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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  April 14, 2014 10:00am-12:01pm EDT

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russia has used its security council veto to prevent the security council from getting rid of the you and peacekeeping mission that they have made an arrangement with the european union for helping with justice and legal issues, rule of law. they want the european union, which they see as their future home, to be in control. not the united nations. the u.n. peace keeping force is staying there and is more active in the serbian part. they cannot get rid of the force because the russians will not let them. put them there and it eats up money. the authorities do not want it. the americans do not want it either.
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there is no getting rid of it. there is a political deadlock. host: we are all out of time. you're the united nations bureau chief for reuters. you can follow him on twitter. appreciate your time and your insight on the united nations. guest: thanks a lot. it was great to be on the shelf. host: that does it for today's "washington journal." enjoy your monday and have a good week. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
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>> comedian lewis black is known for his standup comedy on "the daily show." he will talk about politics at the national press club and we will have coverage beginning at 1:00 eastern. also, at 2:30, the former pakistani ambassador will join with other experts from political parties. the atlantic council will host the event at 2:30 eastern on c-span 2. 3:00,ck here on c-span at authors discuss human rights in north korea. the main speaker is michael kirby. he will talk about a report on unspeakable atrocities. that will be live coverage starting at 3:00 eastern. >> the first thing i would do is tv let the largest cable
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largestbuy the second cable-tv company. that is where i would start. my job here on the judiciary thesetee is to, at hearings, raise my concerns. he seems to really like -- he seems like a really smart guy. i could say that he earned his way. ask toughb was to questions. they have 107 lobbyists on capitol hill. they are swarming with lobbyists. 100,000 -- people write me their objections.
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the first thing i would do is stop those people. i would not let this go through. it is up to the fcc and dog. >> senator franken weighs in on the repost merger tonight on "the communicators." >> the house small business committee held a hearing about 3-d printing and its potential. they also examined potential trade-offs in making products obsolete. is it justified? >> i will call the hearing to order. we also have a vote coming up.
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they scheduled one right in the middle of our hearing. how far we can get until we do call that vote. 3-d printing is a process of creating objects from a digital model. typically through depositing layer upon layer until an object is formed. we're here to discuss how this is spreading innovation all across the country. the technology has been around since the 1980's. it is used by large companies for rapid prototyping. they have become more affordable and open the door for smaller businesses to benefit ms technology. some models are now available for under $1500. they expect prices to go down. entrepreneurs are using it and a variety of ways. the ability to save time and cost makes highly accurate parts
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of the system, produces finished products they may be sold directly. it will increasingly be a critical component of many small businesses. a number of entrepreneurs are using it. --y intend to manufacture sometimes i can be done right in the garage. as they become more danced, household manufacturers will skyrocket. congress is considering policies applicable and other advances. it is important that we must not be hasty and unduly restrict
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small businesses. we must grow our economy. a very interesting group of makers and users of this technology. we're developing these products. we look forward to hearing your insights on how you're using this technology. committee is all about that. we will move right into our witnesses. the first witness today is the of clip on ceo -- lens for iphones and other products. foras a product developer information technology resale. he was entrepreneur of the year. welcome to the committee and we look forward to hearing your testimony. committee, i the
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am patrick o'neill, ceo of a mobile photography company. i invented clip on lens for the iphone. i am grateful for the opportunity to speak with you regarding 3-d printing and how it is helping us go from startups to selling products in every store worldwide. i've spent my career in the technology industry. 3-d printing has enabled us to innovate at a rapid pace. this will be at the forefront of mobile technology and keep jobs in america. lensted to create a photo that would give people the ability to capture photos artistically come creatively, and spontaneously. jobs.as designed i steve for clean, simple designs. this simple design philosophy.
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printing local 3-d company to create hundreds of prototypes. with steve jobs, was this product good enough? the answer would be no. we would keep refining until we met that requirement. we started a cloud funding platform in may 2011. we achieved almost five times our goal. since our start, we have moved offices and larger we employ seven full-time designers. where considered the leader in mobile photography product. our products are sold in more than 90 countries. andttract a lesion of users have received numerous awards. i was also named entrepreneur of the year.
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3-d printing enabled me to grow quickly. 3-d printing is the core of our development. we have made new products to enhance our tools. we have invested more than $50,000 in 3-d printing to prototype our own products. so lenses can be designed quickly each time we introduce a new version. to the printer and have a prototype in the afternoon. fast turnaround is key. finished a version within days of this announcement. i cannot imagine doing this without our own 3-d printer. we first start with brainstorming and concept generation, then sketch ideas and models. we print the models on the 3-d printer. next, we use functionality.
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changes are made as needed and we printed. once approved, we move forward to mass production. the mobile device business moves quickly. we need to get to market faster. with and develop products in a week or two without taking months for development. we would miss critical once timing and opportunities. decisions -- this could result in loss of opportunity and failure. we are able to compete on the world stage, especially in emerging industries, like technology. we use this as a bridge to get to market faster. to think differently and are not afraid to try new things. we only build products that innovate. 3-d printing allows us to
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take more risks. we validate designs within a day or two. if they are unsuccessful, we can move on to something else. our success comes from perseverance and the ability to blaze trails. as we consider policies, it is important to ensure that entrepreneurs continue to use technology in innovative ways. i am honored to be here today. thank you to the committee. >> our next witness is the executive vice president of public affairs for a global manufacturer of 3-d printers. he is included in government relations and marketing. he has also held the position of vice president and general manager for the 3-d printing unit. he is testifying on behalf of the national association of
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manufacturers. welcome to the committee. >> thank you for the opportunity to tell you about 3-d printing and how the company is helping companies grow and thrive. my name is jonathan cobb and i am the executive vice president for stratasys. we are a member of the national association of any fractures and i am pleased to testify on behalf of the association. we represent 12,000 small to large manufacturers in every industrial sector in every state. manufacturers are the world's's leading innovators and perform two thirds of all private sector r&d, producing more innovative breakthroughs than any other sector. i am proud to say that 3-d printing is part of this innovative industry. you may be asking, what is 3-d
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printing and why should i care? simply put, it is the process of turning digital blueprints into tangible objects within a matter of hours. it since digital semantics to a themer, which then makes layers of plastics or other materials into physical objects. i brought a couple of samples. i hope we can talk about them later on. although the concept may be new to many of you today, this technology has existed for decades. 3-d printers were created to help engineers test designs before spending money on expensive tooling. today, the printers are not only used to make prototypes, they're also used for low-volume manufacturing of items like crust and limbs and components of aircraft. the printing was also founded in
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the classroom. since 2002, nearly one quarter of our business has been education. by helping students learn design and manufacturing, we are helping to build a strong tool for businesses in america. this brings up an important point. 3-d printing will not replace traditional manufacturing processes. that will serve as another tool in the toolbox for manufacturers , to deliver products to market in an efficient and customized way. we were started in 1988 and been growing ever cents. in 2005, a separate business which is a red eye, service that can produce 3-d parts =-- sectionacquired another which helps the jewelry designers. last year, we merged with a brooklyn-based 3-d printing
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company. . user from the products are designed for consumers and entrepreneurs. the growth of our business helps others as well. miles was producing usedents with his fans, he a credit card reader to processes. connected to his laptop, but it would swivel or spin. that made it difficult to use. borrowing from his children's blago pieces, he built an accessory to keep the reader s afe. he wanted to bring this new innovation to market. what it because lee and efficient? he invested in consumer level printers, which has become a factory in his desk, in enabling
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him to produce his invention from home for a couple thousand dollars and sell thousands of them. we take pride in stories like this. they demonstrate that we are not just a business of 3-d printing machines. we're also helping to empower entrepreneurs by bringing manufacturing into their homes and workspaces. are present here today shows that the interest in 3-d printing is strong and the future is infinite. our industry is pretty experiencing rapid growth. we are giving manufacturing a new competitive edge the best thing that washington can do is encourage growth in investment. as president obama has noted in to recent speech, if we want attract more good manufacturing jobs to america, we have to make sure we are on the cutting edge. our company could not agree more. like to thank the committee for holding this hearing and i am happy to answer any questions
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that you have. >> thank you, mr. cobb. the next witness is peter -- of the world's leading 3-d marketplace. prior to this, he was the chief technology officer of a satellite broadcast company. he is also the director of engineering, where he is responsible for delivering a broadband service via satellite. he was born and raised in the netherlands. >> good afternoon. ofm the ceo and founder shapeaways. create aanyone to business with physical products. i love coding things with computers. german by this and by entrepreneurial spirit, i spent
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much of my career as a start up of companies. one was the first to develop 3-d modeling software. in 2006, i learned about 3-d printing. we print physical objects based on 3-d computer designs. other designers were using 3-d software, the never believed they could use it in their hands. i wanted to show these products at them and they were blown away. they agreed it was a good idea to build a service where people could print 3-d designs. i knew there could be a business opportunity. how big was yet to be seen. as started working here in 2007. we shared a vision that this could be disruptive. at the time, it was used mostly for prototyping companies. launched to enable
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people to get products they want. we created prototypes. in 2010, we became an independent company and moved our headquarters to new york city. talentide tech savvy with innovative solutions. we have the ability to talk to so many of our customers. today, we have over 100 employees in new york, seattle, and at our factories. they are the factories of the future with new and innovative processes and machineries. we are the place for custom products and creating ideas for entrepreneurs. we are a success story in and must possibilities --the endless possibilities of 3-d printing. when i think about what we can achieve, we have enabled
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software engineers to become entrepreneurs. bringing this to market was difficult. you had to know what users wanted, build the software, and test it. then produce a lot of discs and hope that people would buy it. today, using the internet, anyone can become a notch in or. internet has removed barriers. wanting a website has become easy and this is why google, amazon, and facebook have become successful. similarly, 3-d printing is removing barriers. products update quickly, so there is no need for marketing research. you can distribute product strictly online. plus, you can continually evolve out of. -- products. entrepreneurs are taking notice. tom 2012 2013, we increased
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100,000 per month. the number of people creating products has doubled. we have changed how we think about launching products. to understand this in detail, let me share with you how we work. anyone can upload. free and open source software programs available. literally anyone can do it. uploaded, you is can print and make it available. ,here are over 40 materials including precious metal and sandstone. they are uploaded to our printers and printed. then they are cleaned but engineers, sorted, and sent to anyone. all of the printing is the core. people have created many products for their business.
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this includes jewelry and home decor. i have brought a few samples. let me share one of the examples of a successful business. city, they wanted to create something more lasting than a website. they started with designing cufflinks and move to other jewelry. they had several applications and unique ideas. we gave them the ability to turn the mentor prototypes and finally product. without buying large and costly machinery. they sell their product directly and through other channels. their business would not exist without 3-d printing. the ability to create customizable product is one of our goals. it is extremely costly and labor-intensive, but we make it seamless. this is called nervous systems. it is a novel process, inspired
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by natural phenomenon. all of these products are one-of-a-kind, sold on our site and multiple retail channels. . they are an example of the business that is rapidly growing. i would like to conclude with the fact that even the president of the united states has acknowledged that we are working to partner on the first ever movement. the goal is to produce a call to action for stakeholders. we are committed to helping the white house use this moment to facilitate entrepreneurship. at the state of the union, the president spoke about facilities, saying that the warehouse is a state-of-the-art lab. new workers are manufacturing printing and changing the way we do everything. 3-d printing does have the
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ability to revolutionize the way we make everything. i'm passionate to help others see that. i hope i have effectively demonstrated to you the impact we could have on small business, creating many jobs in the process. moving forward will be critical. thank you for your time today and allowing me to spake about 3-d printing. this technology will change the world. >> thank you, peter. our next witness is jan, the director of 3-d maryland, which is bringing the technology agenda to the baltimore region. she is also a professor at tow son university on rapid technologies. in 2012, she produced the first rapid tech conference. in 2013, she was innovator of the year by the maryland daily record. thank you for being here.
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committee members, i am honored to have the ability to speak with you about technologies impacting how we carry out our work across industries. from product development to manufacturing, 3-d printing gives us new capabilities that alter how we can compete in a global marketplace. i would to start with a real world example. the executive director of 3-d maryland -- manufacturing and innovative economic drivers for maryland and america. 3-d maryland is located in the maryland center for entrepreneurship. it is a business incubator and howard county. within a few weeks of a new client joining, he sought me out and said i am the 3-d printer percent. -- person. he told me about a product to is innovating. he had sent money to china and have not heard anything. could i help?
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i asked when he needed his prototype and he said yesterday. i said i would see what i could do, send me his drawing. two days later, he knocked on my door to check the progress. he put his head in my door and i pointed to the platform across my office. he looked at his prototype and looked at me and back at the printer, speechless. i said that is your prototype. he said this is like magic. it is not magic. it is a tool that helps us do our work better, locally. most of the time, faster with optimized solutions. whatever work we are carrying out. 3-d printing is a disruptive technology. is changing the who, how , when, why, and what of how we solve problems. if we can imagine it and we have the skill to design it, the
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printers will print it. we have made things we have never made before. we're disrupting economies of scale and democratizing production. and entrepreneurial opportunities are at the heart of this technology. there are some barriers to engagement. access to knowledge and understanding what the technology can and cannot do. overcoming industrial errors is huge. we have made things for a long time and we're good at it. cost of entry -- that is a challenge for small businesses and entrepreneurs. and the position of technology. is thethere yet question we often receive? in howard county, the economic development authority as of the maryland center for entrepreneurship are strong leaders.
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they very easily solve the mission and the opportunity that these technologies brought and how it fit in the entrepreneurial ecosystem. 3-d maryland is an entrepreneurial system. we are raising awareness and facilitating engagement and implementation. we are addressing opportunities to strengthen and advance the ecosystem in maryland. looselyuilding a coupled system of collaborative relationships and partnerships across sectors, to innovate and accelerate. recognize that the committee encourages initiatives like 3-d maryland, that focus on multisector, competitive collaborations. building on the strengths and competencies to foster innovation and grow regional
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ecosystems, on taking advantage of public funding. supporting initiatives build on momentum created by recent initiative, like national manufacturing, innovation. addressing and creating a manufactured work worst is also critical to our engagement. i recommend working at the grassroots level with users with proven track records, from industry and education. we can answer to these changes --instituted these changes. wider adoption is inevitable. we need to make sure the workforce is prepared. studies have shown that students who are educated are among the first to bring the advanced hands technology to their employers. that is something i have told my students since i established the lab.
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continuing to support research funding and programs that facilitate technology is just getting started. i thank you very much for your attention and consideration of these technologies. >> thank you very much. we will recess until after this vote. reat. -- g then we will come back and start with questions. >> for over 30 years, c-span brings public events from washington to you, putting you in the room at congressional hearings, white house event, briefings, and conferences. all as a public service of private industry. we are c-span, created by the cable tv industry 35 years ago and brought to you as a public service by your cable or satellite provider. watch as in hd, like us on facebook, and follow us on twitter. >> thank you, mr. chairman.
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thank you for impressive testimonies. on the way over to vote, i was talking -- you have some experience in your field. is fascinating to talk about the possibilities of what you're doing. for a small business guy, it is very rewarding. i see that folks are doing some good stuff. one of the concerns that i have is getting startups like what you do. there are new products and processes. not widely used, i guess. are the regulatory problems we need to be aware of? can win hands you to do your job better? what's good on the line and see if anyone has comments. everyone has concerns about washington, trust me. mr. o'neil? any problems? >> i do not yet have any problems with you. >> obviously, the health care
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law is something that is stressful to people. correct.50, if i am figure if we keep working hard to find a great product, everything else will figure it out. >> you have outrun the regulations. it will be a while. >> i do not want that to happen. our feet have not hit the ground. we shipped the first order to apple lessened or years ago. we keep moving. we are not big enough. i understand that there are some complications. i let other the lord about those things. i am sure i should be. >> you hire people to worry about things for you? >> i don't like to worry.
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>> mr. cobb? >> to go back to the beginning, in 88.ys started we continue to ship our business at this time. areas that we are concerned about or could be concerned about -- any export laws that would restrict this technology from moving out from the u.s. if you look at the bulk of our business, we manufacture in new hampshire, in new york, in minnesota. all of these products are exported. anything that would harm that export -- >> there is no problem in that area? >> it is not a barrier yet. there has been some discussion. we have had the opportunity to address the question >>.
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>> should we be watching for that? >> yes. >> i'm sorry. >> we are not really concerned about things that are currently in place. you might be able to help with this or think of it -- we have a large group of designers that make their ideas come to life using our platform. they upload to our site and have us ship it back to them. is that welement allow people to open shops. i brought a few that you can see in front of me. if some of these products infringe on copyrights, which rarely, but does happen -- there is a very nice process where the copyright holder can send us a notice. we take down the product from our website. the story or discussion then is between the copyright holder and the person who is the infringer.
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that process heals very well. the community is growing very quickly. these numbers are really large. copyrightlps with the spectrum. there is no process for patents. if someone infringes on a patent, there is no clear process to enable the patent holder to notify us. the discussion becomes between patentpyright -- infringer and the patent holder. platforms become party. we have so many new designs that it would be impossible for us to check. we only print things wants. it would be impossible to check whether there are patent infringements going on. of course, we are open to
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building technology to sell this. since the nga work so well, i would suggest having a similar process for platforms like shapeaways. there are others coming up. we need a process to help them stay scalable and flexible. >> do you have disclosure statements that you have to sign? a drawing by some kind? that says if you produce this object, you are restricted to showing anybody else? >> the idea is that since the community is open, our conditions do ask people, do you own the copyrights? do you have the rights to have manufacturing for yourself? and can you sell it to others? people have to state that they have those rights. some people may not read that. >> my time is up.
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i will you respond. thank you. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you for coming in. we had an interesting discussion on the weight of votes about the possibilities of 3-d printing. i explained that i was a vocational educational teacher. i was in the automotive design business for 20 years. i am very familiar with 3-d printing and proud to say that many of my female students went on to case western to study biomechanical engineering because of cad and some of the things that they got to make in my bathroom -- classroom. at the time, you just sent a design and they printed it for $35. instead of putting something on their fridge or door and saying look what i did in class, they got to put it on a table. that was interesting.
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in that regard, the possibilities -- we're looking at things like, one of my questions is -- if i could scan something, can i digitize that and have it made? for instance, a hip replacement. could i use an x-ray and convert it to digital and have a custom-made hip? there is some regulation that would have to come with that too, right? it has to be sterile, made from specific materials? we can do that with bone? if somebody crashed a bone, we could replace that? how long would that take? am not a doctor, so i could not name a bone in my wrist. >> both of those examples are current practice today. to my understanding, most of that work is done abroad in germany and sweden.
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who isone of the oams producing hip replacements. we can take the personalized data from a ct scan and digitize it. my understanding is that what we're doing is creating hip replacements -- small, medium, large. there are four sizes. i may not remember the name of the university that is doing bone implant thing, but i think it is in texas. biomedical engineering is huge, yes. what i would share with you is that at johns hopkins, there is a surgeon there. create 3-d printing to preop planning. they know before they ever go into the operating room exactly what the cuts are, what is removed, where the staples are.
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they simplify the process and that is fantastic. the doctor works less hours and able stressful situation. the operating cost is a contributor to health care cost and that is lower. this is distracted technology. that will upset the apple cart. the business model for hospitals is now going to be disrupted. and they may not be so happy about operating room cost. the time has declined because they have to go back and rework the numbers again. medical is one of the first industries that have engaged with 3-d printing. >> great. so, if there was somebody who needed plastic surgery -- they could use 3-d printing -- they could use x-rays and snow were the cuts are going to be and how to repair this patient's face? >> absolutely. >> they also use it for surgical guides.
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they put the print rate on the body and they know the toll, the cut, the angle. they take a lot of the guesswork out. volunteer that, in terms of 3-d maryland, whenever first initiatives was to create an expert user group. we gather all of the experts around this technology and cross pollinate them. doctors forte with robotics to make surgery even better. it is even smoother. we also print cells. i am not sure who is doing this, but they print skin during surgery from the patient itself. when you print yourself, you limit the risk of rejection. so, now we have that. it also reduces prototype build times. no longer do we do giant clay models.
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parts for adesign motorcycle using a 3-d printer -- put it together and reduce my build time and prototype cost. do you have any numbers? >> when i can see the cases. john can speak to this. when i see the case and they say what am i going to present, many times there's is one third or 1/5 of the cost savings. you have those savings, when you put those parts together, you do not go back to square one. >> how long would it take for i have instance, once that information digitized and do the surgery, to have a model that i could look at? how long would it take to have that prototype? >> those are hard questions.
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you do not know how much data or what the scale is. le is a a factor. -- sca factor. they use sla technology and those skulls take three or four hours. what i am advocating for in maryland is a model that we can all look at. maryland will create a consortium-based model. we have state-of-the-art medical facilities so that the doctor can see a patient from shock trauma and a zip files to a local printer. we do not have to worry about fedex anymore. then we will see improvements. >> i started in the business we took a body from the car. we sent it to the shop and it took three months to get a prototype. now we can do it in a matter of hours.
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thank you very much and i appreciate you being here. i yield back. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i missed the opening part. thank you all for coming. and they will be asking questions that you answered. if that is the case, i apologize. i have a little experience in 3-d. we have been using it for five or six years and one of my companies to make small-scale models of complex machinery as part of sales proposals. $6 million proposals -- it is well worth delivering that. maybe others will catch on that we are the only ones doing it. there is a wow factor. when we get the orders, everyone wants another one. it is great and we use it as a sales tool. as this takesmes, off, are there quality-control issues? all the things that you do in iso and quality things for
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repeatability? i am a machine shop guy. are their quality issues once you get into production? i am not sure who to ask. so, we are building on hundreds of thousands of out of. -- products. we see these problems pop up. fit, wene cases to print final products. the one i use myself as 3-d printed. many people buy just to have a unique case. they need to be accepted. since it was used for a long time as a prototyping technology, there is definitely need for the technology to improve. even from a speed perspective,
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to meet the needs of today's consumers. you always have some of the options. if the prototype does not come out right, you do it again. if the consumer has a birthday party and needs a present, you only have one shot to get it right. technology has come a long way and it is great. it enables so many people. the technology is still in its infancy. it will keep growing as the consumer market engages. there will be large jumps in technology. this, iu are layering am sure powdered metals are probably being used. probably some ceramics. what happens when you get into the need for some really high alloy steel? is that way out? >> we are printing metals
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already. we printed silver. we print in ceramics. we're adding other precious metals soon. >> carbon too? >> not yet. >> is that coming, you believe? >> yes. >> as this takes off, what is the thought on the cost? you have a lot of machines running. you set a machine up and they just pop those out even in the dark factory? is this similar? what would be the labor cost to make a part using 3-d versus automated equipment and a factory? the machine does it without man power. >> you look at where 3-d printing is being used today. it is being utilized in manufacturing environments, aerospace companies, automotive
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companies. a number of people use it today. where it makes sense is not the things that we think about, where you make tens of millions of bottle caps. where it makes sense at this point is where you have a short production type of run. may be something where, because of regulations, depart is constantly changing. when you look at the cost of a piece, you are utilizing 3-d printing. however, you are not going to have to build that tool. as a small business owner, a couple of cases were mentioned today. you will not have that upfront cost. you also not have to have upfront knowledge. you can design something and tested and prototype it and then start printing it.
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it is a little bit different as mid tohigh-volume versus low volume. >> thank you very much. my time has expired. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i would like to thank the panel for their testimony today. with the rapid growth and accessibility of 3-d printing, there is room for great innovation. thisny of you testified, creates endless opportunities for entrepreneurs. however, with companies like makerbot reducing the cost of 3-d printers, do you feel that consumers will become their own manufacturers? in manyheir services, small businesses, obsolete? certainly, makerbot and
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product like that enable a lot of people to do work as far as design work and production work. products, for certain as you can see, a product like usedbot would actually be in a home environment -- i think that where some of the big opportunities for 3-d in is in thee manufacturing process. and allows current manufacturers to build things in a different manners, to customize thing in a different way. there are some products that are geared toward that. if you look at the use of 3-d printing and the different materials that are going on today, i think that the bigger advances are going to come in
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the manufacturing area. with that, there comes a whole new area where students are used to manufacturing in traditional methods. training of people who are employed or training of students to design and utilize 3-d printing is one thing. to manufacture using 3-d printing is vastly different. used as that and that is a big inhibitor in getting printing into small and medium-sized companies. the characteristics are different than the characteristics of molding. onon another note, i serve homeland security as well. creatingtial of weapons through this -- 3-d renting.
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what is the feasibility, possibility? someone could come along and create a nondetectable firearm or something? been staunchave legislationf the that just was reenacted at the end of last year. it is something that has been demonstrated. we have been a supporter of the legislation that has taken place up to this point. we're looking at the restrictions on that opportunity. potentially not follow the guidelines for this type of product? could they create something that is not detectable and cause a problem?
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i am not an expert. need some typeu of metal, either a bullet or the firing mechanism, to create a firearm. i'm not an expert on that. i think it would be difficult. >> ok. thank you. thank you, mr. chairman. it always makes me nervous when technology like this is here in congress. in means we are paying attention to you. when the bureaucracy pays attention to a technology, we often try to regulate it or screw it up. i see this in the context of someone who believes in the great successes of the internet. the and grew before bureaucratic mechanism truly understood it.
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and were able to slow down the investment in capital and creativity. orther it is 3-d printing something we have not even defined yet, which may be the large-scale or the high-speed production -- what systemic threat to the industry is it to copyright? is at the source files having patent litigation or copyright litigation? or is it those of us in government and bureaucracy? if i came to you and said over the next decade, this is one of the great disruptive technologies that will make more efficient societies, but we have to conquer these risks -- for each of you, what would you say are the systemic risks? >> well, i am an entrepreneur.
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we use the technology to create innovation in our own business. so, these kind of questions do not really apply to us. i would sincerely hope that no legislation comes in that would restrict our -- >> i know we have all been running in and out. what about copyrights? >> copyright is a concern to us as a coppery holder. as a holder of patents, i am concerned that people will infringe our patents and designs and print them. we have had that happen. we had that happen with shapeaways but we worked with them and they dealt with it. it is a concern that needs to be addressed for it i'm not sure that 3-d printing specifically -- whether it is 3-d printed or made in other ways, there are people in china making
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counterfeit products all the time. they do in traditional manufacturing. >> what is the systemic risk on the it discussion? if i change the source code, does that relieve me of copyright? the lawsanufacturer, in this country have the patent protection from a manufacturer. what we do is spend 10-12% of our overall revenue on trying to be more innovative. trying to stay ahead of things that will fall out as far as patent goes. you talked about was is the inhibitor. i think one of the things -- one of the things that will not help the industry is much as possible is that people, young people and traditional workers
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are not educated in this technology. there's a real opportunity at this point to have education at high school level, great goal of all, and even have workers that are displaced because of manufacturing. manufacturing is starting to come back in the u.s. this is a portion of that and i think there is an opportunity for us and the federal to getent can -- involved in training students and workforce. >> as we get involved, there is also risk involved. >> i understand. >> what would be a systemic risks to your business? mentioned --you we are a platform of service. we went to create as many products for people as they like and make it possible for them to great things that were not possible before.
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that way, democratizing how people think, everyone can now make things instead of owning the companies. what we are taking very seriously is the responsibility that we need to take -- we can only make things that are original. the good thing is that we have made over 2.5 million products say. the amount of products that we have to take down -- the amount of products that we actually made that were infringing was extremely small. i can count them on one hand or two hands. that is a good thing. people grasp that they can make anything they want. the technology is much more expensive than manufacturing. it is much easier to copy something popular with traditional manufacturing technology, as mentioned in china, perhaps. >> i am up against time. academia always has an interesting world.
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what is in the public domain -- you may have to navigate more interesting discussion. >> >> i am advocate of the technology. one of the things of is going to hold the industry back or is holding it back is the proprietary mess of the hardware in the material. users that ixpert see using the technology in the most advanced way say that they don't care about the warranty. i want under the hood very and they will hire a third-party contractor that provides the warranty. they can put in any material they want and they can tweak the parameters. if you don't do that, you are paying about $25,000 poor set of parameters to be under the hood. i know peter agrees with me.
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, young the technology open have to keep it open. the u.s. is not a leader in this technology. >> i know i am way over time. code, or a common script? the parameters you run the machine on question mark? >> if i were to hop online right now and do some coding, i'm a decade old and out of date as a programmer. >> i will let john jump in on that one. euchre -- if id understand your question correctly, -- >> how proprietary is these software's. the software that allows you
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to print is common. it is called an stl fire. that is common through all the different companies that are out there. what is proprietary would be how the printer prints each one of them. they use a variety of different technologies and parameters so that would be proprietary. , thank you for your patience with me. >> you all brought up variety of things. can you tell us what you have in front of you. said, we have to bring products to market very quickly. iphone refreshes every year. to get the product in the store for the holiday season, we have to be very quick. when there are rumors on the
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internet, we take those rumors and specifications and print a copy of an iphone. a 3-d one based on the rumors. we will make a product to see how it fits and how well it works. we will evaluate if we are happy with it or not. we will keep working on this all through the rumors. every time there is a new rumor, we will do a new one. we will do 100 designs of the product to get right. when the phone is released, we have this product that we can put on there and test our lenses on the new device. we can see how it fits. everything,ppy with we can send it to manufacturing and have it made so we can do injection molding. then we are in production. that process takes six to eight weeks. this part gets the idea of
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taking to prototype and a realistic area. a printinglized process somewhat similar to an and check -- ink jet printer. this is what a manufacturer or designer is looking for. using, whatss we're it allows to do is mix materials. you have something very durable, the white part, but at the same time you're printing this flexible material here as well. this was printed all is one part. just recently, we introduced the capability of multiple material and we also added color to that. you can print a very real system , in this case a prototype shoe, to most people looking at this, you think it was the real thing. getting to the idea of real things, this particular part is a different technology.
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this particular technology takes real thermoplastic, nylon and poly carbon's, they're being used today in manufacturing. this is an avs part the we are seeing here. -- in onerinted about particular piece. you prototyping standpoint, can look at a lot of different things that are going on. it is not just an individual part, it is an assembly. this allows you to look at those assemblies and test performance fit and function. useou go further, you can real thermoplastic. these materials are being used in real life today for aerospace, automotive, some consumer goods. variety oft a
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products. there are some people creatively active. in my testimony i use an example collected from new york. they make jewelry. cufflinks that are made in sterling silver. they're for sale on our platform. that is one example. another that is really cool is an indie game. it is organic movement. they may game. there is a very compassionate -- passionate community behind it. can we take our assets and turn them into real things? they uploaded the shape base. it went viral. everybody was to have them. two very different examples. i mentioned nervous systems,
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they use algorithms so the don't even design products by hand anymore. there are computer codes. by doing that, they can create unique items all the time. this is an example of large shape. you can go on their website and you can find these products. their for sale. we have a lot of products from nervous systems. from nervous systems. there is a wide variety from jewelry to lighting fixtures to gadgets and game accessories. i could keep going for hours, but i won't. >> i am wishing i had selected my samples differently. model thatansplant dr. rodriguez did a year ago. the other thing i wish i would've bought -- brought was
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an example with metal plating over the top of it. marylande companies in specifically extends the life of the plastic. some highly classified work. in the knowledge center, they have a 1/10 scale that they made for boeing. those optics are very impressive. prototypes for under armour. i am frugally behind the door with them. right now, they are prototyping. this is a watch. this is the same idea of the gear shifter. rigid andvery flexible material at the same time. this is a company based in maryland. this is a muddle printed part that has some post production machining done on it.
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on thisi would just tag little guy. this printer rents and full-color. we talked about entrepreneurs and the uses of the technology. take a 3-d photograph of yourself or your daughter or your grandchildren and you want to have that replicated into a doll, your kids can have dolls that look like them, if that's what you want to do. they are doing that in the u.k.. use this to color code the parts of their tools as they put your production. they code the parts accordingly. that is not an extra, that is inherent to the technology. is this example i have architectural model. we are old enough to understand architectural models were made very painstakingly before 3-d printing. today we can actually prototype and print the building.
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a thousands worth words, and a prototype is worth a thousand pictures. visual,ty gets more that is more and more true. i included a really nice profile of a company in baltimore. they are a traditional factory. it is a 94-year-old family-owned business. they started to lose their pattern makers. they wanted to know how to solve the problem. they didn't want their successful business to change. they adopted 3-d printing in 2010. they signed a prototype of the object they're going to create for the defense industry. they want a successful bid. >> you bring up an interesting point.
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in terms of the mediums that you print with, how does that translate into their ability or strength or whatever the case may be? pain --l point the finger to mr. cobb. the bulk of our business is in the thermoplastic area. i talked about my lawn and probably carbons. enter additional manufacturing, you would utilize an injection molding process to bring those hearts. we don't do that. we don't melt or put pressure into it. we use a layer of technology that we have talked about the past. that arecteristics of different than the traditional injection molding. nylon and realal poly carbon.
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there are a wide variety of manufacturers around the world. you just select one of those. the difference is not in the material, the difference is the way the part is manufactured. what i was talking about a little bit earlier, about having the knowledge from a designer and a toolmaker and the partacturer, a 3-d printed is in our case a real thermal plastic but it is made differently than the traditional injection molding. injection molded has been around for a long time. there is a handbook that talks about injection molding and the principles to make sure that you build a durable part. there is no such thing for three -- 3-d printing. falls, newnology of materials will evolve -- as the technology evolves and new a 3-d printedve,
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part is going to be important in producing more and more parts for users. they can be used utilizing 3-d printing. it is a different design criteria and print manufacturing methods. it is different. >> let's say you don't have a restoration, can part andan existing create data points and reproduce that question mark --? how expensive is this? the door to buy the technology them to -- themselves, how expensive is it? you can use technologies that are more powerful today. we were just at sxsw.
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in the same way, you can take part, you can scan it. scanned, you to be have to be able to see all of it. more simple products could be scanned. those scanners are getting to be very affordable. printake a mold you can and then you printed in a wide friday of materials. available for a few hundred dollars up to tens of thousands of dollars if you want to have high-end, professional stuff. depending on the mattel you want --use, it can be the something the size of an iphone case could cost 20 to $30. if you're talking about metal objects, you're talking about
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100 to $200. you can make things in materials based on scans. >> you can build up in metal? >> yes. metals are possible just like ceramics. >> fascinating. with that, i want to thank you all for participating today. i apologize for the vote series of happened during the hearing. your testimony has helped us better understand how 3-d printing is created a lot of opportunities for entrepreneurs around the nation. with that, i would ask unanimous consent. objection, i would say the hearing is adjourned.
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>> while congress is on break for the next two weeks, we wanted to see what others are doing at home this ticks. sean duffy had a radio interview. he tweets that he is taking your calls. chuck grassley is having a town hall meeting. arkansas representative tom kahn is visiting a local school. he is talking to nice graders about financial literacy. -- night raiders about financial literacy. she is here to talk about a rise in stay-at-home mothers. why are we seen this rise and who these moms are? guest: thank you for having me.
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the share of all moms who are staying at home and not working outside the home is up to about three in 10 as of 2012. that is about from about a quarter in 2000. some people might be surprised to hear that stay-at-home moms in general are not necessarily the college educated affluent moms we see in journalism stories. they are less educated than working moms. they are more likely to be immigrants. they're more likely to be in poverty. there are a variety of moms who stay at home. these are not just the married moms with working husbands. there are single or cohabiting with a partner moms. that is the $64,000 question. there may be a lot of things going on. we think there are a mix of factors. we are seeing and increase in mother staying home because they
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cannot find a job. -- that would up to six percent. the increasing share of immigrants in this society may play a role thomas about 40% of immigrant moms are stay-at-home moms. increasing shares of latino and asian women could be driving this. there are societal factors. we are not sure how they play in. americans tend to be ambivalent about whether or not it is better for a parent to be home with the child or the child. that maybe lane in. every did -- that may be playing in. host: what about the money factor? guest: that could play a role. likely to bes are
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in poverty. this is especially true of single mothers, most of whom are in poverty. it is true of married moms with working husbands. they are more likely to be poor than their counterparts. we think that it could be because the cost of childcare which hits hardest at those with the lowest incomes could be playing a role. -- look at the cost of childcare. it has gone up. it hits hard at lower income people. and it could be as much as 40% of income pays for childcare. some people may be doing an economic calculation and they think it is better off to stay home. >> look at the trend over the years. after decades of the climate, there is a decline -- rise in
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stay-at-home mothers. is this surprising when you look at it in a historical context? guest: it is the flipside of what is been going on in the labor force dissipation by women. upward ineady march the last half of the 20 century. begannd more mothers taking jobs and going into the workplace. about 2000 that we saw that begin to turn around. the share of mothers in the workforce began to flatten. this really does represent a change from past patterns, at least for the last half of the 20th century. host: what is going on in our
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economy that is a factor? guest: one thing we saw when we looked at the recession is the share of mothers who were at home, the growth stalled. is someht've happened married women might have entered the labor force when their husbands lost their jobs. ae recession has been called man's recession. there were other researchers that show when the husband loses his job the wife is more likely to enter the workforce. that growth resumed afterwards. host: what is the public opinion of stay-at-home moms versus the working mom? guest: that is always a good question. the best you can say is people are ambivalent. there is support for the idea of working moms.
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-- or working women. people think it may be best for children to have a parent in the home. we did a new poll that we released. forsked is it better children if a parent is at home? offs a child just as well with working parents? safety percent said a child is better off with a child at home. numbers -- 60% said a child is better off with a parent at home. host: what about stay-at-home dads? guest: stay tuned. this is a subject of a lot of interest for us. work on the some rise of single fathers. there is a third that contrasted
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moms and dads in looking at modern parenthood. today's dads are more involved with their children if they are living with them and dads in the past. we would like to take a look. stay-at-home dads are a small slice of all fathers. just for married and partner dads, we found that six percent were home with their children. we may be doing more work on this topic. host: we want to you more involved in the conversation. we have divided the lines. . we will get your thoughts and questions in just a minute.
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what about the rise of stay-at-home moms? what happens when they return to the workforce? guest: with not look at that in this report. we have done other resort -- research. what our analysis a young childthat takes a lot of attentive care. those moms want to go to the labor force with their children reach school age. we found through our previous polling that it's a given share of mothers say they have cut back to care for another child or family member. they found that is difficult to come to the workforce. we know that anecdotally. i heard from mothers who said that they were having that kind of trouble. we -- theyed if
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regret going back. they said no. host: what is the challenge? what are these moms looking at to get back into the workforce? guest: one thing we looked at was far -- part-time work. plurality says they would like to work part time. a smaller share wants to stay full-time work full-time. that premise for part-time has been persistent. black will lewis talk about politics and social issues today. he will be at the national press club beginning at 1:00 eastern time. , former pakistani ambassador to the u.s. will join other experts.
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the atlantic council will host the event. that will be at 2:30 p.m. on c-span two. experts and authors will discuss human rights in north korea. he will talk about the report that found unspeakable atrocities. we will have live coverage at 3:00 p.m. on c-span. bernie sanderss held a town hall meeting. he talked about civil liberties and income inequality. this 90 minute event was hosted by the new hampshire institute of politics. >> thank you very much for the kind introduction. let me thank the new hampshire institute of politics for inviting me to be with you this morning.
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as vermont's senator in my political career, i have done hundreds of town meetings throughout the state of vermont. it is great to do a town meeting here in new hampshire. the reason that i do town meetings, i think the reason why st. anselm holds meetings like this is i think there is an understanding that the way we do politics in this country very often is basically not the right way. the smartest guy in the world cannot talk about the major problems facing this country in a five second sound bite. the media does a disservice to us and to our nation when they look at politics as an "american idol" show. who's going to win and who's down tomorrow. the problems are serious and we take our responsibility
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seriously as american citizens, we need to talk about the real issues. respect each other's different point of view and learn from each other. let me begin by telling you a little bit about myself and about my political history, which is very different i think than most folks in the united states senate. i started off my life living in brooklyn, new york. my dad was a paint salesman. he came to america from poland at the age of 17 without a nickel in his pocket. he worked very hard. never made a whole lot of money.
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but turned on out, he ended up, he loved this country because it gave him the freedom to raise two kids. he never went to -- didn't graduate high school, but his kids graduated college. that was a pretty big deal in our family. he had financial security in the sense that he always had a job. that meant something to somebody. i went to the state of vermont just about 50 years ago, which is the best decision i ever made in my life. in 19 -- in the early 1970's, eran for statewide office.
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there was a special election. i ran really hard all over the state. on election day i ended up with two percent of the vote. i was a persistent guy and i wasn't gone to give up. we had the regular election in 1972 and i ran on a third party and got one percent of the vote. still not knowing when to quit, came back and ran for senate again, i got four percent and ran for governor of vermont and got six percent of the vote. then i got a clue. all running on a third party without any money. but then back in 1981 a friend of mine came up to me. he said, that's a race for mayor
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in burlington where i live. burlington is the largest city in the state of vermont. looking over the election results, he said while you only got six percent of the vote, you got 12% in burlington. maybe you should run for mayor. we got some people together and we thought about it. i decided to do it. running as an independent. i was taking on at that point an incumbent marry who served five years. nobody thought, this democratic mayor, that one could beat him. the point that i want to make is not only that i won the election by all of ten votes, that was after the recount.
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how we won that election became a political lesson that has stayed with me for my whole life. nobody thought that we had a chance. what we did is we put together a coalition. you all know what coalition politics is about? it's kind of an old phrase. what we did is we said to the low income people in the city who did not think they were getting a fair shake in city services. i did press conferences. we talked to the union workers who worked for the city. said you're working hard and you deserve a fair shake in terms of contract negotiations. we talked to women who never had an opportunity to get into city hall at that time.
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saying we will open the door to everybody. working people, low income and women. we talked to the environmentallest in the community who were concerned about a number of projects that were anti-environmental. we put together this strange coalition, it was so strange, i worry about what would happen if we got them all in the same room at the same time. they're very different people. they had the belief that we should open the door of government that should allow everybody in that government should not just work for the downtown and the big money interest. but it should work for all people. we won that election. we won that election by ten votes. i am very proud what -- i am very proud. of all of my accomplishments as mayor and of all the many accomplishments i'm proud of
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that i did when i was in house and the senate, probably at the very top of that list is one that most people would think is irrelevant. here's what that accomplishment was. we doubled voter turn out from 1981 to 1983. [applause] how did we do that? what is that lesson for today? what exist all over america today is that millions and millions and millions of people working people, low income people, young people, they look at the political process and they say, not for me. i don't know what these guys are doing but it sure is not relevant to my life. no, i am not going to vote. we have millions of people who don't vote. we do have other people who come into the polling vote and they
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vote what they perceive the lesser of two evil. we have other people who will vote for this or that issue. what we did in burlington and it's the lessons i never forgotten, if you listen to what people have to say and what they need and you do your best. it's hard and it's not perfect and you make mistakes. if people know you are listening to their needs and you fight for them, you know that, they participate in the political process. they come out to vote. [applause] we ended up winning in burlington. we took on democrats and republicans, we ended up winning two to one. that lesson has always stayed with me.
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how in fact do you make government relevant to all of the people in a democratic society? how do you involve people in the process. how do you stand up and fight for ordinary americans. my view is, what i'm going to be talking to you about today, is that our great country. we all love our country, we worry about our country, our great country today probably has more serious problems than at any time since the great depression of the 1930's. if you throw in what the scientific community tell us that climate change is real, it's already causing devastating problems and it is likely to get worse unless we reverse and cut back on greenhouse gas emissions. throw that in, we may have more serious problems today than any
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time in the modern history of this country. at the center of what those problems are, where people perceive, what every poll -- tell us. the great middle class of this country, which is one of the envy of the entire world, that middle class is disappearing. millions of people are now falling into poverty. we have more people living in poverty today that at any time in the history of united states of america. people understand that real unemployment, if you include those people who have given up looking for work and people who are working part time when they want to work full time, they understand the real unemployment is not 6.5%, but it is close to 12%. youth unemployment is near 20%,
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african-american youth unemployment almost double that. people understand because they are living the reality that millions of americans today despite a huge increase in productivity, despite all the robotics and all the space age technology and all of the increase and productivity so the average worker is producing more. people understand. it is their life they are working hours for lower wages. many people in my state and in your state, they're not working one job, they're working two jobs and three jobs trying to cobble together some income and maybe some health insurance. people understand when we talk about healthcare, that there is something profoundly wrong. but in this great nation, we are
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the only major country on earth that does not guarantee healthcare to all people as a right. [applause] there are a lot of angry people out there. they're angry at vermont, they're angry in new hampshire, mississippi, california, all over this country. what they are angry about, i'm going to bore you with some statistics. it's important that you hear it. they are angry that since 1999, the typical middle class family has seen its income go down by more than $5000 after adjusting for inflation. got that? people are working hard. why is their incomes going down? they are angry because that same
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typical middle class family, that family right in the middle, earn less income last year than it earned 25 years ago. maybe that's an issue we might want to be chatting about a little. they are angry because the typical male worker made $283 last year than he did 44 years ago. you see these kind and they're angry and they are furious. they don't know where the anger should go but they are angry. typical female workers earn $1700 less last year than they did in 2007. despite all the increases in productivity.
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people are angry and they are frightened and very nervous about the fact that half of all americans have less than $10,000 in their savingsaccount. that means you're one automobile accident away from disaster. one illness away from disaster. when people are 50 and 55 and 60 and they're think being retirement and they are $10,000 in the bank, they are pretty nervous about the future of their lives. today in america, over 5.5 million young people have either dropped out of high school or graduated high school and they have no jobs. they are hanging out on street corners in vermont and new hampshire and california and states all over this country.
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a lot of these kids with no job, with no future are congress destructive or self-destructive activities. i don't have it talk to you about heroin or opium addiction. there's something fundamentally wrong in our country. we have more people in jail in china that we have -- [applause] they get angry because they go shopping and they try to buy a product. maybe a holiday gift. they look at the label and they say where does the product comes from. it comes china, vietnam and japan. they know factories that used to pay workers a living wage have
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long been gone. corporations taking advantage of our disastrous trade policies, shut down in america, even they were profitable. they go to china or other countries where they can pay people low wages. not so many years ago, general motors was the largest private employer in the united states of america. they paid their workers, unionized good wages and good benefits. today the largest private sector employer is wal-mart. vehemently anti-union. who pay their workers low wages. if you want to look the transformation of american economy, you can look at a general motors economy to a
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wal-mart economy at the union low wages minimal bents. [applause] in terms of education. we all understand that the nation does not go forward. we do not compete effectively in the global economy. we don't do the important things unless we're well educated nation. it used to be not so many years ago that the united states ranked first in the world in terms of the percentage of our people who graduated college. thousands of bright young people have given up on the dream of
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going to college because they simply can't afford it. obviously they don't want to leave school 30 or 40 or $50,000 in debt. perhaps most sadly and most fundamentally, is that people, middle age people working families, they shake their heads not only in terms of the stress of what is happening to their own lives. even more segly, they worry about their kids and their grandchildren. they ask themselves, is it going to happen for the first time in the modern history of america, that our kids are going to have a lower standard of living than our generation. all our kids are going to be able go out in the world and get a job with a living wage. all our kids are going to be able to go out and apply for any job at -- all.
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that kid's entire life. that's what parents are worrying about. i think maybe, the most important point that i want to make this morning is not just to talk about what's happening to the working people of our country and to our middle class. but the point out to you as strongly as i possibly can that this economic collapse is not happening to all sectors of our society. yes, unemployment is high for working people. yes, the middle class is shrinking. yes over 40 million americans today despite the modest successes of the affordable care act continue to have no health insurance.
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but there is another economic reality out there that everybody in this room and everybody in this country should also understand. that is that today, the wealthiest people in this country are doing phenomenally well and corporate america is enjoying record breaking profits. in fact, we are becoming a nation in which some people on the top have more money than they could ever dream of. while at the same exact moment, will have working people in new hampshire, people with jobs flocking to emergency food shelters taking to get food it take them over the week. today the united states has by far, not even close, the most unequal distribution of wealth and income of any major country
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on earth. that gap between the very, very rich and everybody else is growing wider and wider. today, the top one percent owns over 38% of the financial wealth of america. top one percent owns over 38% of the financial wealth this country. who knows, before you answer these question, who here knows roughly the bottom 60% of the american people own. what's the guess. >> 11. >> what do i hear, five percent. seven percent. the answer is 2.3%. let me repeat it. now wealthy what we accumulate
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our entire lives. if you took the wealth of america and you converted it into a large pizza, it's a hundred pieces. what you got is one guy getting 38 slices of pizza and the bottom 60% sharing in 2.3 pieces of pizza. that gap in wealth is worse than any time since before the great depression. today, one family, the family of wal-mart, is worth about $148 billion. that one family owns more wealth than the bottom 40% of the american people. over the past decade, the net worth of the top 400 billionaires in this country has doubled.
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we're seeing more and more millionaires and more and more billionaires. their wealth and income is exploding. charles and david koch. the koch brothers. they will hear you on the other side of town. they're entertaining some of their friends over at the other town. i wanted to mention this. it gives you an idea. the koch brothers, they're struggling. [laughter] they want to be the wealthiest family in america but they haven't made it yet. but they are doing okay. under that terrible obama administration, which is destroying all initiative and all wealth and which they hate with a passion. their wealth went up last year from 68 to $80 billion.
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$12 billion increase in wealth in one year. our other good friend, sheldon adelson who owns the largest casino in the world. he is the eighth wealthiest person in the world. he is a poor cousin to the other giz. he's only worth $38 billion. the point is his wealth just last year, went up $11.5 billion. what about income? income is what you made last year. the last information we have covers the years 2009 and 2012. -- newall low income
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income went to the top one percent. you have people in new hampshire working hard. they get a two percent reduction in pay or their health care costs one up. many federal employees as well. less at a are earning time when 95% of all new income went to the top one percent. top 25 had fun just hedge -- made $24d managers billion last year. >> that $24 billion, just to put it into the real world, is enough money to pay the salaries of more than 425,000 public school teachers area and today, corporate profits are at an all-time high.
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ceo's of large corporations are up to 300 times of what their employees make. each year, wealthy and large corporations avoid haying their fair share of taxes. one out of four corporations in this country pays nothing in taxes. the wealthy and large corporations avoid paying about $100 billion a year because they stash their money in the cayman islands and bermuda and other tax havens. companies like general electric, boeing, verizon and others, who make billions in profits manage at the end of the year to pay nothing. that is the economic reality of america today. the rich doing unbelievably well. they have a rating system with
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tax breaks for them sending american jobs all over the world, getting golden parachutes of tens of millions of dollars when they retire. for the working families in this country, this is a difficult moment. i talked about some of the problems. what should we be doing? i will talk about some of the areas i have been working on. when you ask people what the most serious problem facing this country am a they rattle off a whole lot. the top one is jobs. they understand that real unemployment is higher than official unemployment. they understand that we need to create millions of decent paying jobs in this country. let me give you no idea -- give you an idea of how we can do that and do it quickly.
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i do not know about new hampshire, but i do know that the roads and bridges and wastewater plants in the state of vermont have serious, serious problems. the society of civil engineers talks about trillions of dollars in infrastructure. we need a massive amount of work to rebuild our roads, rebuild our bridges, rebuild our rail system, which is falling further and further behind europe and japan and china. if we invested in rebuilding our crumbling infrastructure, not only would we make our country more competitive and productive, we can create millions of jobs doing that. that is exactly what we should be doing. [applause] we should also be rewriting our
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trade policies, which have benefited corporate america, but at the expense of working people. we have got to start reinvesting in the united states of america and start creating jobs in this country, rather than china. [applause] we also have to pay a whole lot of attention to the wage situation in this country. today, nationally, we have a $7.25 minimum wage. that is obscene. that is unacceptable. we have got to raise the minimum wage. [applause] there will be legislation on the floor, i believe of the senate, in two weeks. it calls for $10.10 an hour. i would go further than that.
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$10.10 is a start to bring people out of charity. pay equity, how about that, women? [applause] women should not be making $.77 on the dollar to a man. we should be paying are people equal wages for equal work. say a word about health care. i have heard one or two things about this. the affordable health care act, this communist, socialist plot. the concept of the affordable health care act came from republican think tanks. it was implemented by that communist mitt romney a few miles south of here. i voted for it with hesitation. i voted for it. i was able to get $10 million to
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expand community health centers all over this country. [applause] and get some other provisions in there for disease prevention and help people to pay their medical bills. i think the affordable care act has been a modest success. obviously, the rollout was a disaster. that is all that our republican friends can talk about. five years from now, nobody will care about the rollout. all that people will care about is if people can go to a doctor when they need to. there was a study at harvard university. 45,000 americans die each year because they do not get to a doctor when they should. i have talked to a number of doctors. they walked into my office and she was really sick. why did you not come in here?
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i did not have any health insurance. i the time she walked into this room, it was too late. as a nation, how did it happen that as this nation we end up spending almost twice as much for personal health care as the people of any other country, yet we wind up with 40 million people with no health insurance. we have many people that are underinsured with large copayments and deductibles. at the end of that, our health care outcomes compared to other countries in terms of infant mortality and longevity are not particularly good. the answer is that to a very significant degree, what health care in america is about is making money for private health care insurance companies. [applause]
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i believe that the affordable care act is a modest step forward. we need to recognize that health care in the year 2014 must be a right of all people. we must move to a medicare for all, single-payer program. [applause] i said a word before about education. i will add a few words to that. education is what it is about. education is what life is about if you are 90. every psychologist who has ever studied the issue, it is not a debate anymore. i understand the -- that the most important formative years in a human being' life is 0-4.

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