france were the world comes to honor the brave soldiers who died there. these places are more than monuments to history, naturally. they compel us to see the world through a broader lands, not just from your own background -- backyard or your school or your neighborhood. they teach us to look at the world -- world broadly. to respect and admire each other's cultures and traditions in a very different way and to honor all the values and the interests we all have in common. -- across the world.
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you see this not in a pomp and circumstance is, but in the people that you meet. we have met tons of incredible people over the course of our trips. the children and then on to care for them at a beautiful orphanage that i visited -- the nuns who care for them in russia. young girls that i got to spend some time with at the elizabeth garrard anderson at school. -- in london. the nurses in ghana and africa that we got to see. -- in africa that we got to see. the children, the caretakers, the girls, the teachers, the nurses and others that we met -- what you learn is they all want the same thing is you do, as we do. folks all around the world, they want to live in peace.
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they want to pursue their dreams and just like you guys do. and they have big, huge streams, just like you. -- huge dreams, just like you. and they hope for a brighter future for the next generation. these dreams are the same. what we figure out from these visits is that all across the world, no matter what our religions or raises are, that we are all building the future together and building that future is not just the job of any one country alone. no one country can do it by themselves. it is the responsibility of all of our countries all over the world to work together. that is why the president has worked so hard to began what he has called a new era in our relations with the world. he has worked to strengthen diplomacy. he has worked to renew old alliances so we are talking differently with countries and people we have not talked to
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before. he is building new partnerships and these partnerships he hopes will be based on mutual trust and respect. but one of the things the president has said is that this new era of engagement cannot just be between governments. it is not just about the president's and the prime minister is getting along. this new era of engagement also has to be between the people, the diplomats, business leaders, the scientists, the health care workers and yes, the teachers and students. young people just like you are part of building up future. and that engagement, the ability to exchange with one another, as young people is critical. when the president goes to another country, he makes it a productive visit and speak with students all around the world, whether in europe or cairo or
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china, he always reaches out to young people. we need to expand that type of educational exchange so that students like all of you here have the opportunity to experience and learn from other cultures and to share your own culture, however unique and different, with other parts of the world. deepening these ties is one of the things the president and the prime minister are working on today, one of the reasons for the trip to india and this state dinner is for these leaders to work together. whether it is along lines of working on the economy or working on the economy or climate change or global health they know that you are among the greatest ambassadors in america, and the greatest ambassadors of india as well. india is sending more students to study in this country than any other country.
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this year alone, more than 100,000 students came here to america to study somewhere. by doing that, they have learned from us, and we have learned from them in a very fundamental way. as a result of those interactions we are all richer. after today we will hopefully expand these exchanges even more. maybe one of you at this table, one of the little mentees may be studying somewhere in india. just imagine that. start thinking about your future in that way. this is a beginning of that for all of you. beginning of all of that for you. government alone cannot build the future that we want.
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-- for the world. he that is the job of each and everyone of us. that is one of the lessons for today. that is one of the lessons of the relationship between the united states and india. back when the president was a senator, he kept a picture of ghandi, the father of india, in his office. it was before he was a senator. he was always a big supporter in admirer of ghandi. -- because he inspired so many people in india and all around the world with his example of dignity and tolerance and peace and with a simple call. she would say "to be the change we wish to see in the world, we are that change." -- he would say "to be the change we wish to see in the world, we are that change."
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it is an opportunity to deepen the ties between the united states and india and a reminder to be the change, whether it is in your home or your school or community or in your country. you are the change we need. >> mrs. obama previewing tonight's dinner, including talking about the food that the guests will be eating. earlier today i spoke with a former white house chef about the planning that goes into tonight's dinner. we want to show you that conversation, have you listened to it, as well as show you images of the white house kitchen preparing for a state dinner during previous administrations. tell us what it is like in the kitchen this evening, preparing for a state dinner? >> an official dinner is very much like a broadway opening. there are some people involved,
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both from the tulare -- culinary aspect of it. the social staff, first lady. the adrenaline that is going on right now could not be higher. there has been a buildup. rehearsals, rehearsals. there is a guest chef. there is a first chance to take a look at mrs. obama's style. they have a great adrenalin. they are ready to perform chris and markets will do a famous job. i have taken a peek at the menu. there is an indian take to the menu this evening. i'm excited for them and for the obama is. it will be a wonderful night. >> what goes into coordinating the menu? >> the office of protocol at the state department will forward it dossier to the social secretary
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and to the first lady into the shaft. this will have personal preferences, medical requirements, religious or dietary requirements. in terms of food, in some cases, certain colors in certain flowers might not be appropriate for different cultures. there is a variety of things to make sure no offense is given from anything that might take place. outside of food, are remembered for one of the state dinners, chrysanthemums found their way onto the table. it was that the japanese state dinner. this is a funeral flour for the japanese. we pulled all the flowers quickly off the table. it is not a hotel or restaurant. it is a private home. it really is an international incident o. >> what about the first lady's
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dress? is that a factor? >> in a strange way it is. whatever color the dress is will be what a floral designer will do in terms of the floral pieces, the color of the tablecloths. this will roll back into the pattern of china that will be used in terms of what color it is. and then each color and pattern of china has different service pieces. in a small way, the color of the gown will denote what types of menu items you might be able to serve. >> how many days in advance to use at the menu? does it ever change at the last minute? >> it does not change at the last minute. there has been a cold bunch of rehearsing that has gone on. -- a whole bunch of rehearsing that has gone on. usually you know a good month in advance what is going to be. you have had a tasting and a testing and rehearsing and
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making sure it is just perfect. i will tell you that if the first lady came and said, i want to change is, you would do your darndest to change this. >> how involved is the first lady? fishy tasting the food is to go along? is the president involved in that? >> -- if she tasting the food as you go along? >> the president will get as involved as he chooses to. with the first state dinner, there will be more hands-on the involvement with the first lady. she will watch every details. all first ladies are driven, very helpful females, regardless of how they present themselves to the public -- there alpha es. they are going to want to be sure that everything is exact. >> you mentioned the guest chef.
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marcus said wilson from new york. -- samuelson from new york. what are your impressions? co>> he is renowned. the white house is a whole. if the wheat first lady decided that this is that cuisine -- if the first lady decided that this is what she decided she was going to use -- she was going to use, -- he has probably done at 50 state dinners. we get to do this all the time. i am sure chris and marcus are working to make sure that the timeline works, that the service is perfect. it does not matter how good the food is if you have to wait 45 minutes to get a course serve. >> having a guest chef does that add an extra headache for the head chef?
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>> in some respects, when you work at the white house, you are cloistered individually. you are sequestered in your kitchen. it is neat there is an outside shot to keep things fresh. -- out chef to keep things fresh. -- and outside chef. i suspect they are getting along famously. >> do you gather any sort of meaning from what we have seen it from the menu tonight? >> i would suggest that there is an indian subcontinent take to the menu itself. i think it will be interesting to see how it is actually executed. the white house is bad about american cuisine and american cuisine is like the american -- the white house is about american cuisine. it is a like the american
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populace. it is from all cultures. there are things that are distinctly indiana. but there are things that are traditional american. . .
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in many cases the floral decorations actually are more expensive to do the flowers than the food. >> can you give us a ballpark in? >> we never said down and its paper and pencil. let's just say it was x- dollars in the food became an issue, do you want to sit down and explain why her name is being bandied about like a comedy show t? it is about representing the hospitality of america and the first family and the graciousness of america. >> thank you for your time. more than 300 people were expected at night state dinner. the first state dinner, 10
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months into his administration. we will end tonight coverage here with president obama toasting@@ is live at -- to reduce
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hunger worldwide. that is 5 here on c-span at about 1:30 p.m. >> ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states accompanied by his excellency, the prime minister of the republic of india. >> please, be seated. hello, everybody. i'm very pleased to welcome prime minister saying to the white house -- prime minister sayiingh to the white house.
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this reflects our admiration for the prime minister's leadership, the bonds between peoples of the united states and india, and the historic opportunity we have to strengthen and broaden the partnership between our two nations. india today is a rising and responsible global power. in asia a, indian leadership is expanding prosperity and security across the region. the u.s. welcomes and encourages india's leadership role in helping to shape the rise of a stable, peaceful, and prosperous asia. beyond asia as the world's largest multiethnic democracy and as one of the world's fastest-growing economies and as a member of the g-20, india will play a pivotal role in meeting the major challenges we face today. this includes my top economic priority, creating good jobs with good wages for the american people. i believe that the relationship
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between the united states and india will be one of the founding partnerships of the united -- of the 21st century. this underscores the french of that i hope will continue throughout my presidency. that is why i hope to broaden the cooperation between our two nations. mike administration's commitment can be seen through our new strategic dialogue. i am pleased that we are joined today by the cochairs of our dialogue, secretary of state clinton and foreign minister krishna. our commitment to in the -- to india can be seen from my personal partnership with prime minister singh. we work together on economic matters that -- at our g-20 summit in london and in pittsburgh and i consider him a wise leader who has helped unleash india's extraordinary economic growth. he is a man of honesty and integrity. i respect him and i trust him
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and i have happily accepted his gracious in defeat-invitation to visit india next year. -- his gracious invitation to visit india next year. this discussion is the reason we have made so much progress in recent years. we have agreed to strengthen economic recovery and expand trade and investment to help both americans and indians. indian investment in america has created and sustained jobs across the u.s. the united states is india's largest trading and investment partner. there is significant bounce in our trading relationships -- balance in our trading relationships that i think is very reflective of the important route -- from work of the g-20. to sustain its momentum will create new initiatives to promote trade and investment, especially within those businesses that create most of
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the jobs here with in the u.s. i reaffirm to the prime minister my administration's commitment to fully commit to the agreement that will create american exports and jobs in both countries. we agree to move forward with our agreement at the g-20 summit in pittsburgh to pursue a balanced, while ensuring that emerging countries like india have a greater voice in shaping the international financial architecture. we've made progress in confronting climate change. i commended the prime minister for his commitment to areas like green building and energy efficiency, and we agreed to a series of important new efforts, a clean energy initiatives that will create jobs and improve people's access to more affordable energy, a green partnership to reduce poverty through sustainable and equitable development, and an historic effort to phase out subsidies for fossil fuels. with just two weeks until the beginning of copenhagen, it is also essential that all countries do what is necessary
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to reach a strong operational agreement that will confront the threat of climate change while serving as a stepping stone to a legally binding treaty. to that end, prime minister sing and i made important progress today. we reaffirm that an agreement in copenhagen to be comprehensive and cover all the issues under negotiation. we resolve to take significant mitigation actions that will strengthen the world's ability to, climate change. we agree to stand by these commitments with full transparency through a corporate processes as to their implementation. all of this bill on the progress we made in beijing and takes us one step closer to a successful outcome in copenhagen. but we also agreed to do an hour operation against transnational threats. the american people join our indian friends in remembering the horrific attacks in mumbai one year ago this week. to prevent future attacks we agreed that our law enforcement and intelligence agencies will work even closer, including
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sharing more information. we discussed my review of our policy in afghanistan and i thank prime minister singh for the indian contributions to the afghan people. i welcome the prime minister's support for the nonproliferation agenda that i laid out in prague. and i look forward to india's participation and our nuclear security summit next year as well as in his participation as a full partner in our shared vision of a world without nuclear weapons. part of that vision is to working -- is working together to ensure that all nations, including iran and north korea, live up to their international obligations. we agreed to expand the international -- the educational exchanges that will fuel our knowledge based economies. we are exec -- expanding the fulbright program that brings so many of our students and scholars together, especially in science and technology. we're increasing ties and exchanges between our universities and community colleges as part of a new obama-
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singh or singh-obama initiative. we think it is appropriately named. to advance our food this attrition, american and indian agriculture companies will cooperate to reduce hunger. not only in india were enormous strides have met been made around the world, it has much to teach. at our centers for disease control, we will partner with our county -- are indian counterparts to combat infectious diseases and promote global health. this is the concrete progress made today to create jobs and opportunity and security for our people. as a result, i believe the relationship between our two countries has never been stronger, a reminder that it will be one of the defining partnerships of the 21st century. we look forward to celebrating our partnership tonight as
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michele and i host the prime minister and mrs. carr at the first state dinner of our presidency -- of my presidency. it will be another opportunity to convey to the people of india as india assumes its rightful place as a global leader in the 20% three that you have in it -- have no better friend and partner than the united states of america. -- as a global leader in the 21st century that you have no better friend and partner than the united states of america. >> mr. president, distinguished ladies and gentlemen of the media, i thank from the core of my heart president obama for his very generous hospitality and for his very warm sentiments towards india and to me in particular. i am honored to be here today in
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this great country at the invitation of his excellency, the president. when india and the united states meat, it is a moment to celebrate the values of democracy, pluralism, liberty, and freedom. today, we have done that and much more. in our discussions today we hear of the importance of our relationship and decided on future steps to enhance our strategic partnership. we have agreed to further intensify our trade investment and economic cooperation in a way that creates jobs and prosperity in both our two
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countries and to stimulate global economic recovery. we admire the leadership that president obama has provided to stimulate and dieguide the procs that is now fully in place. we have decided to give a fresh impetus to collaboration's in te fields of education, agriculture and health. we will deepen our ongoing cooperation in the frontier areas of science and technology, nuclear power, and space. this will open new opportunities at our universities and laboratories
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and create human capital to meet the global needs of the future. we have a very constructive exchange of views on strategic issues. our defense cooperation is progressing well. we agreed on the early and full implementation of our civil nuclear cooperation. our strategic corporate -- partnership should facilitate high-technology to india, the lifting of u.s. export controls on high-technology exports to india will open vast opportunities for a giant research and development efforts. it will enable the u.s. sent -- industry to benefit from the
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rapid economic transformation that is now under way in our country. in a few weeks from now, the meeting of the conference of parties to the united nations framework convention on climate change will take place in copenhagen. both president obama and i have agreed on the need for a substantive and comprehensive outcome. with mitigation, adaptation, finance, and technology. we have affirmed our intention to work by laterally and with all other countries. we welcome the president's commitment to a major program for promotion of renewable energy and i drew his attention to india's own ambitious
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national action plan on climate change, which has eight national missions covering both mitigation and adaptation. just as we partnered with each other in the shaping of the economic ecology, we have the opportunity today to become partners in developing the greek economy of the future. i underline -- the green economy of the future. i underline india's desire to benefit from clean and energy- efficient technologies from the united states. our partnership will continue through global efforts to combat climate change and achieve energy security. we had a detailed discussion on the important regional and global issues.
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we agreed that the indian-u.s. partnership addresses of these challenges of the world we live in. the global economic crisis has come from the fact that our prosperity is interlinked. our dialogue cover the need to help an open and inclusive architecture in the pacific regions. it is important for the international community to sustain its efforts in afghanistan, to help its efforts towards being a modern state. the focused forces of terrorism in our region pose a grave threat to the entire civilized world and have to be defeated.
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president obama and i have decided to strengthen our cooperation in the area of counter-terrorism. india welcomes the international interests in nuclear disarmament and non- proliferation. and we have been a consistent advocate of a world free of nuclear weapons. we will work with the united states and other countries at the nuclear security summit, which president obama is hosting next april. in our discussions today there was a meeting of minds on the future direction of our relations. i was deeply impressed by president obama's strong commitment to the india-u.s.
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strategic partnership and by the breadth of his vision for peace and global prosperity. i have invited president obama to visit india. the warm welcome awaits him, his gracious wife, and his two daughters. i thank you. >> thank you very much. we will take one question each, one from an american journalist and one from an indian journalist. i will call on marra controller. -- martin moeller. >> i would like to ask you -- >> why stop now? >> perhaps you would like to set a new stage in our relationship by telling us where you stand in your decision on afghanistan.
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you have what we were told was your final meeting last evening. can you tell us how many more troops you will be sending to afghanistan, how you will be paying for them and whether you will be announcing a timetable and ores exit strategy for them? -- and/or an exit strategy for them? >> mark, i've been making -- i will be making an announcement to the american people about how we intend to move forward. i will do so shortly. i think the review we have gone through has been comprehensive and extremely useful. it has brought together my key military advisers, also civilian advisers. i can tell you, as i have said before, that is in our strategic interest -- it is in our strategic interest, in our national security interest to make trebek al qaeda and its extremist allies can operate -- to make sure al qaeda and its extremist allies cannot operate effectively in those areas.
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we will dismantle and destroy their networks. afghan -- afghanistan's stability is important in the process. i have also indicated that after eight years, some of those years in which we did not have either their resources or the strategy -- of the resources or the strategy to get the job done, it is my intention to finish the job. i feel very confident that when the american people hear a clear rationale for what we're doing there, and how we intend to achieve our goals that they will be supportive. now, i think it is worth mentioning since i will be with the prime minister of india, that this is not just important to the united states, but it is important to the world. the whole world, i think, has a
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core security interest in making sure that the kind of extremism and violence that you have seen emanating from this region is tackled, confronted in a serious way. now, we have to do it as part of a broader international community. one of the things i will be discussing is the obligations of our international partners in this process. it is going to be very important to recognize that the afghan people ultimately are going to have to provide for their own security. we will be discussing the process whereby afghan security forces are properly trained and equipped to do the job. it is going to be important to recognize that in order for us
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to succeed there, you have got to have a comprehensive strategy that includes a civilian and diplomatic efforts. i think that is a sufficient preview to last until after thanksgiving. >> [inaudible] >> after thanksgiving. [laughter] i'm sure that at that point, if there are further questions, then we will be answering them to the satisfaction not just of view, but to the satisfaction of the american people. >> would you tell india and the u.s.'s allies, especially in our region -- because there is the perception in india that the military that you gave pakistan is misused against india. it is really at the epicenter of terrorism did this issue come up
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in your discussions with the prime minister? and will you be pressuring pakistan to get its act in order? and when is the nuclear treaty going to go on the road? >> well, first of all, i think that the united states and india are natural allies not just around counter-terrorism issues, but on a host of issues, as we discussed earlier. we are the world's two largest democracies. we have a range of shared values and ideals. we are both entrepreneurial society is, both multi-ethnic societies. we are societies that a leading human rights -- believe in human rights and core freedoms that are enshrined in our founding documents. one of the things that i think
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makes us such strong allies is the people to people contact. it is one thing for leaders to have exchanges like this one, and it is very important, obviously. but the incredible contributions that indian americans have made to the growth of our country and the degree to which they are woven into the very fabric of our society, the fact that very few indians do not have some family member somewhere who has a connection to the united states, that kind of exchange strengthens and deepens the bonds between our two countries in april fine -- profound way. now, with respect to security issues in the region, the prime minister and dii had discussions about that extensively. we both recognize that our core
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rolgoal is to achieve peace and security for all peoples in the region, not as one country or the other. one of the things that i admirer most about prime minister singh is that at his core he is a man of peace. of these the, their historic conflict between india and pakistan. it is not a place of the u.s. to try to from the outside resolve all those conflicts. on the other hand, we want to be encouraging of ways in which both india and pakistan can feel secure and focus on the development of their own countries and people. with respect to the relationship of the united states and -- between the united states and pakistan's military, i think that there have probably been times in the past in which we were so single-minded lee focused on just military assistance in pakistan that we
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do not think more broadly about how to encourage and developin e kind of civil the security in pakistan that would affect the lives of the people every day. secretary clinton is doing a good job in trying to move forward -- where she? i thought she was around here somewhere. but anyway, she has done an excellent job in helping to focus our energies on the front as well. obviously, pakistan has an enormously important role in the security of the region by making sure that the extremist organizations that often operate out of its territories are dealt with effectively. and we have seen some progress. the pakistan -- the work that the pakistan military is doing in the swat valley and in south windsor a stand awaziristan
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indicate that -- in south waziristan indicates that they can have an effect on their security interests -- internally. my hope is that we will see for the cooperation between all parties and all peoples of goodwill in the region to eradicate terrorist activity, to eradicate that kind of violent extremism that we have seen. i think that will benefit the peoples of pakistan and india and the world community as well. >> the president and myself had a very useful and productive exchange of views relating to security, peace, and counterterrorism in our regions. i am very satisfied in the outcome of the discussion with president obama.
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as far as the nuclear deal is concerned, the president has reaffirmed that it is the common resolve of our two governments to operational lieize this as sn as possible. there are teams that need to be crossed and "i's" that need to be dotted. i'm confident. >> thank you very much, everybody.
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sustainable and solid. bob? >> thank you, david. we know that we're in the midst of the deepest downturn in decades, but i'd like to back up a bit. and talk first about the economic recovery that preceded the current downturn, which started at the end of 2001 and ran through the end of 2007. now, the reason i'm bringing this up, is that we have a norm l hall cycle -- normal cycle, during periods of economic growth, employment increases and poverty declines and during
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recessions, unemployment rises and poverty rises with it. however, what happened in the last recovery is we had virtually no decline in poverty. the median income of the typical working aged household in the united states was no higher at the end of the recovery than at the bottom of the previous recession. this hadn't happened in recent history. well, what it meant was that we went into this recession with an unusually high level of poverty to begin with and the increases in poverty came on top of that. and the reason that the previous recovery was so disappointing in this regard, is that the gains, the economic gains from it, were remarkably unevenly shared. latest data suggests that as much as two-thirds of the economic gains may have gone to people at the top of the income
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scale. and that the share of income in 2007, the last recovery year, that went to the top 1% of the population was at its highest level since 1928. so here we are now, we have 10.2% unemployment, the census data tell us that there were 39.8 million americans living in poverty, but that was in 2008, when unemployment was lower, the number is clearly significantly above that now. last week, we got new food and security data. and they reflected the impact, the first part of the impact of the economic downturn. on issues of food and security. so we're at a time of significant hardship and given the previous dixes that unemployment will remain around the 10% level for perhaps another year and then decline slowly over several years after that. we have a number of years of significant levels of hardship
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facing us straight ahead he. having said that, if that's the bad news part of the context. better news part of the context is that effective public policy canake a big difference. it sounds strange to say, but could have been much worse. we really were on the edge of a precipice last winter. we had a three-month period where we were losing three quarters of a million jobs every month and we recently completed an analysis of the economic recovery package that was enacted last february and we find using the broader definition of poverty and the earned income credit, the recovery package is resulting in six million fewer people falling into poverty than would otherwise have been the case, given the severity of the recession. things in that package like
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substantial increases in food stamp benefits, increases in both the size and the duration of unemployment insurance benefits, $140 billion over two years in fiscal relief to state governments without which they would have cut programs, many of which serve needy people much more deeply than they're doing, all of these things have both reduced the hardship that lessens the increase in hardship that would otherwise have occurred, and they've also created a lot of jobs, by putting more money into people's pockets. there's often a mistaken impression that in recessions, one just gives tax cuts, say, to businesses. businesses have a responsibility to their shareholders. they can't employ more people than the goods they can produce can actually sell in the market. if you don't have customers with money in their pockets, it doesn't matter how much tax cuts you give to firms, it will mostly go into their bottom lines, they'll save it for a
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time when, if they employ more people and produce more goods, somebody will actually buy them. so economists tell us these have been among the most effective job preservation aspects of the stimulus package. now where do we go from here he? well, i think we're all hoping that we're going to build on the effective parts of the recovery package, that we're going to clearly, i think, extend unemployment benefits. we can't allow the additional weeks of benefits to end at the end of december. i think congress will extend those. we're learning that we need the federal government to act quickly to provide additional funding to states for administrative costs and operating the food stamp program. so many people are in need now that in growing numbers of areas of the country, you may have to wait a month or two just to get an appointment to be allowed to apply for food stamps, which not only increase he is hardship, but it undercuts the economic effectiveness of the food stamp
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increases part of the package, and our view at the center on budget, we need substantial increases in fiscal relief for states without which, in the career ahead, there will be a new round of budget cuts, much deeper than those that have occurred to date, and much more damaging to job growth as well as to the needs of people who were facing hardship and strug tolling get by day-to-day in this economic downturn. having said all of that, i started by referring to the previous recovery, because looking forward, the question is, how does the next recovery be different than the last one? how do we make sure the gains are more evenly shared? and that they operate as recoveries used to, in ways that reduce poverty and reduce hunger. and that's really what the bread for the world report that's released today looks to do. it's a more visionary report that doesn't look just at the
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immediate hardship and the economic downturn, but has a bigger, bolder vision, looking forward. and that is, i think, precisely what we need. you know, the president has set a goal to end child hunger in this country by 2015. and sometimes in the past, we've had too narrow a focus. we've sometimes thought, if only we make the federal food assistance programs for children stronger. what we increasingly understand is that's a necessary but not sufficient part of the range thing that we need to do, without which we'll still have significant child hunger, and bread for the world is, i think, quite appropriately, david mentioned it, lifting up another key issue, it's for the future, but congress will decide on it in the year ahead, and i think bread is lifting up and it's offering of letters, this is the focus as well. that's the following.
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in the recovery package, there's a two-year, temporary -- there's a set of two year temporary provisions that include recommendations, people working on child poverty have been making for a number of years, to substantially improve the refundable tax credits, the earned income credit and the child tax credit for low income families with children. these have a robust effect, they estimate 1.5 million people out of poverty, and many millions more who are still in poverty are made significantly less poor by them. these are temporary provisions, so they're slated to expire at the end of 2010. the president has proposed making them permanent in his last budget, and he proposed offsets by closing various unproductive tax loopholes to pay for them, so this can be
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done without reducing the deficit. this will be one of the most important tests our policymakers face in the year ahead. they have a path out there for them, by which they can increase the efficiency of the tax codes, significantly reduce child hunger. one more key building block in moving towards eliminating child hunger by 2015, and do it in a deficit neutral fashion. so i just mention that as one key example of the larger vision that's reflected in the report, and in the work with its offering of letters that bread for the world is highlighting in the year ahead. >> thank you so much. that's a pleasure. my name is reverend lenox
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yearwood junior. he might have up stumbled on my first name a little bit, because everybody calls me rev, so it's almost like everybody says rev yearwood. you can all call me rev too. it's an honor to be here nor this discussion. the hip-hop caucus has a great task of convincing people to google retrofitting before me gag l l rihanna -- google rihanna, so we have a tough task ahead of us to make that happen. but the reality though, is that for our generation, this is our clean energy -- energy movement, as it was for the 20th centur 20th century. our generation must have the clean energy movement for the 21st century.
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in the last century, they were dealing with drinking from the same water fountains and going to the same pools. being able to go to the same hotels. and we came together as a country, black and white, brown and yellow, male and female, christian, jew and muslim. we came together to defeat that. but now we're not dealing with just equality. our generation is dealing with existence. we don't get this problem solved literally humanity ceases and we don't fix the problem now with global warming and climate change, nine years into the 21st century, there could possibly not be a 22nd century. and so our generation is not dealing with with so much the civil rights movement, as we must organize and mobilize and
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energy highs for a clean energy movement, that's why i'm so happy that bread for the world wrote this outstanding report, a just and sustainable recovery, hunger, 2010. which really outlines fighting poverty, hunger, and pollution at the same time. just two years ago, you -- people weren't really talking about green jobs. it really wasn't on the lips of america. it wasn't something that people where i work with, either in the bronx or in compton or in chicago, or in north, they weren't talking about green jobs, but they're talking about green jobs today. most of our green jobs in west virginia and kentucky and louisville, all around our wonderful country, they're
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discussing green jobs and i think there's a hunger to fix the two most critical problems of our day, our economic catastrophe and our climate crisis. if there's ever two times we want to put two words together, are the two word, climate and crisis. but we're there. but out of a climate crisis, the two sides to crisis, there is the one side that is danger and if we do not fix what is wrong with our climate, there's no more snow on mount kill man jar row, there's now huge lakes in the greenland, the arctic is beginning to melt away, there's asthma, there's cancer, we saw katrina. if we don't fix the climate crisis, and we move toward a catastrophe, but the other side of crisis, there are two sides to crisis. there's crisis on one side, but
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there's also opportunity. we have the opportunity to fight poverty and pollution at the same time. and we can also put the people who most need work and give them the jobs that we most need to be done, the jobs are retrofitting and weatherizing and building solar panels. these jobs that can be done in america, that can put folks back to work in the southeast, that can put folks back to work in the bronx, that can put folks back to work in rural west virginia. these jobs, that can only be done here. the job that can fix our climate crisis, that can give folks opportunity, give them hope, give them a job, so they can put food back on the table. this moment is where we are right now. a greenway that can lift all boats, but to do that, there are a few things that we must do.
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one, i will continue to encourage congress and our president to be -- push hard on fixing and having a climate legislation that has a strong green jobs and clean energy jobs component. and two, really finding training for our people. we might have follow slow down a little bit, for the troops who are coming home and give them the training they need to fill some of these green jobs. we might have to take a little time for the folks who didn't do so well in high school in indianapolis, to give them the training that they need to figure out how to put on solar panels. but if we can do that, not only can we save our planet, but we can end hunger in the corners and the byways of america. let me close by saying this. for my generation, this is our
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lunch counter moment. for the 21st century. the lunch counter moment for the 21st century in salina because they couldn't be served. in this generation, we'll be judged by other children's children and they won't care if we're democrat or republican, they'll look back and say did you care about humanity. did you care about the fact that the earth was heating up. did you care about the fact that now we can't breathe? did you take the time to move away from fossil fuels and take the solar energy and harness -- did you take that time to do that? on october 24, me and a bill mc kibben led the largest rally around this globe. there were hundreds of rallies,
4:11 am, and we did that and it was out standing. but if we don't come together now as americans, we could lose everything. but on that day, i started that day not going to the rally for climate change. i started that rally going to the funeral for devonte artist. a 14 yelled student who was killed in a drive-by over here on northeast. i started that day looking at a casket of a too familiar scene. a young boy whose neighborhood had lost hope, and they were rehe solving to shooting and killing one another and i started that day thinking about what we can do as americans. and we can bring hope back.
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we can fight poverty and pollution at the same time. we can give those kids in the hoods jobs, we can begin to give them hope again. this is our lunch counter moment. for the 21st century. i pray humanity needs to challenge. thank you. >> wow, that's a tough act to follow. but an inspiring one, and i think my demeanor is probably not as engaging, but it's no less heartfelt and i thank the reverend for his very motivational comments. so my -- i work for oxfam, an international development agency
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with offices in about 100 countries around the world and what i wanted to bring this morning, first of all is thanks and congratulations to bread to the world and bread for the world institute and s aasa p who put together a great report and forward thinking in looking at the recovery we're hopefully beginning right now and how to do things for the future and i was just having a look at the web site before this, and it's pretty cool, so i recommend it to all of you. it's got some great sort of visual tuesday. -- tools. for those of us working on global hunger and poverty, the last couple years has felt like reeling from crisis to crisis, even before we were gripped in crisis in this country, poor people around the world were gripped in 2007 and 2008 in a price crisis around food. food prices were spiraling out of control around the world, there were food riots in many countries, prices had risen over about a three-year period by 83% on basic food commodities.
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we felt it in this country, but it was a near crisis in many countries around the world and became a political crisis in two countries. that seemed terrible and it was terrible and hunger was on the increase as a result of the rising food prices. and then the economic crisis hit. starting in the fall of last year. there was a small blessing in the economic crisis, which was that it tended to moderate food prices, because global demand came down and so food price increases began to float down, although prices remained higher than their historical average. but it didn't have the benefit of reducing hunger. in fact, the global economic crisis has created an income crisis among the poorest people, so now they have less money to buy food and hunger again is on the rise, or leaping upward again from where it was. the best estimates now are that globally, about a billion people, a little over a billion
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people, face hunger. and this is sort of a milestone, in human history. a billion people, about one in six of humanity facing hunger and a massive challenge. earlier, global leaders promised to try to reduce by half the number of hungry people around the world. this was a -- seen as a very ambitious challenge, but we're not even coming close to making progress on that challenge. we're actually going backward in terms of the absolute number of people hungry around the world. so now we're in the grip of this economic crisis, which is flowing through into developing countries, and on the horizon is the next crisis. the climate crisis. the climate crisis is something that's much talked about, but it is already being experienced by millions of people around the world. david made mention of the early signs that weather events,
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storms and droughts, are occurring with more frequency, and often with more vigor, and the projections are all very, very dangerous for hunger around the world. researchers in rice, which feeds about half of humanity as a staple food is that for every one degree increase in temperature, there's something like a 6% to 10% decrease in rice productivity. so if you think the world is headed towards two or three or four degrees increase, that's a pretty massive blow to the basic staple crop for half of humanity. :
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>> there's now no global agreement to take action on climate change. the hope is that sometime in 2010, such an agreement would be forthcoming. we're waiting in this country to take action to pass domestic legislation. that also is pushed back to 2010 at the earlier. this is our challenge. but as other speakers have said, in the challenge is also an opportunity. because measures taken to address all of these crises, the food crisis, the economic crisis, and the climate crisis,
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can be interwoven, and have a profor, and prohunger outcome if they are designed well. this is our narrow challenge as advocates and lobbyist is to first of all intergrate these responses. some of them have occurred in isolation. but you the speakers talking about them as interwoven. and i do think they are. certainly for poor people, they are feeling the crisis in synergies and on top of one another and reeling from one to the next. so in this country we've mobilized billions of dollars of fuel -- trillions of dollars to do with the economic crisis. and billions of dollars to deal with the food crisis. in the near future, if we do take action, we'll mobilized hundreds of billions of dollars more to deal with climate change. basically, putting a price on climate. which creates large new revenue
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flows. which are available for various purposes. right now in the congressional bills, most of the value on the price of carbon will go to polluters. that'll hopefully be a transition. and the value of that solution will be transferred to people. i want to -- just a few words about growth. in developed economies like ours, growth tends to be slow. we have big economies. but slow growth. in developing countries, the economies of growth is very high. for the future, most of the economic growth in the world will be happening in other countries. that means that our own economic future is much more tied to the economic futures of other countries. and in particular, growing in developing countries where most poor people reside. i think that give us us a stake in their economies. and open to a better integration with them, more cooperation, and
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a focus on their -- not just poverty in this country, but reducing poverty and increasing economic activity and increasing demand in those countries. in that way, i want to say that there's a risk right now. as budgets get tighter, and as soon as we're through this, we know that we're going to have to go through a very painful process of reducing our federal deficits. but in that process, i think it's in our own interest very strongly to maintain our assistance to developing countries for poverty and hunger-related assistance to our friends in other countries where i think we see our own interest in their growth. this administration has been very forward leaning, they've been making commitments to large new programs in poverty and hunger. president obama has made several announcements around the food security initiative. president obama has promised to
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double aid for agriculture. and all of this is encouraging. but it needs to be followed through over the next, in particular congress needs to run along. and in addition, the administration has launched an effort to really review our a programs. to make sure we are getting the value for our dollar. i think this is the other side of maintaining, or increasing a is to make sure we're getting the biggest impact. the most poverty reduction, making sure they are effective as producing hunger. these efforts, i think, are critical not just as charity, but in our own interest for the future. and these investments, ideally, will generate growth. but also importantly, improve the resilience of people shocks as they come, the economic, price, and climate shocks are more survivallable. people have more tools to deal with them. and can recover quicker when they are given a shock. so that's where i think the
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world paper is important in thinking about the quality of our recover by of we don't want to go back to where we were. a very highly leveraged economy where people were very vulnerable. speaking of our own people. our homeowners with very high leverage mortgages, our financial institutions which were very fragile when the bottom came out. we needs to think about more resilience for people. so thanks for your coming to this. thanks very much for the insight on this paper. >> so what we're saying is in the middle of this economic crisis, to do the right thing. and if we to the right thing. that's the smart thing. and it just maybe the crisis is bad enough that it convinces us to do the right thing, and to make a future for ourselves. and there's many just than in the past. all of the questions for any of
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the speakers if you want to address your question to a speaker, that's -- i'll just pass them over to him. also, with this morning is todd post who is the editor of the hunger report. and so if he's also available to help us with questions. yes, let's -- why don't we start first with press. if there are press questions, those start with those. yeah, identify yourselves as you take the mic please. >> yes. i'm with a media. i guess this would be particularly to reverend david beckmann, but anyone else that might have insight. the press release i see you are mentioning that green jobs
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potentially could be worse than four million manufacturing jobs loss into the recession, and what what -- could you be more detailed as far as what the jobs would be and how you see this happening? does anyone else think this is a possibility? >> sure. also. the reverend may know more about it than i do. the kinds of -- as we -- if we shift forwards green jobs, some of that shift would be public works programs that would directly employ people who are unemployed to weatherize schools, weatherize low-income housing. and also if you change the prices, the price of energy basically. if you put a price on carbon, it'll change how we do developments. it provokes a lot of investment
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opportunities. and that'll create a lot of jobs. just that shift will create a lot of new jobs. the jobs that we think are mainly in infrastructure, updating how our buildings function, and also in manufacturing. they tend to be the, the kinds of things that need to happen in order to make our economy greener are things that can only happen here. they are domestic activities. they are likely to create lots of jobs. compared to investment in some other areas. so the numbers that we site are numbers from various studies. i think it's hard to know exactly how many jobs are going to -- what -- how are these things going to play out. that's a good judgment on the kind of jobs that could be created by making the shift forward a greener economy.
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are you talking about all parts of the world? >> no, those are u.s. jobs. >> not the developing words? >> right. yes? go ahead. >> hi, this is christian post. the question is for robert. you had mentioned the last recovery. i hope that you could be a little more specific on what the time frame you met for the last recovery. >> the last recovery began at the end of the 2001 and ran through the end of 2007. >> steve with voice of america, for reverend yearwood, why do you think that the green jobs provide an opportunity to say if
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they don't go to -- basically, why do you see these as a good opportunity for you in particular? >> well, i think the first thing is the fact that you're changing the actual economy. you are going from a fossil fuel economy to a clean-energy economy. for americans we're moving from being the consumer to the producer. and because we are producing more jobs, and obviously would be more jobs for every one. i don't think that everybody in the -- from the bronx or oakland, all of them get the jobs. that's not what we want. the great thing is for america. that we are moving from being our economy that is based on being a consumer to actually producing. these things must be produced here. when you are retrofitting a home
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or weatherized, those are things that the training. but also this is back to the original question that was asked earlier, piggy backing. one of the things is that walls are changing, because the fossil fuel economy to the clean energy. you are also changing the mindset of how to be an accountant. not just how much you spend, but also how much you save. and so for color in particular, this is very important because of energy efficiency. and so it's not just how much you are spending. sometimes everybody might get a green collar job and different types not just construction or retro fitting, there's going to be urban planners or employers. but the changing of the economy. one the underlying cost is crisis. we couldn't afford to pay for their homes. but we also couldn't afford to
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pay the energy bills. one the things there for the commission of color are four people. they begin to have a more efficient community. and then they will save on the energy bills. but that will also help them in different ways as well. yes? >> i'm a freelance on the radio. i'm just curious in terms of the overseas and developing countries information on terms of poverty. we do have this economic crisis. countries are interested in helping their own populations and stuff. and rather than spending the money overseas. but if -- i understand this was rolled through the meeting in rome last week. no one agreed to any targets, or i believe there are no major new commitments. what appeals are you going to be making to try to get more money to go to feed people. and how dire is the situation in particular countries. are we talking about seeing
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these videos where we@@@@@@ @ @i "@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ r@ @ @ rrn@ @ s made. we are seeing some countries
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begin to move backward. we haven't seen that yet in this country. but it's something to watch for. it's up to us to hold our leaders accountable. i would say that president obama is being pretty outspoke terms of focusing on food security and agriculture and trying to drag the rest of the community along with him, getting commitments out of them from the g8 meeting in july for $20 billion for agriculture. which is in the scheme of things not that much money. but it's important to do some fund raising and advertisement. i'm hoping we have the right rhetoric. but the accountability is, think, the next stage we will be able to hold leaders accountable. so i think that's the answer. in terms of how bad are things going to get, i don't think we know. obviously we are very worried about it. obviously the best projections
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are that many more people are hungry now than food and security and poverty, and the collapse in global demand is now flowing through as a economic factor for developing countries, exports are down, tens of millions of people are out of work. we are likely to see the wave come later in most developing countries than we see in the developed world. but be potentially worse in developing countries. so something to watch for carefully. i think we'll need to see the emergency plans to deal with these problems as they emerge. >> if i can just add on that that it's -- this is another instance in which doing the right thing is the good thing. gay gawain -- gawain talked
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about that. there are some countries where you see huge surges in poverty and instinct that will end us costing us in lots of other ways. so the amount of money that's to help the developing countries forward is relatively small compared to say the u.s. budget. but spending that money makes a lot of sense. bread for the world is campaigning in support of what the president and the state are trying to do to mobilize the global effort to strengthen agricultural and reduce hunger in poor countries. we'll also -- bread for the world is really working to make our foreign aid program more effective. we think in the time like this, in the middle of the economic crisis, we should use those foreign aid dollars more effectively than we do.
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and get more of the money to the people who need help. so we see that work on making foreign aid just more bang for the buck for poor people. we see that as an integral part of the larger division of the economic recover we, that's sustainable and just. >> are there other press questions? yes, go ahead. yeah? no. go ahead. >> increasing the interest in the issue of climate change, last week evangelical leaders met. do you have any plans on engaging churches somehow on advocating for the a green economy? >> reverend? >> well, on august of this year, we actually launched our green to block complain with our partner organization, green for
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all. and part of that is to engage the faith community as well as next year we'll be going around the country to really bridge the gap. the faith community will be a critical place to where we will come together again to discuss this. i think that's very -- we've seen some great signs of the faith community, and the science community really coming together now, working on this issue. i'm very excited to see. there's been some hostility, and some friction. but i think the crisis is a number of different communities together. particularly the favorite and science community. >> and bread for the world is supported by another 50 different church bodies. we have 4,000 local congregations that participate in bread for the world. this report is one way that we are helping our network, mostly
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christian people across the country, think about the economy. and we're going to do that, and people in churches can help on sunday mornings. that's one way we can help. any other press question? questions for comments from other people? welcome. yes, go ahead. >> dr. robinson -- >> can you identify yourself? >> yes, dr. robinson in the faith based works. we have so many people who are among the so-called working core who are in need of help. and even though they are working, and i was just wondering whether or not in this green jobs, et cetera, the issue of living wages, and others thing that are significant. i wanted to to speak a little bit more to that win the faith community getting involved in
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that. >> do you want to speak to that? >> well, first there's an opportunity, as you know, from the recovery, and hud, and from the energy grants that are coming out. so i begin to go into particularly urban communities. there's a great trend in that. the justice about what people get in the jobs. and we will be galing with that. one the things that we need to deal with in terms of color as you well know has been even with labor and while labor has been good, sometimes apprenticeship and journeymen have not always going to color for these jobs.
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we need to rebuild that structure, as well as living wages, and fair wages. this will come through to training. the process of giving green jobs to the need is again to connect the work that needs to be done. people who most need this within the poor communities. black and white, brown and yellow will be trained. i think that'll be the first step before moving to the living wage which will be the next step to ensure that when they get these jobs that they are not just jobs. we don't want green jobs. we want to have careers. >> there are four elements here, repeating to some degree what the reverend just said. the first question is as green jobs grow in numbers, who gets those jobs? and that makes particularly important who have in place
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quickly and ramping up over time. effective job training programs so that people with lower income communities, minority backgrounds, people who don't necessary have college educations that aren't really needed for a number of these jobs. but do get the appropriate training and background. so that they can compete for these jobs. they have a history of mixed track records on the effectiveness of job training programs. some have been effective, but others have not. i think it's very important for us to be moving quickly, to have evaluations in place to find the most effective types of job training programs for particularly for the green jobs that are going to be grows in numbers. the second issue are the wage levels. minimum wage obviously is in important here. and there are some for living
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wage as well. one should recognize the limitations. one can't simply ask that wage levels be mandated up to the level that we like to see all families get in their paycheck. but already limits to how high you can go without limiting the number of jobs. there's a tradeoff a. and this is why for the last several decades, we have supplemented the minimum wage with what i talked about earlier, and as david talked about, with refundable tax credits for low-income working families. really the take home pay them becomes the sum of the wage itself as the main component. but supplemented by the tax credit, the earned income credit, the child tax credit for low-income working families. and one wants to make sure the combination gets families to an adequate level. the third issue is health care. we need to be sure that the jobs
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either come with health care or that health care otherwise is affordable for everybody who has those jobs. as far as i'm concerned, the health reform legislation moving is an essential element of this larger picture. and so when you put together well designed effective training programs for minimum wage standards with tax credits for lower income working families, and health care that either through the employer or through another mechanism is affordable for everybody. then those pieces combined, i think get us where we want to go. >> the people we invited are policy leaders an partners. let's so here from some other folks, questions or comments? i'm planning to close up at 10:30. yes. identify yourself. >>my -- michelle learner.
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following up about the communities of color, what do people think about the gender question? we have i think one single mother and three surgeons here, and that's a figure i just saw. a lot of green color, blue color jobs have gone to men. i wondered if you thought some things specific would be done to address that problem for women, particularly women raising children. >> i'll give that one to you. >> there are some outstanding programs, even in the report. the south bronx program, the good friend mr. carter did. and there are a number of programs that are being led. and you're right. this is -- we are dealing with the issue of poverty and pollution. and we are not addressing the issue of working families and particularly working mothers as
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we are beginning to build this new clean energy jobs sector. we would have missed the mark then. so i think that one of the key things that around the country that i have been seeing has been the amazing amount of women, and young women at that, who are getting engaged and finding out more about the new clean energy economy. also on the leadership side, my good friend who runed it out in auckland, a number of phenomenal women leaders who are also leading to the kind of jobs, but it's also good to have women leaders in the movement as well. so i think that what we are now beginning to see in color. you will begin to see young people and old people begin to get excited about the new green
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jobs. particularly, the advantage. i think the bill that's in congress now in using the community college system as a way to build that, it will allow more people to not have to go through the four-year program. but also to go through the community college program and get some of the training that is needed. a lot of these jobs that are coming up through the programs will be available for all people. so it won't be just construction jobs. >> i want to just add if we are talking about jobs, and women in particulars jobs and low-income single mothers, for example, green jobs are important. there will be a growing share in the jobs of the u.s. economy. there are. q. -- jobs that will grow in other sectors as well. that the increase in the number of jobs in the health care
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sector will probably be larger if we move forward@@@@@ @ h@ @ n unsuccessful in moving those single mothers with the greatest barriers to employment,
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educational, physical problems, maybe some mental problems, to help them overcome those barriers, move into the job market, and start to move up the job ladder. we need to reform and reengineer that program. it's much more effective in helping move those mothers into the work force. for some of those mothers, if we overcome those barriers they maybe able to take some green jobs. :
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>> about 50 percent of our congregations are in rural counties and small towns around the country, and i'm wondering in outlining this particular report, using this focus, i'm wondering if you or maybe mr. greenstein would say a little more about the potential for the recovery, and especially its impact on those who live in small towns, rural counties, those who are trapped in a kind of really poverty in those areas. >> thank you. as you know, bread for the world has done a series of reports on
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agricultural policy, rural development, and has a ton of lead lot of legislation work on those issues. the rate of poverty and hunger, are higher in rule america than in urban america. and the policies that we have no that are called foreign policies are not the best way to address to help people in rural america that really need help. so i think that is an unfinished agenda. in this economy we really cannot afford protectionist subsidies for rich landholders. we have got to go back to the farm bill and to deal with those subsidies that hurt poor farmers in developing countries, don't really help anybody but a really small group of large landholde
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landholders. and also drain financial resources. we do need to be fiscally responsible, and that is a glaring case where we are spending some money that is not moving our whole economy in the right direction. so what policy can do, it seems to me, to strengthen rural communities, struggling people in rule communities, would include reform of our farm and agricultural policies to focus on the people who need help. and to shift some money from people for getting money because they have political power to the people in rural america who really need help. and in that way, to strengthen small-scale farms, small farms that farce do need support, income support, provide help for those farmers but then there are a lot of people in rural america who are not farmers.
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so through rural development programs, you can address, help those people get a little knowledge, they can start a business, fun to the fire department so that if their house burned, they have a fire truck. what we're doing in the area, in the recovery package for broadband access in rural america is really important for the health of those families so that they can find out information about health issues from the web. but also for economic development if they are disconnected from the web, it is really hard to get a thriving economy. so i appreciate that you raised the issue of rural america. i think one more question. >> judy with freelance consultants. this question is for both david and bob. two issues i haven't heard mentioned, which i am curious about. one is about the employment of
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fact of employer -- employment effect of employer provided health insurance. if we had a reasonable national health insurance program, would that create more jobs if the employers then didn't have that expense on their jobs? and is that part of your agenda here? and second, i haven't heard anything about raising taxes. all of these programs require money. i realize the right wing does not want to raise taxes, but it seems to me we have to raise taxes and a more progressive income tax would help. i'm wondering if that is on your agenda. >> these are hard questions so i'll ask bob greenspan to answer. [laughter] >> i think in terms of health care, people today who are uninsured, on average get sound but inadequate health care. they may go to the emergency room. if we are closer to universal
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coverage, if more people are getting better care and so forth, the total amount of, this ought to create over time some increases number of jobs in the health care sector. now, the health care bill is an emblem here. i actually think it is pretty remarkable that we have two bills on the capitol hill that each would extend insurance over 30 million people who otherwise would lack it. and yet, both bills, the congressional budget office tells us, would actually reduce deficits at the same time. now those bills make some important reforms, particularly in the medicare program with regard to payment to certain kinds of providers and other reforms. and they raise some revenue. the senate, in part, from putting a limit on the tax
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subsidy for the highest and most expensive insurance plans. as we move forward, and we look at the kinds of things we need to do, we would, none of these things are free lunches. every one of these over time is going to have to be paid for. that is going to entail a combination of reforms on the spending side of the budget, but several on the table with regard to price supports. were going to need to do more in the health care area, and as you said, we definitely are going to need to increase more revenue. we have to do all of these things. this is part of the tough challenges that lie ahead. precisely the fact that none of these things are easy or free, that if we get down the road and we don't make the right choices, in the long run we will all lose. by having a less productive
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economy that has fewer jobs for everybody. but tax reform and more revenues, and health care reform, those are essential ingredients in my view to most other reforms in most other areas over the long-term. >> thank you very much to the members of the press who are covering this story. thanks to our excellent speakers, really interesting. i want to thank again todd post and my other colleagues at bread for the world, bread for the world institute who helped put this report together. you can find the whole report, the executive summary is now out, and i think as people in the room have copies of that, you can get more copies of that by getting in touch with bread for the world at and in the whole report is online at hunger report. i appreciate that all of you who have come this morning.
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i look forward to working with all of you for a just and sustainable economic recovery. thank you. [applause]
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[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2009] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] >> especially the main guy at the air space smithsonian in dulles, i worked with him as a second lieutenant and he emailed me and said which of these things should i get? i'm like don't take any of them. hopefully they will stay around for a while. i know that is being actively pursued. i think they have enterprise but if they had a real space vehicle or at least a cockpit, they were inquiring into i believe at the time a simulation device. it is pretty intricate and takes
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a lot of upkeep to keep it running. that would probably with an incredible thing for them to have. >> this is jill representing bay area houston magazine. a question for randy bresnik. you have used music to express what you feel throughout this mission. what music will you use to describe your ride uphill and certainly the fabulous news about your daughter? >> i can probably tell you qut ride of the thalkries squts probably for the launch and as far as the birth of my daughter, i haven't had much time to think about that. i'll get back with you. >> question for leland melvin.
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what was your most challenging robotics task and most exciting moment during the mission? >> i think the most exciting task was when butch and i installed the hpgt with randy and bobby outside who were using the helmet cameras and it was a very close, you know, tolerances to get it to the right place and it was a very good display of teamwork and coordination and i think -- what was the second question? >> most exciting moment! >> most exciting moment. last night when we had dinner we sat down and frank pulled out bell general food and we had -- belgian food and we had all kinds of russian food and that
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was a very good time. it is always the interpersonal things a come together that makes us a good team. >> this is kscpao. how do you hear me? >> we've got you loud and clear, ksc. >>s this marcia dunn with a question for lieutenant colonel bresnik. i wonder how you managed to stay focused as the launch of your baby kept sleeping and how quickly do you plan on seeing your wife and son and daughter after touchdown. i'm assuming they will not be on hand for the landing. >> well, the -- i have 20 years of good marine corps training on compartmentalizing. i think it is a lot easy for
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people who don't compartmentalize when it is a good thing. it was easy to go ahead and do our tasks. when i had some free time i was able to see some picture or call down and it was wonderful to find out to news and to be able to see her for the first time two days ago. when we land, it is a lot less on our shuttle crew, we have been here 11 days and some have been here three months and some over 180 days. we look forward to seeing our families as soon as possible. i look forward to doing that as soon as possible after we land. >> this is james from florida today. nicole, how special would it be for you to return to ksc if weather allows. what are you looking forward to eating when you first get back and you can look forward to returning to the station in the not to distant future and has
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that changed your perspective on departing at all? >> coming back to ksc would be wonderful. pizza has sounded really good. from perspective-wise it makes leaving this wonderful place a little bit easier. certainly mellows it out a little bit and it of course was a nice surprise to find out that i would have the opportunity to be back for a short visit. thanks for question. >> this is headquarters po. how do you hear me? >> headquarters, we read you. >> this one is for the commander of atlantis. you said there would be no special thanksgiving food and i'm just trying to understand why. was there really no time to stow
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holiday foods on board or did you decide you just didn't want the guys to be eating stuff like freeze dried corn bread stuffing. >> i would have to say more of the latter. tomorrow is flight day 10 for us. thanksgiving isn't all about what you eat. it is the people you spend it with and this has become my second family. of course i have my main family back home but these guys have been and now nicole, have been incredible to work with and we're just going to have a great time. >>s this moscow -- how do you hear me? >> loud and clear, moscow. my question is for maxim suraev.
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you are the first russian cosmonaut who read the blog so can you tell me whether this was your idea and if you had it when you were on earth? what are your first thoughts that you always want to share on your blog and also i would be interested to learn more about the technology that you use to share the videos and the photographs, the photo imagery. do you have access to the internet in space? >> well, before my flight, i didn't have my own blog in space on earth because once i found myself in space i was very interested in sharing information with people. using simple lang twooge share
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my experiences in space. as far as the internet is concerned, no, we don't have direct access to the internet here onboard but we synchronize our email several times a day so i write my email messages and blog messages and once the smail synchronized the earth receives my information and then they are able to post it for me online. i was very impressed and surprised how much interest my blog generated and how interested people are in our life in space. thank you for your question. >> my question is for both cosmonauts and astronauts.
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you had to perform a maneuver to make sure you don't have a collision. so it was interesting for me to know more about what measures you take to make sure you prevent such events in the future. well, first of all, it is nothing to be nervous about because the earth is there to take care of us and the specialists on the ground track all the space debris, and if there is a possible collision, then the crew has the opportunity to go to the rescue vehicle, the soyuz vehicle and crew members take their places there and are ready to return to the ground if need be. if we find ourselves in the position where the collision is unavoidable then we have the opportunity to undock from the station and return to the ground.
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>> the ground, again, keeps track of all the space debris. they can foresee such events that may occur in the future. we are ready for those situations. >> hello, this is alexander. maxim, thank you very much for your blog. again, we are very impressed with the way you share your experiences in space. now my question is is it possible to call you onboard? on the telephone, either regular phone or maybe space or satellite phone? >> well, the way it works here
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is we have one-way communication basically, which means that we use the u.s. system to call the ground and we can receive messages here onboard using the u.s. system. now i can tell you thaw the letters i receive from readers are delivered to me onboard. i read them and i really take great pleasure in reading them. thank you. >> question for maxim suraev also. after december 1, crew members return to the ground, what are you planning to do in space?
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well, jeff told me that this will be the best time. he told me that it is the best time but i haven't had that experience yet when you only have two crew members in space. right now we have so many people onboard so i haven't had the chance to be onboard with just two crew members. what we're planning to do, i guess just the regular work, our regular activities. >> hello, this is carla of city television. my question is for maxim. in your blog you wrote the pilot experiment that you performed with roman and some of the activities -- my question is do you often improvise and if you do what help do you get from the
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ground? >> we have a lot of work to do onboard and if you continue doing the same thing over and over then you learn certain tricks to make sure that the work you do is done faster or better. >> so you trying to bring something new to every activity. what the ground thinks about our improvizations, everything that contributes to the experiment, everything that makes it better is only supported by the ground. and again, i can't share all the secrets because that's what makes them secrets. >> hello, again. this is from mr. romanenko. roman, you have observed -- so far how do you feel -- what do
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you feel about the work of your colleagues? do you feel that they have been successful? thank you for your question. i want to point out that all the shuttle crew members that arrive here onboard are very prepared. they spent not even months but years preparing so it has been a long path and they perform everything flawlessly from their the very beginning to the very end so i would give them excellent marks for each one. this is why we look all very happy and very relaxed here and allred to go home to our respective countries. thank you. >> how do you hear me? >> we have you loud and clear. >> this question is for bob. bob, one more week and you're
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coming back down here. i've got a couple of questions. i'll ask them in english and then if you can respond in french for our french listeners. what has been the most memorable over the past six months and are there any surprises over the past six months that you have been up there? >> with the arrival of the japanese cargo vehicle, we have worked very hard on this, preparing for it for the last two years and it just went off perfectly thanks to the help of the japanese colleagues on the ground and the canadians and americans as well. >> the biggest team we had here was when the most challenging job was -- it was a very successful mission with the japanese, american and canadians
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altogether so it was very successful. >> after six months up there is there one particular food or thing that you're looking forward to once you get back here? >> well, i miss my family, most of all, of course. that's number one on the list. i'm already dreaming of the first months when i see my family in moscow just over a week from now. i miss the wind. i miss the sunlight and the smell of flowers and freshly cuts grass. things like that. what i misthe most, i can't wait to see them in about a week, when we get to moscow and then other than this, nature is what i miss the most. i miss the wind.
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i miss everything outdoors. the sun. >> space travel -- this is basically the end of an era with the shuttles basically ending next year. where do you see the future of space travel for canada? is there a chance that one day i'll be up there sitting next to all of you guys? >> the end of an era but the beginning of an era as well the space station now is nearly complete. if you think you have seen some pretty interesting expeditions you ain't seen nothing yet. science and technology demonstrations are going to take off. after the international space station, it will be somewhere further further into the solar system and you can bet canada will be a part of that.
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it is not reelectricity fromed to land. it also includes space. you may see b a future explorer. i would love to fly again with you some day. that would be great. >> this is paris, how do you hear me? >> loud and clear. >> ok. >> tonight we have invited freedom the newspapers since we are with frank dewinne, the commander. good evening. everything is going well over there. there is 12 people on the station. isn't it hard to live together with so many people there? >> it's actually not hard at all. everything is going well. the station is very large. with all the modules that have been put together in the last
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few years with the european module, columbus as well and we have enough space for everyone. we can all have dinner together. we can use all the space that is available and it is not tight at all, actually. >> frank dewinne, do you have to exercise every day so that your muscles can stay alive? >> that is very important for the entire crew is to exercise every day. in fact, we have different types of equipment that we use. we have a machine for a special machine for the muscles. we have a bike. we have a cardio machine. we also have another machine to run on.
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and so i run four or five kilometers every day. >> so frank dewinne, it is the first time a european is the commander of the international space station so this means that -- does this mean that the europeans are at the same level as the russians and the americans? >> it is not only because of this. we have our module, columbus, that is a part of the international space station. we also have the atv that will be key in the future of the i.s.s. with all the -- that has to be brought onboard and working together with the rest of the team of the european space station, the european space agency and with all the different phases we have completed already and now the future operations that will take place, we'll make sure that the
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i.s.s. is international. you will continue to transmit your passion for space to others in the future. this is just the beginning of cohabiting in space. in the future we need to go further and discover more things and this is great for humanity and i think it is the same in space. so it is just -- it is the beginning. we will keep going further and further and discovering more and more and this will be great for humanity as a whole. the fact that we found particles of water on the moon, that means that we could possibly have a permanent base on the moon some day. well, maybe.
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clearly we can't reach those conclusions just base on that but it is a good beginning and we're going in the right direction. with this water on the moon, that means that we can consume water there, which makes life easier obviously there. we can do a lot of other things. we could even -- for example, do certain activities that could help us to stay on the moon. thank you, frank dewinne. i think you're arriving on earth soon. what is your -- what is it that you miss the most? what is your greatest thoughts about this? >> like you said, what i miss the most is my family. my wife. my kids. other than this, i still have seven days to go so i still have to focus on the work that i have to do here and one what i'm
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going to do when i get to earth is -- thank you very much, frank dewinne to be with us on tsa. >> thank you, greatings from either. the question in planning a long-term mission to mars, the role of microorganisms is expected to play a vital role in supplying oxygen, food and recycling waste. can commanders comment on the potential benefits and risks of being so dependent on microorganisms for vital needs? >> yes, of course. when we will travel further away from the earth, we need to be
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more and more self-sustainable. on the international space station, we are -- the technologies, for example, the urine cycling facility which does not work on microorganisms but it goes into the fact that we are recycling more and more here onboard the international space station. we look into a full recycling system with microing or niffles. looking how these iraq organisms -- onboard the international space station and how they -- -- microorganisms and how they. in anti-gravity. in the next 10-15 years, they will be able to utilize it to develop all the technologies.
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>> atlantis that concludes the event. thank you. >> in a few moments, the head of the congressional budget office on the economy and the deficit. in about an hour, the head of the federal deposit insurance corporation, sheila bair said her agency is at the worst financial condition since the early 1990's. on "washington journal" we'll look at the healthcare lobbying effort from sheila krumholz. you can call in with your questions about medicare part d to tom scully. and former arkansas senator david pryor talks about his new
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autobiography and his 20 years in the senate. "washington journal" is live on c-span every day at 7:00 a.m. eastern. our coverage of the hearing on the long-term effects of head injuries in the national football league continues tonight with testimony from medical professionals and former players tiki barber and bernie parish. now congressional budget office director douglas elmendorf on the budget deficit and the economy. he spoke for an hour to the american association for budget and program analysis.
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>> i think our morning speaker may have some interesting and entertaining comments. it is my pleasure to introduce doug elmendorf. as director, doug supervised the analytical papers that we produce and testifies frequently before the congressional committees. let's welcome him to our symposium. doug? [applause]
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>> thank you, melissa. i really appreciate the invitation to join you all this morning and to kick off what looks to be like a very interesting conference. to set the stage regarding the changing environment and the new normal, i'm going to talk about the economic and budget outlook as c.b.o. sees it. i'm going to draw on the outlook update that c.b.o. released this past summer and on the long-term budget outlook that we released earlier this summer. we're currently in the process of updating our budget projections for the outlook that we will release in january so of course the specific numbers are always changing but the qualitative patterns that i will focus on today are likely to be very similar when we release updated numbers next year. i also want to leave plenty of
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time at the end of the presentation to take your questions, both about what i'm saying and about other topics ma may be on your minds. so let's just get started. the first part i'm going the talk about is the economic outlook. we wrote this past summer that our forecast anticipates a slow and tentative recovery. that is still our view and that is a consensus view. let's begin with the unemployment rate. we project in the summer that it would peak at about 10.5%. it has already risen to 10.25%, above what we thought it would be at this point and we're weighing our precise forecast going forward but the general pattern in this picture i think will persist and again i think is a consensus view in general terms. the unemployment rate falling fairly rapidly but nonetheless because it is so far above the
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long run sustainable level of unemployment, which we put at about 5%, even with the fairly rapid decline that we have in our forecast, it takes years for it to get back down to this long run sustainable level. the current consensus view is for a slower unemployment rate to the 5% range. if one judges the pain of a recession by the amount of -- by the excess, the unemployment raid over its long run level, the additional people without work, the picture is very clear that most of the pain of the recession is ahead of us, not behind us. even if the economy is growing again as we and most people believe it is. it is growing from a level that is well below the level that is achievable. if you go on to this next picture of the g.d.p. gap, between the potential level and
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actual g.d.p., that gap is very large and we think will be shrinking and fairly rapidly in some sense but nonetheless fairly large to start with. you can see from this picture that we think that the stimulus legislation is having a positive effect on economic activity. i will show you in a moment unemployment. it is difficult to quantify that effect precisely when we releaseded analysis of our last winter we predicted ranges for thatfect. it is uncertain but our view again and i think this is fairly widely shared is that the additional government spending and reductions in tax revenues in the stimulus package are pushing economic activity above where it otherwise might be and the fact that economic activity has been so weak and unemployment has been so weak is in our view, a measure of just
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how weak the underlying economy is. if you push ahead and talk about inflation rate, this is a subject i think of a good deal of variation in views among economic forecasters. we expects inflation rate to stay quite low for several years, principlely because of the great amount of unused resources in the economy but there are other forecasters who think the inflation rate will in fact, move back up. i think they are focused on liquidity that the reserve has pushed into the financial system but in our view that liquidity only raises the view for inflation that it pushes up demand for good and services that can be readily produced and we don't think we're anywhere near that point for some years to come. we will be seeing high levels of
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unemployment and inflation for a number of years. so let me push on and talk about the short-term budget outlook. this past summer over the coming years it is a economy improves and spending related financial rescue and the economic stimulus package abates the deficit is projected to gradually shrink. in retrospect i'm not sure that word gradually was appropriate. if you look at the picture of the federal deficit or surplus, this goes back about 40 years or 10 years into the future, you can see the very large deficit that we have experienced the last fiscal year. you can see in fact, a rather sharp decline in the deficit. a return toward zero. doesn't get there of course. i'll come back to that. a rather sharp change. not in this fiscal year but in
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the next one and the one after that. you can look at this picture, i've labeled the withdrawal of fiscal stimulus. the dark line is the baseline forecast. you can see in 2009, the far left hand side of the picture, the deficit was just under 10% g.d.p.. we think in current fiscal year it will be slightly smaller g.d.p. but then we think in 2011 and 2012 there will be a very sharp decline. that means essentially the withdrawal of the stimulus that is being created. the stimulus comes from a variety of sources. some from the automatic stabilizers and some from the financial rescue package, affects waning. some comes from the stimulus package waning. in this picture, we have drawn a lower line which excludes the effects of ara. you can see the gap, the dark
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line and the lower line in 2009. you can see the gap is larger in 2010. we are essentially right now at the heart of the biggest stimulus -- biggest stimlative effect of our economy. the biggest effect on reducing government revenues. as you look ahead to 2011, 2012, you can see the gap between those lines narrows. ara will still be lowering taxes and reducing spending but to a lesser tent as was the case last fiscal not as much higher as it is in -- last year in this fiscal year. what that means in terms of the growth rate going forward, the stimulus package will start to be a drag. its bigger effect on the level
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of output this year and that to some effect is waning next year and the year after. that's the withdrawal of stimulus. if you go on on this picture, it illustrates our effects of unemployment. the effects thrag output effects a little bit. the biggest effects will be sometime next year. again, you can see that that effect wanes. i think the concern that many policy makers have is that the fiscal federal government's fiscal thrust will be diminishing over the next several years but nonetheless we do not expect the unemployment rate to be coming down rapidly, not rapidly enough to put as many people back to work as have lost jobs. there is discussion as you know about options for fiscal
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stimulus and you can think about the options that have been discussed both in the debate earlier this year and in the debate going on now. falling into a number of different categories. one category would be policy options that aim to create jobs directly through tax credits for private sector job creation or in some people's views new public sector job creation proposals that involve supporting businesses that are helping to make credit more available or reducing the tax burden in some way. the proposal to boost demand and put more money into people's pockets and more in the government's pockets. just to spend more money directly by the federal government. housing policies to help people stay in their hopes and provide broader support for the economy. given economic outlook as we see
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it, i would expect a good deal more attention to be devoted to questions in the coming months. i showed you a picture of the unemployment rate before but there are a few other pictures that may be illuminating. this may be a reason for people unemployed. people are unemployed sometimes because they quit their jobs and can't find new ones right away. sometimes because they lose their jobs. the dark line is the job losers. the lighter line below it is the people who lost their jobs permanently. sometimes they lose them with the expectation of being hired back. the light line shows permanent layoffs. you can see the permanent layoffs now represent almost 60% of the total number of people who are unemployed. that is well above the peaks
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from the previous recessions shown in this picture. so an extent that was not true in past recessions people who lost their jobs are not going to be able to go back to those jobs. they are having trouble finding other jobs. this is another picture in which the lighter line is the separation rate of people losing their jobs. the darker line is the job-finding rate essentially. you'll see this rate has fall on the a much lower level than observed in either of the two previous session. a lot of people have lost their jobs permanently and the rate of people finding jobs and going book is employment is very low. so if the near term isn't cheery enough, we can go on and talk about the medium term and long-term budget outlook. we wrote this summer that the federal fiscal situation remains grim and that of course remains
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true today. this is the back of the picture that i showed you before. once one gets past the next several years in which we expect the deficit to fall sharply, you're going to see the deficit levels out at about three to 4% of g.d.p., now if you'll look back on the left hand part of that picture, you can see that the country has had deficits of that size before. for example, the 1980's but i think there are three reasons the current fiscal challenge is especially acute. the first of those is that current policy as perceived by many people would generate much larger deficits than current law as captured in c.a.o.'s baseline. let me explain what i mean by using this picture. the solid lines show revenue and outbase and also coming decade.
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our forecast follows current law. the gap between the solid lines is the budget deficit that we project. 3% to 4% of g.d.p. most of the coming decade. be one particular feature of current law that not everybody understands is that the tax cuts enacted in 2001 and 2003 are scheduled to expire at the end of next year and the threshold for paying alternative minimum tax falls back to a much lower level so tens of millions of people will be paying the alternative tax. those features are included in our baseline. if one looks at what happens if if those tax cuts are extended and if the threshold is indexed
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to inflation one gets a very different picture. much more sobering picture of deficits over the coming decade. so the dash lines do that. you can see the reduction in revenues. that is the direct effect of making future tax law more aligned with what people think of as current tax policy. there is also an i direct effect on spending. the gap between two dash lines rather than being 3% to 4% of g.d.p. is 6% of g.d.p. extrapolating it makes the deficit roughly twice as bad as it is under the baseline. there are some aspects that are not embedded in the wallet and we can discuss this as well. the second reason, i showed you the same slide but with the
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second bullet, the second reason it is especially acute is the federal debt is already very large relative to g.d.p. by historical standards. this is a graph to have federal debt held by the public. g.d.p. over 100% at the end of the second world war and then a decline that lasted for decades. a decline because the economy was growing and debt was not being accumulated very rapidly so debt was declining relative to g.d.p. just before the vert cal dashed line, the point where the debt- g.d.p. ratio. you can see the federal debt held by the public was 40% of u.s. g.d.p. by the end of 2010, debt will be
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about 60% of g.d.p. so it is a move from 40% to 60% in just two years. under the baseline projection, the debt to g.d.p. ratio flattens out to a little over 60% g.d.p.. that is still the highest level of debt relative to output that we have had since the early 1950's and if one instead considers this alternative that i showed a moment ago, of extending the tax cuts and index at a.m.f. then the debt level to g.d.p. ratio does not even out and continues to rise and will be pushing 90% of g.d.p. we're just in an area that we do not have experience with. there are some other countries, some other developed countries that have debt to g.d.p. ratios that are around 100% of g.d.p.
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or a little lower than that. but not very many. and other countries will have occasional moments of debt to g.d.p. ratios that are around 100% but few countries persist that way and we never tried it. now there are reasons the united states can borrow more money more easily than other countries. in the last financial crisis, flex, despite all the item ultimating of u.s. financial markets they were still deemed one of the safest assets in the world. money flooded into buy them. the interest rate that the government is paying is quite low but many observers think that is a -- phenomenon that is distinctive to the current financial crisis and that as that crisis wanes and people -- investors turn to other places to invest their money that it may become more difficult for the u.s. to borrow and we'll
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have to pay higher rates so just to emphasize briefly here there are some possible crisis that can be reduced by debt and also some ongoing to costs of debt. a resulting jop? the value of the dollar and a jump in interest rates. of course even if there is no crisis, and as we know they are very difficult to predict, there are ongoing to costs of debt that are much more straightforward easier to predict. one is the tax revenues. used to pay interest based on past government programs rather than being used for current government programs. productions and saving investment output.
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just to illustrate briefly one aspect of the risks of capital flight, a picture of foreign holdings as a share of u.s. debt held by the public you can see that the past decade a much larger share of the u.s. government debt now held overseas. another cost i alluded to was interest on the debt in the way that uses taxpayer money to pay for past programs, not current programs. interest rate on the debt is fairly low because interest rates are particularly low. over the next decade, debt is expected to rise considerly, the burden of paying interest on the debt rises considerably and there was a story in "the "new york times" yesterday to this effect. debt rises by about 2% of g.d.p. over the next decade. that is a very substantial
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increase in the burden. the third reason the fiscal challenge is especially acute is the population aging and rising health spending will continue to push up federal spending under current law. i don't think this surprises people at this point. i've been coming to conferences like this for several decades in which this issue has been discussed but it is much more upon us now than it was when i first started going to conferencesened that topic was raised. this picture shows revenues relative to outlays to some key programs to give you a sense about how pressures of aging are aeffecting the budget. the dark sideline revenues -- this assumes the alternative fiscal path that i mentioned earlier with tax cuts extended. it is not exactly our baseline. it is not a policy that we're
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either for or against. it is a path that a number of people talk about. you can see the revenues with these polls changes and 18% of g.d.p., that is a little bit below the historical average over the last ho years, revenues have run a little bit above 18% g.d.p. in the united states. programs like social security, medicare, medicaid, defense and met interests. collection of a number of entitlement programs and a large collection of nondiscretionary defense spending. theorizing and are going to cross the dark line in five or six years. so six years from now, a total
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-- the total revenues the government are going to collect under this scenario would stop being sufficient to fund those programs. i think that is just a measure of how significant imbalance is and under current policies and also measure how important these particular programs are in creating that imbalance relative to that historical experience. this is a picture from c.b.o.'s long-term budget outlook. this picture is from last summer, as i said so it actually predates the august update to our 10-year outlook. if you look carefully at the jumping-off point it won't match the picture but the general trend here is not dependent on that. the line to the right is what we call the extended baseline scenario that assumes the
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current law unfolds roughly as written. for example if, the tax cuts expired. payments to doctors or medicare are not adjusted. you can see that it is a matter of time under the extended baseline scenario the budget deficit or this case, the debt is roughly sideways for a number of years, the return to the fiscal scenario begins to move up almost immediately but in any event over the longer run, you can see the fiscal policy very clearly. let's delve a little deeper into that. let's talk about aging and health spending. this picture just shows the population of the country age 65 or older as a percentage of the population ages 20-64. this is essentially the ratio of
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people collecting social security, medicare and benefits to those who'll be paying the taxes to support those benefits and you can see that this line has been drifting up a little bit but over the coming two decades will move up very sharply. that is the retirement of the baby boomers. beyond the retirement, the line continues to drift up essentially due to longevity that we and others expect but there is a very sharp move up. and we are just about at the cusp of that. so the oldest baby boomers have, in fact, started to collect social security benefits. the oldest are 63 this year. you can see that over the coming few decades as that bulge of the population retires there will be an increase in those collecting benefits to those paying the taxes to support them. this picture show shos a rice in
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healthcare spending. excess cost growth. those who are not familiar with a healthcare terminology. excess here is not a bad or wrong. it is simply a mathematical calculation, health spending per person adjusted for their age relative to g.d.p. per person. so it is a measure of how the burden of health spending is growing relative to other parts of the economy. the lighter line shows national health expenditures. i think a few lessons to take from this picture is one that excess costs varies a lot over time. this is a crucial source of uncertainty in healthcare projections and cost estimates for healthcare programs that c.b.o. makes, which is the underlying cost of healthcare and the path that will take is very uncertain. if you imagine yourself only
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knowing history up through the mid 1990's or up through 2000 you can see how badly surprised you would be by what came after that. second less on from this picture, excess cost growth is relatively positive. it is a very distinct pattern of the past several decades, a rising share of our total output and income to healthcare. those two factors, that i said and of course many others have said over time and over the years, that are pushing spending on medicaid and social security, this next picture is our effort to decompose the importance of these facts. essentially when one thinks about the population of aging pushing up the costs, not just on social security but also on medicare and medicaid because there are more beneficiaries, and health spending pushing up and health rising, excess costs
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to healthcare pushing up not in social security but medicare and medicaid, those two factors are at work. the interaction between those factors. having more older americans is more expensive when healthcare costs are higher. having higher healthcare costs matters more when there are more americans receiving healthcare. you can read our report but in this picture we tried to decompose it into just two pieces. a population aging is an important contributor to rising spending on these programs and also the rising cost of healthcare. this picture goes out 25 years. that you can see health care spending is more and more important over time. basically because of the agingfects you saw a moment ago more or less level out over the past several clearly both of
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these factors are important. skip over that picture. let's talk about policy options. just to emphasize the congressional budget office does not make policy recommendations but we do however produce big books of options for policy makers to consider and you should view most of the items on some of these slides are taken from some of those publications. you should view this as a version of some of those shorter more presentation-friendly versions of those big books. for social security there are a number of broad classes of policy options that people discuss. one is to increase the retirement age. as you know the retirement age of social security is currently working its way up based on legislation passed more than 25 years ago. there are discussions about doing more of that, possibly
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indexing the social security age to population longevity. how long people are likely to live and there are discussions about whether this should be just for social security or sh i programs like medicare. there are also options about decreasing benefits. some advocate reductions across the board and others, retiring beneficiaries and other subgroups of the population. clearly all of these options will be difficult for people and thus difficult politically and also clearly advanced notice would be useful so people can make other plans accordingly. that's why most of the discussions of policy changes in social security and other programs for older americans will hold a certain set of older people not yet retired but close
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to retirement hold them harmless turned proposal and focus on changing rules for younger people. this line talks about policy options to reduce spending for medicare and medicaid. medicare is the health program directed at older americans. medicaid is a program directed a it americans with less income and most medicaid beneficiaries are young but each individual young beneficiary at medicaid tends to be relatively inexpensive on average and older beneficiaries tend to be expensive. in broad terms there are two ways to reduce spending in healthcare. one is to decrease the payments made per health care service and another is to reduce the number of healthcare services provided. in terms of decreasing payments, the reduction is relative to law
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plays a sfanl role in current reform plans and a crucial question that policy makers are considering is how far those reductions can or should be pushed and in particular whether those reductions will lead to increased efficiency of the sort that many people hope or are perhaps low-income providers or whether they will affect the access to care or quality of care that is provided. the second large bucket, decreasing the number of healthcare ssts provided raises a number of further questions whether the government could adopt policies that will improve the public's health and reduce the demand for services. research judging what treatments or what methods or organizing healthcare seem to be more or less affected. raises the question of whether


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