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tv   C-SPAN Weekend  CSPAN  November 30, 2009 2:00am-6:00am EST

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transferred me to another number. thank you for the question. mort? >> i would just say this. i think when richard was referring to the possibility that belgium may have nuclear- weapons, it would not cause you to lose a lot of sleep. i think the same thing would happen. they are not an aggressive, expansionist power. if they have nuclear-weapons, it is for defensive purposes with the idea that they can deter. after all, there are 7.5 million people, surrounded by countries of the size that if you put them all together, they tend to be very, very hostile, so this is the reason why they developed whatever military strength they have. it does not worry me, frankly, if they have nuclear weapons, and i assume they do, because i
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think it is clear that they would be using them only for defensive purposes and only to be tried to protect themselves from what they feel they need to protect themselves from, and they use conventional weapons well in advance. the danger here is that there is a country that is emerging that has threatened to the very existence of israel, and that is iran, and how do you deal with that? . how do you deal with that? iran is clearly doing whatever they can to develop nuclear weapons, and they have not only expansion in terms of israel, but they believe by a large that iran is -- i was in egypt several months ago. they. a hezbolla cell there. what were they going to do? they were trying to blow up the
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ship in the suez canal, because the revenues from tourism are the two major economic supports for that regime. with them being fairly elderly, they hope to destabilize the regime so that the muslim brother can take over. i have spoken to most of the arab regimes. they're really concerned about iran pose the expansion. -- iran's expansion. you have to measure, if . >> live at 9:00 a.m. eastern on c-span 2.
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now a look at how the so-called nuclear age has affected the presidency of the united states. this forum was hosted at the jfk library. it's about 1 hour 20 minutes. my mother described her hopes
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that it would be a vital center of education that will grow and change with the times. it's an honor to partner with 12 oernl national libraries to host this sim pose yum. this conference is all the more important and interesting. we can't help but notice the parallels just a week ago, there were two satellite photos on the front page of the "new york times." the second was photographed last month which revealed thefully
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built structure that could withstand potential attack those of you here this morning can't help but be remindedn of the yo 2 satellite as a result of the satellite flights in cuba. the question is as it is now not as it was developed. throughout his career my father believed in guiding us through history. he encouraged members of his cabinet to read the stories that
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would help not lead to miss judgement.
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our purpose as we gather here today to analyze past presidential efforts to limit the spread and use and consider what lessons they offer. i now know how much of the advice they provide. we are so fortunate to have them. [applause] i know i speak on behalf of all our speakers in their
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willingness to take place in this a8[proceedings. all a good pleasure of us and the institute. president bill clinton whose remarks proceed in the last.
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developing what he called a new strategy for peace. in the last year of his presidency, he made concerted efforts. perhaps the proudest a choefment was the ceremonial copy which was on display right outside this room.
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>> i'm gram allison, a professor at harvard. it's my pleasure to interview the secretary of state. in the white house years, you tell a story, which i think is
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fascinating. you say in the midst of all the rest going on, the first problem was to redefine the strategy and of the assured production. it was all very well to threaten mutual suicide in threaten of returns. no president could make such a threat credible how would we
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deal with this issue if it came time as you say if deturnts fail and were finally faced with the decisi decision. >> i have no answer to it. there is no answer to it. to tell me they had come to the end of their sip loam assy.
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i would have been at a minimum almost i cannot visualize let us i am mr.ment the plan that might kill 10s of millions of people.
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there was a heightened readyiness that i am plied a certain readiness of nuclear forces. our add vir sarry was in the position. in the con temporary period when they are not high lie technologq plans they do not have the same
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moral restraints of further threat of nuclear weapons. he would be in a different situation. he said maybe by the mid 70's, that would be cat strof yik that led to a surge of activity that lead to the non-proliferation
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committee where we now have 91/2 states he was talking about. in april, you wrote an interesting piece where you talk about a connection of world order. in north korea and iran establish in the face of the stated option of all major powers you say the next couple
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of years would lead in the nuclear order. >> let's take the two candidates. here is a country that has next to no foreign trade. no really great industrial capacity. it's powerful maybes, japan, russia and the united states. we oppose their program. if in the face of all of this, they can emerge and vie late previous agreements with negotiations out of it, then the
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prospects are not very limited. it is not like other countries on the same road. less than any other country with its capacity. potentially it does. directly explicitly written. not likely to sit back while iran sees our traditional, ideolouge cal enemy.
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if iran and north korea sustain their nuclear ambitions in the system and negotiations. it's not working and cannot work. no restraint on other states developing the effort. even if we observe the 100,000 people being killed in ours,
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which is one bomb, i think the impact of the population will be the new pressures and some kind of impulse and denuclearization of the new world. one of the questions asked the other day is could kim juning il could imagine he could sell one bomb to osama bin laden.
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they are probably more out of tune with what is happening elsewhere with what is happening else y where in the world. who could imagine they could do something just to restrain themselves through the spread of
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nuclear weapons seems inevita e inevitable. >> so -- and this sort of final question. you look back on many, many years of the issue. the proposition the negotiations have not been started. >> it's very hard for me.
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then the koreans probably more so. unless there's some reversal of attitudes. that's the delay by the very short period and then we have the problem. so you can't stop one so pessimistic a note. through others who handed me the
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communication. i wrote him a letter expressing my views which he then sent to foreign affairs, not i. i know it requires the problem to deal with. i'm not saying i have it all worked out. maybe you could come to conclusions and start thinking
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nuclear weapons do not dominate. >> thank you very much >> all the best. >> good afternoon. i used to be a reporter. this time this panel is going to pick up where the other two left
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off. our responsibility is to discuss this issue between the next administration and the reagan administration i got the
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impression that he was saying both sides moved towards more sensible control of nuclear weapons. we have to remember in 1964, october, he wasókrr()q" out of power. they did not like the idea of any movement in this direction.
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they wanted to have both a great society and vee et nam was starting to cost a great deal of money. i am here with a special representative you have already
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met dik rose over here. he knows everything about everything. >> i would like the record to show that ken needed a lawyer. let's start with you. the decision to go for assault one, the direct result of skrat eeg yik >> i was asked in 1972, a prominent soviet official what would have happened to the soviet ic we did launch an
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agreement that was from the considerable buildup in sof yet offense. if it weent stuff, we'd have tè respond to it. the soviets are always at least
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he wanted to find a situation that would be stable. to him, stablt meant one where the united states had the max
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numb. if they would maintain that position throughout. >> what was the >> it would be the effect. >> let me say the subject is important anden recognizing. i'm a conservative republican. i believe arms control should be
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kind of honest. it was an environmental ptuissu they were going to put the test underground. i don't think it did much for the nuclear buildup. >> my objection is they were
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limb i had. if you were restricting me from high jumping 6 12i if was no sweat off my back. it wane to tell you the truth, a wonner furl exhibit the only
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treat y that is has ee limb nalted that besides grace that's not fair. >> this is the reagan library. >> thanks on one second, please.
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is there an element of illusion in the pursuit of trying to get control of nuclear weapons >> they said we will make sure you can never do this to us
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again. the result of that was the soviet union began building up the arsenal. at the end of simy carter's era it would succeed. the illusion is that if you have more you have an advantage.
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the rest was a high image ma cal game you have more than enough. after that, it's politics. it was as much >> inter producing the soel problem that we are discussing right now >> and the utsz during the cold
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war build. does it come as a result of the worning first as the spirit. the same computer models that made it possible to look at because they would be used on cities. .kñ
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the >> there was eye group that believed in proly care yab they are both thinking about different tactics which lead to different strategies. we have power and trying to did it when the utsz collapses jo
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the number of weapons. r there wassage unkree atity >> they are juflt cranking them out as fast as we could with we
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could have con veefable >> talking about that. he was of the view that george marshal had enormous potential on him. and number two that he would become a memo on the jelous. >> it must have been hard for
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you. i can't exactly what he said, i just know that it was. it really was)w fascinating tot a few nuclear age. >> i love your scenario. really lost any kind of touch of what would happen in the real world. it was kind of gofy.
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there would be hundreds of thousands of exchanges brake the idea was that there were no one or two. they had another option besides the option of a doing nothing or b going off >> we are gooding to talk about this very soon. we are jumping the president.
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among if >> through the summit.
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>> i as president am entrusted with the security of the united states. i would never take any action that would jep ar diez that sak red trouft. you and i both have children and sgrand children. we want them to live in peace. we have worked hard to give our own nations security. >> we realized the safety of our
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nations. get a sda as we set careful limits on our power. in setting our hand to this tree. >> we have labored long they make it for the future.
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let us pledge now owl as we continue our passage to peace. >> these agreements can in fact help. yet they have to be mindful of the politic calling support he set issues involved?
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>> the plan was to freeze into place that situation. he writes all these books and does something interesting the the end. in august of 1979, he helps to authorize the cia to leak some boo cuss information about a brigade in sunna >> does your grandfather wleek that? >> he didn't leak it. >> my grandfather whereas sitting at the table and said, ah!
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that's old. a couple days later, it a peeshs >> i interviewed the deputy nick you skanlt really be sure that this money is correct.
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receipt >> some of the people we funded turned into our major benefits.
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think said we+@ concluded in moscow after your less than effective handling of the cuban issue you are no longer
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interested in. >> do you think there was a connection between after sgan stan and saul ui. that was such a serious event. carter was convinced that they were on their way to the med terrainian. there was the feeling that they felt they were in the late 70's or in different parts. as i said before, they were moefing into after
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>> then it was a terrant leader with her first >> i've been itching over several things. number one. i certainly don't like the whole attitude that the carter
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administration or president carter had. in vienna, after he had the >> it may not have anything to do -- >> i am saying one of the contributions of the reagan administration and john f. kennedy administration.
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they had the different philosophy they elect their own leaders and has that we the p.m. provide. i think that the two realistic presidents among yoerj i think that was important especially in the 1980s whether reagan it was a tremendous difference we have to deal with them. reagan always wanted no negotiations.
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we all saw it as the legitimate freely elected government by the west and on the soviet sdat sight. as early as 1982, the communist would end up in the ash eem really ending the soviet union and the threat we have today. that contribution is one many times it was all talk and good intentions. i am them all for kerry.
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i reached out in my sensitive inside. >> as leaders, we should do more than just care. we should have real results. those results i'm thinking of. you should talk about a seer owe. but in a way to really talk about the specific problem with specific results. otherwise it's just enough. i can't stand underenough in
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government. those circumstance stations
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>> who came up with those ideas?
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captioning institute ---www.ncicap.org--- [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2009]. >> the moderator sort of kept the discussion going and at the end of the 2 1/2 days of discussion this 87-year-old white conservative came up to her and he said, what are the three most important words in the english language. they're, i was wrong. i've always interpreted that incident to signify that he, um... began looking and understanding the world from her point of view. and under normal conditions he
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would probably never have spoken to her. much less had such an intensive conversation. and so, that's part of what this process does is it puts people in a safe public space where people can talk about issues together and understand each other. now we're trying figure out how to model that. how to understand that. it clearly happens face-to-face. will it happen on-line? that's one of the big questions for this sort of research and it may be that for some types of topics it doesn't matter as much but that's brilliant question as for whether or not it will effect other topics. i don't know. >> time is our great enemy. i apologize i didn't get to all the questions but we'll have an opportunity to discuss the weighty issues in a more relaxed setting. for now, will you join me in thanking our panel.
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[applause] i have two announcements. first, i would ask you to before you leave, to let jim leave so we give him an opportunity to get to the book signing which will be right outside this room. because if you let you all attack him before he gets there, there will be no book signing so we'll throw you out of here right now. march out of here. >> and if you want a book. see me out there. >> you can ask a question, but you have to buy a book, i think. the other announce comment for those of you at the humanities and technology meeting, your next engagement is in the scripts library. we'll direct you as we have the a fore mentioned discussion of the weighty issues. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> a cofounder of face book. chris' delivered the keynote deliverance at the multi ethnicity and communications conference. his remarks are about an hour. >> thank you. thank you all for having me here today. it is truly a pleasure, not only to be back in denver because the last time i was here it was for a conversion that happened little over a year ago. but it's also a privilege to be able to speak to this audience. so, i have a little bit of time today and what i want to try to do is explain what's happening on the internet, and in
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increasingly why it's more and more important for everyone that's out there. i want to start with the most pay sick concept that is at the heart of all of the trance for makes that's taking place. information. so what exactly is information? we have to unstand what is it before we can talk about a social media revolution. technological revolution or any type of revolution because information at is at the core of the changes taking place. it's most basic form idea fine information the recorded form of communication. that means as soon as an idea is created, and is recorded, as soon as an emotion occurs and is communicated and recorded it become as piece of information. it's just the recorded form of communication. so the reason this matters is because i genuinely do believe
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we're experiencing a global revolution in the way information is distributed and created. i want to take you through a journey of my own personal story and also a larger story of what's happening on the internet. every few years or i should say every hundreds of years there's a huge disruption in the field of information if you go back to the beginning of writing, although i don't know we have to go back quite that far. most recently the image of the printing press 500 years back and then the invention of the radio or television. and throughout all of these inventions, what we've seen is a common trend. information overtime as been distributed more and more quickly and more efficiently. so take the printing press. there still a few people who are writing books but the revolution is a book can be reproduced hundreds of thousands of time
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and can be distributed all across continents and the globe. same thing goes with radio or even television. we're still seeing a few people deciding programming and paying for all of the development, deciding how it works but there's a revolution in that information is being distributed broadly and quickly much more. the current revolution we're experienceing is one that i would call revolution of the network screen. the reason i think this revolution is very important is not only because we're following the trend and seeing an information revolution in how quickly information is being distributed, but also and this is the key difference. it's a radical change in how information is created. we're as before, each time a revolution came along it was still just a few people creating information distributed much more broadly. now we have each and everyone of us become an information
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creator. how many of you guys in the room have profiles on face book? let me see everybody's hands. when i say everyone is information creator it's no joke for. the few of you don't you probably use e-mail. where it's face book, on e-mail or you tube. wherever on the web, the point is, we're all creating information that's being recorded and then it's moving. 30 years ago that was at no time kate case. what i want to do today is to talk a little bit about what this revolution means for us as individuals and people and what it means for society and our businesses. and then secondly, how can people and organizations take advantage of it. what are the trends we're seeing that are going to continue and become more and more important over the years so all of us can
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actually take advantage of the changes taking place. so, what better place to start than a face book profile. so this is my face book profile. i don't know if you can tell but it's a little bit. so much effort goes into crafting these things. i'm eating something on a random street on a vacation but it's also a log of the things i've been interested in whether news articles or status updates. but to really boil down what face book is, it's a network that enables people to share, stay in touch with the people that they care about and connect to the things they care about. the thing that makes face book different from all other networks out there. there's several. the most important ones is when you come on face book you don't come to invent a new identity. you come to be yourself. you connect with the people that
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you already know. where it's family, friends. coworkers. then once you've done that you share information with the people that you care about. in a lot of ways face book wasn't predestined to be more successful than any other sites out there. we were 19 years old in a college dorm thinking about you know what would make it easier for at that time college students to communicate with their friends and where we were starting was from a point where there were lots of other things out in space. but our challenge was what doesn't work about them and what would make them more useful? not necessarily more fun or cool or trendy, but what would actually make them more useful. there's three pillars i think that face book has been built on that's made it a successful as it's been. core differentials from other
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products out there. first, trust and privacy. when you come on face book and share information not only by default does it not go out to the world but users have complete control over who sees what. as face book grew from a few thousand to it's size now with over 300 million users. what we saw again and again is people are more comfortable sharing when they know who's going to see it. people don't necessarily want to share ever are you thing with the world. often times just want to share things with their friends. secondly the focus on making face book useful. it's a place you should go every day not because it's just fun. it's nice to stay in touch but it's useful to find out what your friends are up to at any given time. to know what your coworkers are talking about. to know what news your family is reading. that focus on utility has been consistent. and thirdly, there's always beans an acknowledgment on face book that as a company it can
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only do so much. it truly needs to be a platform to growth. by platform i mean a place where individuals connect to the people that they care about and then from there they go and connect with not only that but the things and organizations that they care about as well. i think we might have temporarily lost the presentation but i'll keep going. next slide, so is where face book now? over 300 million active users. 70 percent are outside of the united states. partially that comes back to the point i was making. face book is translated now in 70 different languages but not a single person has sat down to try to translate the entire site to those. face book through it out to the community and said people who speak spanish should translate it or people that speak arabic
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should translate it and as a result there's 70 language and face book recognizes it's limitations but faith and trust in the people that use the site to collaborate to make it more useful. half of the users on face book return every day. of those, the average user has 130 friends. this stat i think is incredibly important because it illustrates the fact that you don't go on face book to compete to get as many friends that you can. you go to connect with the people you flow. 60 thousand access face book with their devices all over the world. almost everybody in the room is on face book. i want to briefly talk about some of the things face book has made possible that previously weren't. the first is i'll talk all the more length later in the presentation but face book is ushered in a new era for political organizationing.
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this is a photo from colombia were hundreds of thousands of people not just there but most of them mobilized between the fork, a terrorist organization. they were tired of kidnappings and being held host table. few people held a forum of face book. they spend a lot of time promoting it but if you have caring people that can create a space and encourage other people to join it and provide a moment to rally around, then you get streaks all across the world like that. this previously wasn't possible. similarly, i can't tell you how often i hear about people that connect with long lost loved ones. old friend ed's f from middle s. examples from 20 years before. whatever it is people are connecting with people that have been important to them and
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they're reuniting and that's in credit my important and was much more difficult previously in times of natural disaster all across the world we saw this three or four weeks ago in indonesia with all the floods and all across the globe time and time again. people use face book to communicate with one other. this is an example in north dakota when there were all the floods. people immediately created groups not only to mobilize to send groups here and there, but whenever there was an emergency we saw people come on, update they're status message. i think the sandbags outside my house are going to break. we need help now. because of face book. 130 on average friend cans see that if a third of them are in the neighborhood they can be there in half an hour and help prevent the floods from taking
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homes and memories away from people. face book is ushering in a whole new era of what's possible with collaboration. of course people have been organizing political protests and people have always helped one another in times of natural disaster. these things have always happened. what's important to understand is why face book makes it different. for those on face book it's useful to take a step and think about this a little more theoretically to really understand how this network works. there's important implications to understand how you as people can take advantage of for whatever your particular interest is. the revolution to get back to the information point is every time somebody does something, they don't do it in the either. it doesn't just happen. it's recorded. everything become as fees is pi
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information. status update, joining a group, photos of vacation has a digital imprint and that's recorded immediately once that action is taken. from there, logs are created of all the people who are taking actions at any given point in time and each and everyone of the actions is distributed not to the internet at large, but to the people that care about me. the people i know. - and that's revolution. when you log in you can see what the people that you care about are doing all across the world at any given point and that previously just was not possible. so how is this transformation effecting our society? i studied history and literature in college which had nothing to do, by the way with technology but turned out okay. so i'm trans fixd with questions how tech nothing integrate for thes lives. how does it change with how we
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are as individuals and other people. i literally could talk about for hours about this particular question because i think it's changing our lives in a a myriad of ways. in some ways we realize and lots of ways we don't. couple of things though, first off, it's making our world more transparent. not only is there more information available on-line. that was the first revolution. you could go to google and find anything. importantly, you can now access that information and try to understand whether or not it's accurate. whether or not it's relevant. and whether or not it's something that you actually care about. so as we see more and more information coming on-line. not only is it easier and easier to get access to these huge amounts of information you can actually use your filters of friends and institutions to help you understand what information is right and what information is
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not as trustworthy. i think the more information we have, the more equipped we are to make good decisions. this extends our capacity to choose as individuals if you think about any given moment in time. how do we even make choice? we evaluate certain option as and the information we have and make a decision. but as you approach perfect information as you have more and more information your able to judge better and better. it increases your ability to make good, smart choices. not a magic potion. doesn't mean everybody in the world will be responsible but it does improve the capacity. in addition i believe the more information available on the web and the more it's used, the more our human capacity to create is extended. we don't have to search. we have i mood yat access to
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hundreds of thousands of music files and hundreds of thousands of ideas and hundreds of thousands of whatever. insert anything into that blaj being and that expands to be whatever we're interested. to create better content for the world and that's hopeful. as long as it's - at least up until now it's been sort of general. i'm trying explain what's happening on internet and why face book is important. i want to spend a good bit of time talking about a big practical example because a lot of times think think that people can understand how systems work and even understand quite well and still take a step back and say, how is this actually going to help me? talk about one practical example. the practicality of that will be different no matter what
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business you're in, but i can talk about one thing as something that has a lot of lessons for all of us. in february of 2007, i left face book to go and work for barack obama's political campaign. back in february 2007, you remember this was not the time probably for from a career or professional perspective to go work for this guy running to be the first african-american president. funny name, middle name was heissan and nobody knew who he was. that's the question i got when i told my peers at face book that this is what i wanted to do. a lot of crossed eyebrows and questions. but it's what i wanted to do for a lot of different reasons. number one, because i generally believed and continue to believe that barack obama and he was
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unparalleled. honesty, integrity. his ability to truly empathize with every day people was very hard to find anywhere in american politics. but not only was it just a candidate. you also pair that with a campaign that from day one was focused on using every day people, they're interests, energy, enthusiasm and experience to actually strengthen and be the engine behind the campaign. i have never worked deeply in politics but i knew enough to know this isn't the way it usually worked. usually a candidate raises money. puts add on t.v. and you hope you win. this is different. the only way we're going to win is by harnessing the enthusiasm out there and actually using that to mobilize pron tall
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action. so i show up. the, you know, 22 year old, are this kid from face book. show up in the office. no political experience and fortunately we had a couple of people on the team, joe who ran the new media group and a lot of people with more political experience than i did. from the very first day i got there and from the first day we starting looking at what we're going to do we asked how will we use technology to win this? not how will we use it to generate a lot of but or get a lot of traffic to our website or to do anything of these. lots of mentioned on blogs. no. how are we going to use technology to win more votes? it's this key rest lute focus on winning votes as a technology group that i believe was the real reason for our success.
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so where do we start? we say how do people ever win vote? they campaign. how do you build a strong campaign? you raise a lot of money, knock on a lot of doors, make a lot of phone calls and equip the people with the message that not only resonates with them but will resonate with other people. now fortunately, for us on the internet at that point, this was a moment where people were beginning to get used to the idea that they could go on-line, share about themselves. don't have to be lots of personal details, it may be just - i like that video or this is the issue i care about. they could connect with real people face to face in their communities and use that to collaborate and take action. so we focused on quipping people to share, connect and act. how did that work?
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piece-by-piece. first focus was giving a people a voice. this is an example of dash board page on my barack obama. hopefully some have seen it before today. the point of the site was not to be a face book paper for obama. face book was trying share information. we're trying win elections. on the obama campaign we were trying win votes. so everything we did on the network was focused on getting people active. the most important way to do that was giving people a voice. we listened as a campaign. everybody has a space on our website. everybody had the possibility of blocking and commenting and being part of the discussion. we created a culture of creation on the campaign. because whenever we send out our e-mails or put things on the
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website. we would put up obama speeches occasionally but more often a story of an every day person getting active on behalf of the campaign and giving them the opportunity to explain why they cared and what they were doing. just as much as we were trying help people understand who barack obama was we wanted people to have their own voice to speak to the people they cared about. secondly, we listened. not only did we give people a voice, but we tried to listen to what people were saying and wanted and were thinking at any point in time. technology allowed us to do that at scale. we could see when people commented on a particular issue and we could see when people were donateing a lot for a particular reason. because of that we could actually invest people with the power to actually have their voice and make a change. so an example of listening so.
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actually this is a good one. right before the convention last year here in denver, we were like, okay, we have lots of supporters and people have lots of opinions. how can we do a better job of listening to them? not just like, we hear you, but listening in as we actually know what your saying is important? around convention time, what we did was we understood there was this, you know, a party platform so every four years the candidates or parties coming to and they all get into this back room. nobody really knows how it works and they're at this platform. the problem is platform is defined as a value for the party in general it's the narrative of what the party is working on in the future. we wanted to do this differently so we opened up the doors, used technology to say, okay, anybody who's out there, you're going to be part of the process of
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writing the democratic party's platform. people came together using our event software in living rooms and meeting halls all across the country. they talked about what they cared about and came back on-line and submitted they're opinions and information directly back to the campaign. e we were not able to include every piece of it but included a good piece of it. if you included the political platform you'll see not just statements from the people on high but every day people with real names all across america participating and being listened to. this is important to us. we also tried hard to connect and empower and i think this is probably what is seen the most and - but it's none less very important. 35 thousand groups and over 200,000 events. this is not just on-line activities. not 200,000 people chatting in
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some space. 13 million people going to 200,000 events face-to-face. this was not as even as much as a technological revolution as much as it was revolution in campaigns administered made possible by the technology existing that was available. finally, we made action easy. one example is we got a lot of attention for having raised a lot of money over the course of the campaign and there's several different ways people made money. one example to go back to the slide before, people would set a goal for how much money they wanted to raise on behalf of the campaign. they would have people over to their homes and collect money and thermometer there was inch up and people would accomplish goals and help run the campaign as a result. we used e-mail activity to make action as easy as possible.
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all you had to do was click, type in a few pieces of information, and hit donate and you would employ you tear campaign to keep going. as a result we raised over 500 million dollars on-line over the course of two years with another 300 million coming in off line as well. the focus was on making action as easy as possible. i could talk about length about all this stuff but i want to move forward to make sure i have time for questions. all this is good and great, but the big question now is okay, what's the future? where is all of this stuff going and how is it relevant to me, my business, what can i do with the fact that 300 million people are on face book. what can i do with the fact people are sharing information all the time, all day. i don't have a crystal ball but i do think there's two or three trends that continue to be more and more important over the next
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few months and years. i'll go through three. first off, we're going to continue to see the expansion of the amount of information shared and how that information is shared. so if you think your sharing a lot on face book or across the internet now, i guarantee you five years from now, it'll be even more. this is really important because it's not just the information like, oh, i'm going to the movies tonight that's being shared. although i argue that's very important when you know it's your friend and you wanted to see that movie too and you wanted to meet them. also it's information with real impact on how we're able to live our lives. this is part of that trend. the photo of the plane on the hudson that went down in january. this is the first photo before any mainstream information had been there. this was on twitter got
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circulated before cnn realized a plane was in the water. more information shared more broadly will open up more and more opportunity for people to know what people are talking about and encourage them to be talking about the things your interesting in talk to them about. i think for people that work in communications in particular, the ship moves from collecting information if you used to be a journalist. 10-yearsing a you needed to have lots of interviews and half of your time was collecting information and then you sat at your desk and edited it into a story. that part one, has been condensed, of course you probably still try to collect certain information but the information is out there. the challenge now is for someone in that type of role is to synthesize the filter and actually be able to bring it together into some type of coherent narrative. a second trend that i think is
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just beginning and will continue is we'll see trust and credibility actually become more important overtime. if your like most people out there. people feel overwhelmed and say, oh, my gosh there's so much information on twitter. face book. cnn. wherever i'm watching on t.v. there's so much information i can't keep up. i don't need another thing. these are things we hear all the time. something is to that. we're consuming more and more information but at some point there's a limit and the natural move is to shift back toward trusting friends and institutions and media. to filter this information and synthesize it so you know what's important, interesting and what's true and relevant. so by this i don't necessarily mean the "new york times" or c mark ndsango or anything have
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anything to worry about. i'm not saying that. they do have a real challenge in front of them. what i am saying is there's going to be a continued and in fact, i argue a more important roll for institutions that actually play a role in determining what information that's important and what is interesting to people. it's just the institutions now can crop unlike this. two months ago a new website launched called double-x that specializes in helping women to communicate with one another. they have 600 thousand people already. unique visitors to their site. they're becoming an institute and people trust them. these institutions are created more and more but they'll be increasingly important over the long-term. we need ways to understand all the information out there. thirdly, we'll continue to see more and more experimentation in the world of collaboration. now it's easier to find and
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other people that are interesting in common causes or issues, it's much easier to work with them to produce something interesting. i don't mean just in the area of politics if you stay in the news sector for a moment. all types of collaboration are being opened up. insight on how people actually write and consume the news. one example that has some attention on the campaign was an article called off the bus. where 1700 people from all across the country actually came in and wrote news articles. they worked with editors to understand what was the most important thing to write on and they worked to actually make sure the final product was something that people could actually read and use. but what's important here is that the post was able to use the wisdom of a crowd dispersed all across the country to go to campaign events, to find barack
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obama when he was off the record in san francisco for that fund raiser for instance. and have people actually able to write the news, even though they were all across the globe. does that mean that necessarily was going to be on the front of huh?in post.com without filtering it? no. but that's why they trust it in the first place. the three trends that i would pay more and a tension to. more information used more of ten and faster. there's increasing demand for trust, and there's more and more opportunity to collaborate. i think the main thing as i close here before taking questions to keep in mind is it's up to us to it rate. we need to innovate and have good ideas, but more importantly we always need to be trying something new and better. setting up a face book page for a business is not enough.
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it's a great first start you have to do it but from there think creatively how to use that page and honestly you're not going to have all the answers. nobody does. but if you have an attitude and opinion of just trying new things to see how they work then you'll find the things that work for you in your business and provide you value at the end of the day. most important thing i can leave you with is hits okay to learn what you don't know. i do this stuff for living and there's so much i don't know and learn every single day. what's not okay is to pretend it's something that just your kids do. or something that's not going to be more important because it is. we're only beginning to enter this area and it's up to every single one of us to take it seriously and work with it on day-to-day basis to understand what kind of value it can to our lives and businesses. thank you. [applause]
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thank you. so, i think we have some time for questions, and there a couple of microphones at the front and i'm happy to take any type of question. just very few things off the record. ask me anything. >> chris, first i want to say thank you for face book. i was on it in my college dorm room as well as one of the first users so just great work all around on that. you talked about trust and credibility on-line, and i know a lot of people are wondering that's great but how do i do that on-line. maybe you can give us an example especially with social media to help raise trust and credibility. face book or twitter? >> from an individual or business? >> i would say speak towards both if you want but particularly business. i know everyone wants to use it
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more in the business concept. >> i'm very serious about the trust and credibility point. there's this inclination to believe that because there's more information out there these old institutions are dying out. they might if they don't understand what they're in the - business of doing is providing a service to the people that have always used them. the reason people use a newspaper is they find that information useful and close to be objective or relevant and they're able to actually, they don't have to go out there and talk to everybody on any given day. they just read it. when it comes to create that trust or credibility or whatever it is if you're not a newspaper, i think what you value is honesty, transparency and i think you make yourself more human. the more you can embrace a culture of, if we could share
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something but we don't need to if you default to sharing it and the more you can say, we need to look more professional than perral i think you default to being more personal. as you do that you build a relationship of trust. this big brand or big idea or whoever this is. didn't really understand what they were about before and now i know this person behind it and now i know they're inclined to be sharing and being on's with me and that's what trust is built on. that on honest trust. usually that's between two people but the same concept and lesson i think applies to any type of organization. obviously it's going to be different depending on what type of business it is i think transparency and honesty are the three things that make that stronger. >> morning, chris. i'm from time warner cable in
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new york city. i think face book is wonderful. unfortunately, i've been picked up by a few people that i weren't trying to find and i'm sure that's happened a few people here. my question is, as far as your work with barack obama on his campaign, how would all of this have come out had you went to the other side? this machine is incredibly complex and strong and robust. does it work for evil as well as good? [laughs] >> it does. i mean, it's a really good question. now in the context of this particular campaign, um... you know, last year, it wouldn't have worked john mccain. it wouldn't have and the reason this particular technology would not is his campaign was not
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premised on giving people a voice. it works when it's about - basically it's premised on empowering people to speak and act. once you do that, they're able to connect with one another and they're able to - the barrier to coordinate action just becomes so much lower. think about coordinating a event where people go and knock on people's doors. used to you had to find out that through a flier or phone call and now you get it directly on-line and find out two people on your block are going, the time you, respond and it makes the whole thing easier. so when it comes to, you know, whether the mccain campaign could have used same technology to their advantage. they tried but their campaign was not premised on the same values and as a result it didn't go anywhere. that said, i could imagine a palin campaign for instance being able to take advantage of
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a similar set of tools because you know, her persona and attitude towards the people who are out there is much more about listening to them, and hearing them speak. you will see sa sarah palin decided she doesn't want to talk to the media as nearly as much as she used to. she uses face book. there's advantages and disadvantages for doing that. even though i don't obviously agree with her political views at all, whatly give is she's listening to the people that are talking to her and she's speaking to them directly and she could build a campaign that would be able to use technology in a similar way. the technology itself, is not, you know, doesn't hold - it is partisan. any campaign or on one side or another can use it but it really only works about empowering people to speak and self
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organize. that necessarily a left or democratic cause. back over here? >> morning, chris. i'm from time warner cable. i want you to speak about self selection. there's an opportunity here to find more people like yourself and in a conference like this with diversity so important i'm interesting in how we can have a dialogue and using that honesty and transparency to have more historic conversations and self selecting finding more of your same views. >> yeah. i think that's real concern. not just in the area of media button internet. there's been a couple of studies where they actually map the blogs out there. when i say blogs, i mean people that blog all day about the politics they care about. like the daily coast. i don't mean the face - book of the world but if you map some of the blogs you will see there's a huge blob on the left that's
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blue and one on the right that's red and there's very little interconnecting. there's very few that are nonpartisan. i do think we have a human, we have an inclination to read and talk to people who we agree with. it makes us feel better. i think that does play itself out on the web. but that's why i think that the role of institutions, is not only in the future of going to continue to be important but why i think they have a particular responsibility to exist in that middle space between red and between blue and to try to be as objective as possible. not just having a "new york times" article that is nonpartisan but making sure you put both people from both sides of the aisle reading that that on u.s. today. you see people with completely
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different views contributing to that discussion. so, i don't have any, you know, great ideas about how to structurally instruct those institutions to exist but i think they're important and i'm not convinced just systematically they'll fade. at least, to the extent that i've seen up until now, i haven't seen that to be a trend. so we'll see. yeah? >> morning, chris. i'm from cnn. i have a question. your sitting in front of an audience of mostly content distributors and most of us are tied to making must be on our content and maintaining that. i'd love to get your thoughts on how we remain relevant on a platform that effectively. you know breaks down those barriers and spreads our content all over the internet.
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i'd love to get your perspective on, you know, does my bah rock obama suggest we should build communities around our content or be persistent and relevant on your platform? >> very good question. i don't have a good distinct answer. i think the right action is to reit rate and experiment. i think content is out there and easier to access and in more and more cases free or legally or illegally. people are finding they're way to it and that's part of what the technology offers. i do think there's some opportunity to offer better content, whether it's better quality, more information and there were going to be people that access that. i'm not one of those people that thinks everything needs to be free. i think that in general there's a trend towards some type of
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access towards content becoming increasingly accessible and more and more free but i don't think structurally it needs to be and i think there's always people that will pay for certain types of content at certain times. that looks different for a lot of different businesses. there's no doubt it's a challenge and only thing i know what to do if i were in your shoes is to try every single thing that came to my mind and watch the traffic stats and the numbers. charge, don't charge, set up different sites, different brands but a lot of money behind experimentation. you'll try 20 things and one will work but you have to try 20 to get to the one. that's really the only way i know how to try and find the right model. as for the second question about communities and whether or not different brands or organizations need to create communities on their own site. the internet in general i think
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is becoming more and more social. i think there's going to be more opportunities for people to participate on any given website and that's good thing. there's easy way to integrate technology. you can use something like face book connect that allows the user to log in with their face book user name and i.d. into their site. they can interact with all types of content and comment on it and they can see what their friends are commenting on it as well and anything they do on your site goes back into face book so you get theed advantage of distribution over there. so i think that certainly is something that i would encourage just about everybody to implement. not because - obviously i think it's good for face book because it makes them have a better experience but it's good for every body else. it's a relatively light lift, technically speaking, and it
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offer as on the of value for the users already on your site. for there, there's other sites creating their own networks. there's companies out there that offer networking technology. ing. you can create a network and a people to share photos and bulletin boards and all of that stuff. that's one route some organizations are going and then finally there's custom development where you bring in them and particularly customize your brand. some of those work better for some organizations depending on budgets and time and levels of commitment. but i think certainly people need to think about how to make your website a place where people can speak, interact and be listened to and it's a question of how you want to do that. yeah? >> back over here. >> hi. good morning. i'm here in denver.
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i agree with your last point about social media and this technology being here to stay. but i have a two-fold question. it's here to stashgs it's growing exponentially and so that leads saturation. which you know, i find already. going to look for one thing you find, you know, 20 million points - don't even know where to start. that's one question. is there going to be a natural attrition of survival of the fitness servicing that eliminates some of the garbage. the second point is that, with the barack obama campaign and my barack obama this was a high stakes thing to cut through clutter for every day organizations which are some of the projects we'll be working for, how would you utilize those
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same tools to capture the kind of attention that you would need to? >> yeah, absolutely. on the saturation point, absolutely. survival of the fit zest one thing. there's only so much information we can process. i think we've adapted quickly to process a lot more information. public - well probably think we have extended capacity to consume a little bit more. but at some point there is a barrier so that you know, certain - you know - whether it's sites or pieces of information fall by the wayside and that's why we have to realize that we have to rely on organization filters and that's how we make sense of the information and world around us to the second point, the first thing i say with the obama campaign. particularly in a one-on-one setting helping people figure
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out what to do for their non-profit. the obama campaign was a singular moment in his flight particular candidate, particular time. you don't want to set your goal, talking to political candidates. how can you raise 500 million, surely you can raise me 150 this will million but it's a little different. my answer to your question is, i might not use a lot of the tools we used on the obama campaign. they might mott be helpful to a ghivent business but things have changed a lot. if you had asked us at the end of the campaign, how do we use face book on the campaign. well, we had a page which was very important but when we updated it didn't go into people's news feeds so we used updates and now that's changed. it goes directly to feeds. we had an application but now
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face book application form is good but i argue face book connect that i just talked about is even more effective. we use groups on the site if a group page a year ago and today is completely different. things change, technology changes and not only is it constantly evolving but how it works for different businesss is very different in certain cases. you know not every business is going to be able to use this in the same way. i give you an example. there's lots of businesses that don't even consumer face at all but they can use this to help employees interact. there's all sorts of things entering market from platforms like share point and what dell force is offering that's interesting for a lot of smaller things and businesses but the basic premise is to help
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employees work more efficiently. it's not, there's not a single answer for that question unfortunately. yeah? i think we have time for maybe two more questions and we'll do one over here and one over here. >> i'm heather from we t.v. wedding central and we volunteer. great session so far and great information both on the content as well as distributor side. what's next for christ? whether you're getting married or something like that. not that i'm interesting or whatever? what's next for face book in particular. talk about face book connect and face book the new technologies that are coming out? you mentioned how things changing two years ago from where they are today. what are those up-and-coming friends we can look at from a programmers perspective. >> i'm in a serious relationship.
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no marriage plans of now. for me, personally i'm working on a few different things. i'm working with a venture capital firm in boston to help analyze all the different start ups that are coming out of the woodwork right now. what they're doing. the ones that are most promising and interesting and one of them i'm most interested. i wouldn't be surprised if i start a new company soon. and in addition to that, i'm very, very interested in the global poverty and health spaces so i've been working with organizations trying to understand more myself. it's a obviously very complex field and self educate quite a bit while trying figure out if there's an on for me to help in that space as well. as far as future of face book, i mean, face book is a really, really exciting place to work right now and a really exciting
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place to watch grow, simply because so many people across the world are using it. a couple of thing. easier and better access for people across the globe. where your accessing from ammo bile phone in india or where your accessing from your computer wherever you are. that also brings along better customization of your information. who shares and who sees what. there's a feature i think is very important and it's good is the ability to create different lists of friends. i work with these people and these are nam laned i want them to see this and not that. that's trend. face book connect i come back to the part of it. it's probably the most important thing happening now. it allow us to imagine a web where every single website is social. to the extend we want it to be. it's social with the people we know. our friends. you can go in and right now you
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can go into net flicks and see what your other friends are watching. or you can go and see what pieces your friends have been reading at any given which blog or on new york times or wherever this may be. increasingly i think using face book connect is the future meaning our experiences are much better. so ask a question. >> thank you for coming today. michael armstrong. i would imagine a lot of people in this room have had ideas for the best website ever or for the besti phone application to make million as nond have to work again. tangibly how do you make an idea. lot of us probably don't write code. what would you advise on people that have ideas to actually turn it into reality so they can be the - well not the next face
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book but you know? >> i think there's a few key ingredients. there's things knowing why your idea is unique and understanding what it offers. i think it would be self evidence but being vigorous is important. i think the most important thing is finding smart committed people to work on it with you. you can have the best idea in the world but unless you have someone qualified to take it from idea to reality, fit as technology idea, website idea, finding a good programmer or designer and focusing on that resolutely is incredibly important. part one, is finding the right people. part two, is back to the iteration and experimentation point. almost all of the major companies that you see and platforms that are out there, start off very v different than they end. think about face book.
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we were just at harvard. we didn't have a message, wall, photos or anything. it was very basic and now while it's held on to the basic idea, it's constantly it rating and experimenting and seeing what works and what doesn't. the two key ingredients i would say finding the right smart other people to do that and having an attitude of experimentation and iteration. i think you have both of those, then your pretty far along. thank you guys. i appreciate it. >> today on "washington journal" a discussion on pilot safety with the president of airline pilots association international. shane harris of national journal on how the u.s. government used cyberanother tacks on the war in a like and then a look on how the economy is effecting youngstown, ohio with mayor williams and latee on the president of the center for
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clean air policy. ♪ this week on q & a. our guest is may amy china. offer of the best-selling book. no logo and shock doctrine. >> mrs. china. if you don't mind i'll read a few paragraphs from your wikipedia site and have you comment on them. born may 8th. 1970. man tremendous all right. quebec. known for her political analysis and krit schism of corporate globalization. is that fair? >> i think that's fair. i don't call it globalization. i think i'm a

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