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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  December 23, 2014 12:30am-2:31am EST

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totalitarian state which uses violence and repression against its own citizens to maintain itself and its threatening military apparatus in power. the regime's atrocities against its own people have created an inparently unstable state. the regime system of repression deprivation of those people fun those policies. some of the council has no business -- something the council has no business, but australia disagrees. history shows human rights violation of the scale we are seeing in north korea, reverberations will be on the country. they mount to a rejection of international noise -- norms, and they undermine peaceful relations between states. and again,seen time serious violations of human rights serve as a warning sign of instability and conflict,
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especially in the absence of accountability of such violations. with the publication of the seminal report and the initial initial -- the as evidence of the human rights violations being committed. report is deeply disturbing and compels a response. the commission's findings highlight a deliberate strategy to control the population to secure its hold on power. the program seeks to instill national hatred, constituting incitement to discrimination, andility, violence, propaganda for war. the report lays clear -- lays bare the tools of control, including the denial of access to basic human needs. food, water, heating, shelter,
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.ork the massive humanitarian catastrophe that has resulted from the scale of the reign of terror has affected all of the s neighbors.prk' there is restriction on freedom of expression. one person said no one would dare object to the harsh living isditions, and protest equivalent to death. the citizens are forced to denounce conduct seen by the regime as a threat. family members must report on each other. harsh punishment, even summary executions for those who do not comply. the stream demilitarization has come devastating cost. the north korean -- extreme demilitarization has come at a devastating cost.
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they have mass starvation and deprivation. the commission estimates the 25% of gross national product to defense expenditure, and the commission also find mount attrition and starvation could have been avoided through a marginal distribution of state military spending. the commission found and entrenched pattern of discrimination based on the harsh class system, which is systematically applied to against control perceived threats. the extreme restrictions on freedom of movement within north korea and across its borders are designed to maximize state control. punishment for violations are severe, often vicious, and humane. women who are subjected to horrific discrimination resort to international traffickers to
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escape. the torture they endured as they returned cannot be regarded as a fully domestic concern. one of the cruelest policies of the regime is the system of arbitrary detention and political prison camps. an estimated 80,002 120,000 are -- 80,000 to 120,000 are committed without trial. the commission found the majority had no prospect of ever being released. summary executions and other cruel extradition to show -- extrajudicial punishments are met out. the limited information create the specter of fear among the general population, creating a deterrent to future challenges. the commission found the information it received establishing crimes have been committed pursuant to policies
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at the highest level of the state. we strongly support the commission's conclusion that the international community must its responsibility to protect the people of north korea from crimes against humanity, because the dprk government has manifestly failed to do so. the gravity, scale, and nature of these human rights violations this thing which is north korea as a state that has no parallel -- distinguish north korea as a state that has no parallels. is clearly shared by the majority of you in states who adopted resolution 69-188 and the assembly, which submitted the report to this counsel for consideration and action. this is broad recognition by the human membership this counsel has a responsibility on this issue, including to assure accountability for the crimes being committed. these crimes are integral
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components of the political system. we must assume crimes against humanity will continue if there is no international response. the core element of the commission's mandate was to ensure accountability for human rights violations. in particular if such violations amounted to crimes against humanity. the commission asked this counsel to refer the situation through the international criminal court. the general assembly has called on the council to consider this recommendation. australia believes the crimes against humanity documented in the commission's report or the attention of the international criminal court in the absence of any move -- criminal court. the council should consider this recommendation. the north korean regime does have the power to change its behavior. most of the commission's recommendations are directed towards the dprk itself. of dprk's recent indications
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a reported willingness to cooperate were welcome, but those offers have been withdrawn, and there has been no sign of any internal reform. has respondedprk for the general assembly's call for it to engage on human rights issues by denouncing the call and indicating it would engage in further hostile acts. response to human rights criticism with threats to use nuclear weapons, it only -- human rights criticism with threats to use nuclear weapons, it only threatens peace and security. recent cyber attacks have been threatened to the dprk. this is another example of the extraterritorial reach of their crimes along with the abductions of foreign nationals and demonstrates the extent to which defy prepared to international norms and
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aggressively seek to destabilize other countries and international commerce. the international community's message to the regime is direct. course.change it can take steps immediately to put an end to all systematic widespread and gross human rights violations perpetrated in this country, which only further weaken the north korean people and the stability of the state itself. it can commit to cooperate with the international community by extending full cooperation to the special reporter on the situation of human rights in the dprk, including by granting full --mpeded access to the bp rk access toy allowing agencies. were are humane options, and will continue the press to embrace them. those were alluded to a moment ago, but in the meantime, we are realistic about the brutal koreants from the north
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people and what needs to be done to provide them a measure of protection. we continue to look to those countries that have most influence on north korea, including those in the north asian region and other partners to continue to press the case for fundamental change to the dprk state apparatus. we know this will not be easy. to conclude, mr. president, the security council must also have up to its responsibilities in absence of action by the regime, particularly in relation to accountability for crimes against humanity. given the scales of human rights violations and their link to peace and security, it is remainsl the council aware. the council must give serious consideration to further action in my take. of their region and globally. thank you.
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>> i think the representative of australia for his statement -- the representative of australia for his statement. to theive the floor representative from the united states. >> thank you. thank you for your informative and appropriately bleak briefings. and for the ongoing attention your respective teams give to in situation in the dprk spite of persistent obstacles put up or the north korean government. today's meeting reflects the councilconsensus among members and u.n. member states that the widespread and systematic human rights violations omitted by the north korean government are not only ,eplorable in their own right but also pose a threat to international these and security. a major impetus for taking up
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this issue was the comprehensive report issued in february of 2014 commission of inquiry. the commission of inquiry conducted more than 200 confidential interviews with victims, eyewitnesses, and former officials and held public hearings in which more than 80 witnesses gave testimony. witness accounts were corroborated by other forms of evidence such as satellite imagery confirming the location of prison camps. north korea denied access to the country consistent with its policy of routinely denying to humanitarian groups, including the red cross. despite repeated requests, the dprk refused to cooperate with the inquiry. the main finding of the thorough -- objective report is the systematic and gross human rights violations have been and are being committed by the democratic people's republic of korea.
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the commission found the evidence it gathered to provide reasonable grounds to determine crimes against humanity have been committed in the democratic people's republic of korea pursuant to hollis is established at the highest level of the state. policies established at the highest level of the state. if you have not read from the hundreds of pages of transcripts from the public hearings, i urge you to do so. a show north korea for what it is, a living nightmare. a former prisoner of prison camp 15 said she and other prisoners were so famished they picked dungels of corn from the of cattle to eat. she said, "if there was a day we were able to have mouse, that was a special diet for us. we had to eat everything alive, every type of meat we could find, everything that flew or crawled on the ground, any grass that grew on the field."
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a former ground at -- guard at prison camp 22 spoke of guards routinely raping residents. in one case in which a victim became pregnant and gave birth, the former guard reported officials cooked her baby and fed it to their dogs. and sounds unbelievable unthinkable, yet this is what a former guard told the commission of inquiry at a public hearing. his account fits a pattern across witness testimonies of sadistic punishments netted out to prisoners whose crime was being raped by officials. the commission estimates between are being,000 people held in prison camps like the one where so many of these crimes occurred. many who testified before the commission were punished for trying to flee north korea. one man who was sent back from inna described being held
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prison camps that were only around 50 centimeters high, just over a foot and a half. he said the guards told him because the prisoners were animals they would have to crawl like animals. a woman told how her brother was caught after fleeing to china. when he was returned, north korean security officials bound his hands and change them to the back of a truck for dragging him roughly 45 kilometers, driving three loops around the city so everyone could see. his sister testified. when he fell down, they kept driving. nor are the horrors listen -- limited to risen camps or those who try to flee. the commission found in almost ofplete and i'll to right freedom of thought, conscience, or religion as well as freedom -- complete denial of the right of the freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. they even commission expressed a resolution of concern and
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roundly condemning the widespread and gross violations of human rights. voted inr states favor, 20 against, and 53 abstain. the resolution encourage the security council to take appropriate action to ensure accountability, including through consideration of referral of the situation in the democratic people's republic of korea to the court and consideration of the scope for effective targeted sanctions against those who appear to be most responsible. the security council should itsnd the dprk change practices, which illustrate a fundamental disregard for human rights and constitute a threat to international peace and security. we should take this on for three reasons. response toprk's the report and even to the prospect of today's session show the criticisme to
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of the human rights record. just look at all the strategies north korea has tried to distract attention from the to delegitimize its findings and avoid scrutiny of its human rights record. its machine,ed up claiming the most advantageous human rights system. tried to spare the reputations of hundreds of people who were brave enough to speak out about the abuses they suffered, calling them human ofm bereft of an iota conscience. this was in a statement north korea said to the security council today. north korea launched slurs against the commissions distinguished chairman, justice kirby. the point threats, saying any efforts to hold it more accountable would be met with catastrophic consequences.
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korea's responses, the threats, the smears, the cynical diversions show the government feels the need to defend its abysmal human rights record. that's why our attention is so important. the second argument for exerting pressure is when regimes warn of deadly reprisals against countries that condemn the atrocities, that's precisely the moment we need to stand up and not back down. dictators who see threats are an effective tool for silencing the community tend to be emboldened, not placated. rightslds true for human violators around the world who are watching how the human rights council response to the dprk's threats. is already shockingly cavalier about dishing out threats of staging nuclear attacks and has routinely imposed byhibitions o
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the security council. in july, they threatened to launch nuclear weapons at the white house and the pentagon, and in march of 2013 they threatened a preemptive strike on the united states, saying, everything will be reduced to ashes and flames. in the most recent example of its recklessness the dprk carried out a significant cyber attack in response to a hollywood comedy portraying a farcical assassination plot. the attack destroyed systems and personal and commercial data from sony pictures, not only damaging a private sector entity but affecting countless americans who work for the company. the attackers also threatened employees, actors in the film, movie theaters, and even people who dared to go to the theaters showing the movie, warning them to remember the 11th of september. with denying freedom
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of expression to its own people, the north korean regime seems intent on suppressing the exercise of its fundamental freedom in our nation. north korea threatened the united states with serious consequences if our country did not conduct a joint investigation into an attack they carried out. this is absurd. yet it is exactly the kind of behavior we have come to expect from a regime that threatened to take merciless countermeasures against the u.s. over hollywood comedy and has no qualms about holding tens of thousands of people in harrowing gulags. we cannot give in to threats or intimidation of any kind. third, the international community does not need to choose between focusing on north korea's proliferation of nuclear weapons and focusing on widespread and ongoing abuses against its own people. that's a false choice. we must do both. as we have seen throughout
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history, the way countries treat their own citizens, particularly those countries that systematically commit atrocities against their own people tends to align closely with the way they treat other countries and the norms of our shared international system. on november 23, a week after the u.n. committee adopted its dprk resolution, north korea's military said all those involved severe punishment and warned of catastrophic consequences. would imply the more than 100 member states who voted for the resolution. the military said if japan continued behaving as now, it will disappear from the world country threatens nuclear annihilation because it receives criticism of how it treats its own people, can there be any doubt regarding the connection of the human rights record and international peace
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and security? north korea did not want to meet and opposed the human rights situation being added to the agenda. if the dprk wants to be taken off the agenda, it can start by following the recommendations to acknowledge systematic violations it continues to commit, immediately dismantle free andmps, allow unfettered access by independent human rights observers, and hold accountable those most responsible for systematic .iolations knowing the improbability of north korea making those and the list of changes, it is incumbent on the council to consider the recommendation the situation in north korea be referred to the international criminal court and to consider other action on accountability as 116 u.n. member states have urged the council to do. in the meantime, the united dates will support the efforts of the office of the commission
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for human rights to establish a field race office to continue investigating human rights violations as well as to support the works of a special repertory -- reporter. it is also crucial all of dprk's neighbors abide by the principle, given the horrific abuses north koreans are subjected to upon return and in theirccess countries. the united states will continue to welcome north korean refugees to our country and help provide assistance to north korean asylum seekers in other countries. it is reasonable to debate the most effective strategy to end the nightmare of north korea's human rights crises. in the unconscionable face of these widespread abuses and dangerous, given the threat the situation poses to international peace and
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security, is to stay silent. make the northt korean government and its abuses. silence will not make the international community safer . -- silence will not make the north korean government end its abuses. we must continue to shine the light as long as abuses persist. today's session is another important step but far from the last towards accountability for the crimes committed against the people of north korea. the council must come back to speak regularly about the human rights situation and what we can do to change it for as long as the crimes that brought us here today persist. that is the absolute minimum we can and must do. thank you, mr. president. i think the representative of the united states for her statement, and i would give the floor to the representative of france.
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>> mr. president thomas -- mr. president, i would like to thank them for their briefings. what they have described for us today backs up the information contained in the report of the inquiry shared by mr. kirby. the were carried out by this commission is not on the outstanding in terms of -- the work carried out by the commission is not only outstanding in terms of quality. it has provided a comprehensive overview. decided upon at the highest level of the state, as stated in the report, this has shed light on a horrifying mechanism, that of the regime of john yang -- pyongyang used to subjugate its people. it would not be possible to list
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a complete litany of all these crimes. murders, arrest, use of torture, kidnapping, rape, and forced his forcednces, slavery, -- disappearances, slavery, and the use of heaven. ofdreds of thousands political prisoners have died in the camps over the last 50 years. -- 80 two 120 are currently being held. -- to 120 are currently being held. this affects men, women, and children. the couple has finally convened and gathered to hear the cries of distress -- counsel has finally convened and gathered to hear the crimes of distress. the more these crimes are carried out and committed in the purity of absolute censorship, north korea is closed out to human rights organizations.
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the commission of inquiry did not have access. we cannot remain silent in the face of this nightmare. those responsible for this to accountld be held for these crimes. the crimes will not go unpunished. it is a moral obligation for the international community that was underscored. there is no doubt these crimes in terms of their scale, the crimestic nature are all against humanity. the recommendation of the commission required the situation be referred to the icc is one that should therefore be considered carefully by this council. is a very guarantee of equitable and effective justice. of fight against impunity justice for the victims and future consolidation are at
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stake. the office on the ground which is currently set up should monitor the recommendations of the report and developments of the situation. they also have to continue to gather information on violations committed. we would like to have the council debriefed regularly. violations committed by the regime are a threat to peace and security. they are a central component of a dangerous totalitarian system the stabilizing the region. the region.zing the severity, scale, and nature of these violations reveal what , a stateue state unique in terms of terror, a pariah state. exports, and
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breach of this council's resolutions, sensitive goods and technologies, which then finance in decent lifestyles of their leaders and repression of a population regularly struck by famine. the security council could no longer ignore these crimes, which shocked mankind's conscience. it was our responsibility to see this issue. the council has sent a clear message to pyongyang. over the head of the people must be lifted. north korea's reality is obvious to all. the security council has been seized. even the nuclear , will keep us from considering the situation. mustegime in pyongyang
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take its responsibility. the violations must come to an end. must come tosoners an end. instead of launching into a new cycle of provocation and repression, the north korean andme will hear our message finally choose the path of openness and reconciliation and .eace >> i would like to thank the representative of france for his totement and give the floor the representative of nigeria. >> thank you very much, mr. president. my delegation thinks them for their briefings. it is essential to ensuring all dignity.ngs live in we also believe all states have an obligation to promote and protect the rights of their citizens.
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the organization has put in fore appropriate mechanisms promoting and protecting human rights across the globe. these mechanisms include special , the report and review. nigeria knows the dprk participated in the first and second circles. we also note the ambassador met repertory on the situation of human rights. there is a view to promoting the rights of the citizens. i thank you for that. >> i think the representative of
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bank -- thank the representative of nigeria. i would like to begin by thanking you for having it willing to take the steps necessary for the steps country to bethe included in the agenda and for this public briefing held at the behest of 10 member states and i thankof the council them for their briefings on the situation and the consequences on international peace and security over the last decade. publiclyhas been
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flouted international law, underlying the regime and ,efying the security council ignoring its international obligations. the country has refused to engage in a constructive dialogue with the international community and continues to offer regular threats of nuclear strikes. this exacerbates the risks and constitutes a threat to international peace and security. no one can deny this, but there's more. as the dprk seriously on anes for many decades unrivaled scale the most elemental rights of its people,
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this is documented methodically with rigor and transparency in thereport published by commission of inquiry created by to u n human rights council look into the human rights in the dprk. i will not run through the list of -- macabre human rights violations. this would make us not the age of. i would like to underscore three points -- would make us non-seated -- nauseated. i would like to underscore three points. first the violations noted are within an covered by and their ownlaw statute that shows the existence of the crimes against humanity. the office of these crimes asefit from full impunity
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these actions are taken in the framework of policies ordered by the highest level of the state. withoutolations hit distinction the most vulnerable sectors of the population. women, who are subjected to discrimination and intolerable abuse, often sexual abuse. children are the first victims of famine, and they are not spared by the political camps. i would like to note the testimony of the man who escaped cap 14.hese camps, his testimony concerns a small girl seven years of age who had the audacity to pick up grades serial to-- grains of quash her hunger, and i will quote from the report.
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two times a week a guard would choose a child and subject that file to an inspection to ensure the child had not stolen or hidden in the -- that child to an inspection to ensure the child had not stolen or hidden anything. the child of seven had the bad luck of being chosen. there were grades of cereal. the guard asked where they had come from. the girl responded to pick them up in the street. thee is a wooden club guards tended to use, and the guard said, that's not what i taught you. you do not respect my teachings. the girl was beaten with the level of violence that led to her falling unconscious. home to herrry her mother. the next day when she did not show up at school, we found out she had died. we cannot separate the bellicose theure of the dprk from
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situation domestically or what comes at the instigation of the leaders of the regime. respect for human rights is a hallmark of a stable society willing to live in peace with its neighbors and humane living conditions imposed on large sectors of the population the country,isk to and based on that, the entire region. hence, it is essential the security council consider the recommendations contained in the report. one of these recommendations on the human rights situation and the dprk, adopted by a large majority on 18 september calls for the icc to be seized of this matter. luxembourg fully supports this
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recommendation, as it is essential those responsible for unequaled inies contemporary times committed by the dprk be held to account for their acts. we believe the security council should consider the option of targeted sanctions against those most responsible for those crimes against humanity .ommitted in the dprk we also invite the north korean authorities to authorize the visit of the special rapporteur without delay and with respect to the united nations applicable to fact-finding missions. this would be assigned the dprk authorities are sincere in their willingness to cooperate requirements,al
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given the scale of discrimination suffered by women, given the scale of violation and abuse they are victims of. should actwomen within the scope of their competencies. president, today's meeting, the first of its kind, should not be without a follow-up. item is on the agenda, we encourage the council to regularly be briefed on the .ituation in the dprk the briefings have strengthened our commission it is the duty of the council to closely follow the changing situation, which link to peaceic and security, development, and respect for human rights, to
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paraphrase. conclude, i should like to hail the work of the commission inquiry. they have been able to bring us to look at the realogy of north korea through the lens of the andreated, the powerless, the voiceless, and those excluded by the regime. today in the council, their work has allowed for a voice to be given to those without a voice in the dprk. their message is not deaf to the suffering of these people. we will not abandon them to their sad fate. they are worthy of our attention and our support on an ongoing basis until they are allowed to
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leave this ordeal. i think the representative of luxembourg for their statement, and i give the floor to the representative of jordan. sir, foryou, organizing this important meeting. appreciation goes to the assistant secretary and the assistant secretary for human rights on their briefings of the , althoughin the dprk those who took the floor dependent on limited sources of information and due to the impossibility of carrying out an investigation and inquiry into the dprk in order to find firsthand the effects in that country.
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we find the picture is very bleak regarding the situation in the dprk. the situation constitutes a international peace and security. this is abundantly clear by the threat to carry out new nuclear experiments or develop new ballistic missiles or to test the launch. all those constitute violations of the security council charter,n and the u.n. grave and systematic violations of international humanitarian law and human rights nearly every day. all this also includes the violation of the right to food, movement, and expression, in addition to the forced disappearances and torture and
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inhumane treatment in the political detention camps. the security council should not ignore the situation in the dprk . it should make every effort to put an end to the serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in that country and to put in and also to the use of nuclear -- an end also to the use of nuclear weapons. take tangible to meet therder concerns of the international community by allowing the special rapporteur on human tohts to visit the dprk and permit the humanitarian agencies to work inside the country. i thank you, sir. >> i thank you, representative of jordan, for her statement.
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i now give the floor to the representative of the u.k. >> thank you, mr. president. i would like to thank the assistant secretary-general's for their appropriately bleak briefings. in february of this year the international community received a wake-up call to the truth -- shocking violations of rights in the dprk. in a 400 page report, the an insightsented into the appalling situation in the dprk. due to the refusal to cooperate or allow access to the country, the commission gathered firsthand testimony from witnesses and victims now living outside the dprk. what they heard painted a who areof authorities so frightened of losing control
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that indoctrination begins in kindergarten. so scared of what will happen if ordinary people get a glimpse of the outside world that just owning a tunable radio is a criminal offense. saying religion is seen as a sign of divided loyalties and an act of treasury. -- treachery. the report describes a regime so paranoid punishments are extended to whole families, so cruel those fleeing for a better life are imprisoned, tortured, and sexually violated. so callous that it stood by and let hundreds of thousands die from starvation rather than ask for international assistance. the commission concluded the systematic widespread and gross human rights violations being weretted in the dprk components of a totalitarian state without parallel in the contemporary world. he called on the international
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community to protect the people of -- they called on the international community to .rotect the people of the dprk the international community cannot ignore such detailed and grave findings. issued, we have work to ensure the commission's report is the beginning and not an end. in setting up of a presence seoul is a demonstration of the determination not to forget the people of the dprk. this field office will continue evidence collection is an important step towards accountability. it is a reminder to those that any level of the forme apparatus responsible these awful human rights violations that the world is watching and that they should consider themselves put on notice. fails to hold violators to account, the
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international community must be ready to do so. both the un's human rights council and the general assembly have condemned in the strongest terms the findings documented in the commission of inquiry report and demonstrated the widespread concern across the globe at the enduring mystery of the north korean people. of the north korean people. both have encouraged the council to consider the human rights situation in the dprk. the united kingdom support the call for the security council to consider appropriate action to ensure accountability, including through consideration of the referral of the situation in the dprk to the international criminal court. mr. president, despite these calls from the human membership, there were those who opposed discussion in the security council today, but the failure of states to abide by the universal principles and respect
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for human rights and fundamental as set out in the u.n. charter and the declaration of human rights is a legitimate of the security council. human rights, democracy, and strong institutions founded on the rule of law are essential. foundations in place, peace and security are at risk, both in individual states, and in the wider international community. that's why the united kingdom is pleased with the situation, and the dprk has been added to the agenda and we have been able to have this long-overdue discussion. it is a signal to the authorities of the international community's focus on the issues highlighted in the commission of inquiry's report. our message to the authorities in pyongyang is this. listen and engage with these concerns. the majority of the
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recommendations in the commission's report are directed towards the dprk government. government that holds the power to transform the lives of its people for the better. rather than continuing to deny rightsstence of human violations and refusing to engage with international concerns, we urge them to accept and address them seriously. dprke disappointed the responded to the recent commission by withdrawing andious offers of dialogue the request to visit the country for the first time. the united kingdom urges them to reconsider. and withouty preconditions, these would be first positive -- if done fully and without prince conditions -- without preconditions these would be a first move in making an effort to approve -- improve
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human rights on the ground. has an opportunity. the united kingdom stands ready to adjust opposition in response to concrete steps the dprk takes to improve human rights in the country. if the dprk continues to flout obligations they owe to their people, the international community should be ready to take further steps to address the situation. we urge the council to remain seized of this matter. i thank you. >> i think the representative of the united kingdom for his statement -- a bank -- i thank the representative of the united kingdom for his statement, and i introduce the revisited it from china. >> china has stated its opposition to the international involvement in the human rights issues in -- in the dprk.
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china has been against imposing pressure against other countries with the pretext of human rights issues. the security council is not a forum to discuss human rights issues. we oppose the adoption of any document by the council on the human rights situation in the dprk. of thes a close neighbor korean peninsula. we will never allow any turbulence or war taking place in the peninsula. at present the situation in the korean peninsula remains complex and sensitive. we hope members of the council theirlevant parties place interest in demilitarization as restraint, exercise and to what is conducive to easing of tension and refrain from any rhetoric or actions
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that may lead to an escalation of tension. work forl continue to the realization of a deed nuclear iced peninsula -- d enuclearized peninsula and welcome dialog. this position is clear and firm. china hopes the relevant parties will make a concerted effort to take real actions to create conditions for the relaunch of the six party talk with a view to jointly maintain a situation of peace and stability of the peninsula. thank you. thank the representative of china for his statement, and i now give to the -- the floor
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to the representative of chile. thank them for the briefing. the organization for including this in the council's agenda. as one of the promoters of this meeting, chile believes this discussion is timely and necessary. the beginning of the year saw the publishing of the report from the commission of inquiry, established by the human rights council of the united nations. this established the existence , andstematic, widespread gross human rights violations in the dprk that in many cases constitutes crimes against
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humanity. the important to underscore agreement in convergences in the reports for the commission of resolutionsalso the of the human rights council and the general assembly. they point to the same conclusion. that is the critical situation of human rights in the dprk. how did pyongyang react to this topic? dismissing it. alleging it is a political conspiracy and an international smear campaign. the government also affirmed in written form in a letter to the secretary general dated 24th of november that this could launch -- undertake a new nuclear test. this is a clear threat to international peace and security. mr. president, it is of grave tocern the dprk continues
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develop its nuclear program as well as its delivery system at the great cost of the humanitarian situation for its sanctionsspite the established pursuant to the resolution. this strengthens our conviction we must adopt a broader focus. it allows us to prevent a new conflict on the korean peninsula, which would have regional and global consequences and scope. it is clear the approach under which we have worked so far is not enough collectively. we must bring greater pressure to bear. it is essential the appropriate measures be adopted to put in putto the human rights -- an end to the human rights violations.
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these measures must put an end .o the climate of impunity this must allow for accountability. to offer access to the special -- the special rapporteur for the special procedures. that is to say freedom of movement and interviews with security arrangements made for the special rapporteur and those he interviews. given the gravity of the situation in the dprk, we believe this first meeting is a measure headed in the right direction. this is an initiative we support and that we supported in a meeting of the security council
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last april. we hope this can be repeated regularly. thank you very much. >> i think the representative of chile for his statement, and i give the floor to the representative of rwanda. >> mr. president, let me thank you. we are pressing that the situation in the democratic people's republic of korea be --mally based on the agenda placed on the agenda of the security council. reward the is a country that established the worst -- rwanda is a country that suffered the worst human rights violations in 1994. evaluations like this. early 90's, the you in counsel did not pay -- un counsel did
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not give much attention to the genocide in row wanda. a. we have torwandd ensure the community is going to act to protect and hold perpetrators to account. paragraphipulated in 139 and provides the state carry the primary responsibility for protecting populations of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and ethnic cleansing. encourage andto assist states in this responsibility as well as the responsibility to use appropriate means necessary to protect populations from these crimes. failing to protect the population, the international community must he prepared to
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take collective action to protect populations in the u.n. charter. we believe the security council should engage the dprk on these pillars. it is great concern of the report of the commission of inquiry, which was the subject of the council with a mandate to investigate an important human rights evaluation. we were alarmed by the finding of the commission, which documented several crimes including murder, torture, imprisonment, rape, forced abortions, and other sexual violence, prostitution, the possible -- forceful transfer of populations, disappearance of persons and acts of knowingly starvation,onged not to mention abduction of japanese citizens overpass decades.
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the commission concluded -- over the past decade. the commission concluded this is crimes against humanity. thehe meantime we deplored ,ommission was denied access and competent authorities did not comment on the report of the commission of inquiry. we are encouraged to hear willingness toad allow access to the territory, to the special rapporteur and to assistance forl the office of the high commission human rights. we hope this opportunity will be pursued. situation that they voted concerning the human rights situation, we believe it was important the council receives further information on
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the situation as well as implications on international peace and security. during our sessions the dprk should be invited to express views and engage in general , which could lead to a of the human rights situation in the depot. we support the recommendations. we believe that maintenance of peninsulahe korean through dialogue and consultation are in the common interest of all parties. the urge all actors in the korean peninsula, particularly democratic people's republic of korea, to engage in efforts. we help that the security council will remain
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involved in the situation and would like to encourage the u.s. agencies to engage competent authorities to address issues of great concern. i think you. -- i thank you. >> i would like to thank the representative of rwanda for his statement and will now give the floor to the representative of lithuania. >> mr. president, i thank you for convening this meeting at the request of some member states. lithuania welcomes this public briefing on a situation in the democratic people's republic of korea as other security council members. we believe that the gravity of human rights violations from the democratic people's republic of korea detailed in the report
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threaten to have destabilizing impact on the region in the maintenance of international peace and security. the 370 page report based on extensive testimony is a profoundly disturbing read as we have heard earlier in this meeting. perished,f thousands and many more were psychologically main and their commission to dominate every aspect of their citizens lives. their ideal of a social contract's resumes -- contract is reduced to not, ruthlessly enforcing almost complete denial of their reno -- of their freedom. extermination, enslavement, torture, prolonged starvation -- endless.seems and th
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the state gave presidents to military spending, engaging in nuclear weapons programs, buying it produceu ing expensive military hardware. there were provocative ballistic missiles and lock at rogers -- and rocket launchers. as the commission of inquiry notes, they have had profound consequences on resource allocation, particularly as part of a population where already food is not secure. crimes against humanity are being committed at the highest level of the democratic people's republic of korea government. political prisoners and their families harish in labor camps.
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food is used to control the population. children are stunted by malnutrition. he part of the interrogation process. those who managed to escape are often forced to return, invariably subjected to torture and other detentions. indications that democratic people's republic of korea is ready to consider human rights dialogues with the officer of high commissioner of we areights, disappointed to hear that they are detracting. we urge the country to engage with the international community and to allow unimpeded access to andrnational human rights humanitarian organizations and to start implementations and recommendations by the inquiry. as long as the human rights situation continues to deteriorate it is important to
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make sure that the international community is mindful of its responsibility to protect the population of democratic people's republic of korea. so manifestly and liberally failed by its own government. lithuania welcomes the recent resolution on the situation of human rights in the democratic people's republic of korea, which supports. toalso encourage the council follow the recommendations and take appropriate action to ensure accountability, including through consideration and referral to the situation in deeper to the international criminal court and consideration of the coat -- the scope of .anctions reiterate --let me the crimes against humanity in democratic people's republic of korea will continue until the
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policies, institutions, and practices of impunity that lie at the heart remain in place. the security council should remain engaged in remanding democratic people's republic of korea authorities to initiate profound changes through implementation of recommendations by the commission of inquiry. the council should track progress by holding regular meetings of the uni commission. president., mr. >> i think the representative of lithuania for her statement and i now give the floor to the representative of argentina. >> thank you very much, mr. president. -- for their respective
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briefings. what is going to repeat already described in the report, however, i'm going to make more explicit imposition of argentina on this. is falling with grave concern the situation in democratic people's republic of korea. argentina has voted in favor of each of the resolutions adopted thehe competent bodies, human rights council, and also in the third committee. among the most recent resolution was that of the human rights council and the general assembly. both condemned in the strongest the gross, widespread and systematic violations of human rights committed in this country.
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alsoer, we would like to make clear that we believe that the inclusion of this amendment is an exception. argentina reconfirms that the focus that -- that we should focus on the specific mandate given by the u.n. charter, that establishes a clear division of labor. -- stipulated in the security council that they have matters of international peace and security. it would not contribute to the correct and proper functioning of the u.n. system for the security council to extend its work and its range of actions. which is anon, exception founded on previous recommendations from the human rights council, should not be a precedent that would extend this practice.
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as in the human rights council, argentina was his best -- argentina wishes to express its concern that there are and have been systematic, widespread gross human rights violations. we deplore this. regardingo concerned the conclusion of the commission of inquiry of crimes against humanity. argentina, mr. president, has been maintaining this counsel that we are concerned over the nuclear and ballistic missile programs in the democratic people's republic of korea, and the risk these bring to the stability of the peninsula and the region, as well as its implications on international peace and security. such as this recall to us the importance of diplomatic means, negotiations, political administrations, and for this reason we urge this
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counsel to redouble efforts to relaunch dialogue with an aim of bringing about a definite solution to this question with a clear priority of declaring the peninsula free of nuclear weapons. the democratic people's republic of korea must protect and it sure the human rights of its population. thank you very much. >> i think the representative of argentina for that statement and i now give the floor to the representative of the russian federation. >> thank you, mr. president. we were against the initiative of convening today's meeting. that it could lead to negative consequences from the point of view of upholding the security council and other u.n. system bodies. criticized is often by increasingly spending its
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time on matters not within its reach. issues of respect for human rights should be considered not here, but at the human rights body which, with the active participation of many members, was created specially to discuss this issue, and has been granted with the necessary authority and expertise to do just this. finally, today's discussion is unlikely to promote international dialogue with democratic people's republic of korea. you. >> i thank you for your statement and i now give the floor to the representative of the republic of korea. i would likeent,
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to express appreciation to the presidency for convening today's meeting on the situation in the democratic people's republic of korea. you for your briefings on the human rights situation in the democratic people's republic of korea. despitefortunate that the international community's efforts to address the human rights issues of the democratic people's republic of korea over several years, the situation has worsen, ultimately warranting the security council's attention. earlier this year, the commission of inquiry issued its landmark report that raised international awareness of the gravity of the human rights situation in the democratic people's republic of korea. following the report's release, we at the united nations has dealt with the issue in the human rights council and in the
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general assembly. why the general assembly has adopted multiple resolutions since 2005 on the human rights situation in the democratic people's republic of korea, this inr's resolution was unique that it contained recommendations on the council's role. therefore, the council's decision to place the situation in the democratic people's republic of korea on its agenda is a necessary turning point for further discussion and engagement. such engagement is crucial, as we now understand the human rights violations in the democratic people's republic of korea to be so systematic and widespread that they not only caused massive suffering among north koreans, but also pose a threat to regional and international peace and security. the council has taken necessary measures in other cases in the
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past where human rights violations were committed on a larger scale to constitute a threat to peace and security. likewise, they need to pay due attention to the great situation in the democratic people's republic of korea. in this regard, we would like to that many conclusion of the violations found in the democratic people's republic of korea amounted to crimes against humanity. it also recommended that the council play a crucial role in accountability, including referral of the democratic people's republic of korea situation to the international criminal court. additional, my government takes serious note of the announcement of the u.s. government on december 19 that north korea carried out a cyberattacks on sony pictures entertainment and posed threats
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to movie theaters, which were also mentioned in the briefing. in this regard, we would like to express deep concern over such acts which seriously undermine the openness and security of --erspace, and escalate but also in maintaining peace and stability in the korean peninsula and in the region. in this context, the republic of korea has been working together with the international community to improve the human rights situation in the democratic people's republic of korea and to provide assistance to the north korean people.
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we will redouble these efforts in the coming years. we asked the authorities of the democratic people's republic of korea to take steps to improve their human rights situation, as the democratic people's republic of korea previously expressed this ruling. we hope that don young -- pyongyang will begin engaging with the international community, including with the situation in the democratic people's republic of korea been through technical cooperation with the ohchr. in closing, the republic of korea hopes that this counsel will continue to play a vital role in ensuring that north korean people will eventually be able to enjoy their inalienable human rights and fundamental freedoms. speaking at this
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meeting is probably my last duty in this counsel. when we first came to the council two years ago, one of the first issues we tackled was the democratic people's republic of korea's missile and nuclear issues. country havel, my dealt with many issues. we are not party to with a view to contributing to the work of the council. term -- our our time on the council started and is sending with a north korean issue. be just a coincidence. but i am saying this with a heavy heart, because for south koreans, people in north korea are not just anybody.
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stillns of south koreans have our family members and relatives living in the north, even though we never hear from them. even know, by now, the pain of separation has become a cold fact of life. we know that they are there, just a few hundred kilometers away from where we live. read what is described in the coi a report without it breaking our hearts we cannot watch video clips from north korea audio without flinching. north korean defectors, without sharing in their tears, without feeling as if we are there with them, experiencing the tragedies. president, as we
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leave the council with the debate on the democratic people's republic of korea's human rights, we do it wholeheartedly, with an ardent wish. an ardent wish for people in north korea, our innocent sisters and brothers on the street, in the countryside, in the prisoners camps, who were suffering for no reason. we only hope that one day in the future, when you look back on what you did today, we will be able to say that we did the right thing for the people of north korea, for the lives of every man and woman, boy and girl who has the same human rights as the rest of us. thank you. >> i thank the representative of the republic of korea for his statement.
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i will now make a statement in my national capacity as representative of chad. -- forish to thank their briefings. on theort from the coi human rights situation in the democratic people's republic of us --has a great many of brought to the for a situation marked by massive violations in the democratic people's republic of korea. the report covers systematic, widespread and flagrant human rights violations that have been and are being committed by the democratic people's republic of korea. concludes that in many cases these violations constitute crimes against humanity.
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violationsof these council --ng to the hence the coi recommends action from the international community in order to tackle the human rights situation in the democratic people's republic of korea. iccc inde having the this matter. we also expressed serious concerns over the gravity of the situation and the veracity of .he information in the report we must note that the authorities have rejected the as refusingell access regarding these restrictions. the members of the coi have not had the latitude.
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the inquiries were undertaken with a great many north korean citizens outside of north korea. interviewed. we called to avoid the politicization of the human rights, particularly when we that these situations where the massive and flagrant violations have been committed and continue to be committed the international community has not even have the courage to report as much. how do you explain this? double standard. there are many examples that show the errors committed in the past by the council in taking decisions, hazy decisions, based on certain reports. indicates that the
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situation of human rights in the democratic people's republic of throughout theed entire history of the country. if this is the case, then we would ask why it has not garnered the attention of the international community since then. call for thewe countries within influence over the democratic people's republic of korea to help to clarify the allegations of massive human rights violations against the democratic people's republic of korea. and to encourage the independent members of the coi to have free access to the country. along these lines, we call upon the democratic people's republic of korea to make a commitment to a direct and candid dialogue with the international community
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and the countries of the region. i thank you and i now return to my role as president of the security council. council has concluded. agenda -- theis meeting is now adjourned. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> c-span "q&a" series is two years old and to mark the decade we are featuring one interview for each year of the series. tuesday is a conversation with lonnie bunch.
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the museum is currently being built on the mall in washington. >> here's a look at some of the programs you will find on christmas day. holiday festivities start at 10:00 a.m. eastern with the lighting of the national christmas tree followed by the white house christmas decorations with first lady michelle obama, and the lighting of the capitol christmas tree. p.m., celebrity activists talk about their causes. then, the supreme court justice samuel alito on the bill of rights in the founding fathers. on c-span 2 at 10:00 a.m. pinker. join stephen lepore onill superheroes. on american history tv on c-span
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3 at 8:00 a.m. eastern, the follows the berlin wall with c-span footage of president george bush and bob dole, with speeches from john kennedy and ronald reagan. then, first ladies fashion choices. then, former nbc news anchor tom brokaw on his more than 50 years of reporting on world events. that is this christmas day on the c-span network. for a complete schedule, go to >> now, a discussion about cancer research with dr. francis collins. they talk about the latest cancer breakthroughs and some of the research challenges. the forum was cohosted in october by the aspen institute. susan page of "usa today" is a moderator.
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>> good afternoon, everyone. it is a great privilege to be here to moderate to remarkable pioneers in the field of cancer research. not only a full house here, but c-span is here so we will have an audience that goes well beyond these wall today. let me very briefly introduce our two panelists. dr. francis collins, director of the national institute of health, the largest importer of biomedical research in the world. he is renowned for his leadership in the human genome project. he has received the presidential medal of freedom. welcome. .nd dr. ronald depinno he leads groundbreaking research into the molecular underpinnings theancer, and is also founding director of the belford
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institute for applied cancer science. he has received many honors and awards and founded several biopharmaceutical companies focused on cancer therapies and diagnostics. questionsto post some myself and then we are going to .pen the floor we are going to answer the question -- how close are we to curing cancer -- but i thought we would start by looking back. dr. collins, you received your medical degree in 1977. this was six years after president nixon had declared a war on cancer. tell us what the assumptions were then about curing cancer, addressing cancer, treating cancer -- did you assume that cancer would be stored by 2014? what was your expectation? >> i remember when i was a medical student. there really wasn't a specialty at my school when i started in
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cancer. that happened during my four years, when a special unit focused on oncology was developed and somebody was hired to run it. a medical student and then an intern -- it was a scary place. it seemed as if what we had to offer for most of the patients who came into that particular part of the hospital were very toxic, poisonous -- many of these individuals had various types of tumors and responded quite poorly. it certainly did not seem to me at that point that somebody was really interested in bringing together science and medicine. it may be hard to imagine but at that point, the underlying model that we now take for granted that cancer is a disease of the genome had not really been appreciated. going back to the early party of the 20th
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suggesting that was something about the chromosomes. seeing that emerge as a actionable, unifying approach to this disease that will lead us in the direction of what we now embrace as a remarkable resolution of targeted therapy, that would've been really impossible for myself or others to imagine happening during their lifetimes. it has been a breathtaking ride. the war on cancer was initially declared in the early 1970's, we do not have the tools or insight or understanding mechanisms to be able to move at the pace we now can. it was a good thing to draw attention to the problem that needs a solution and affected so many people and the answers were going to have to climb out, research is expensive. ple and te going to have to climb out, research is expensive. case, research -- cancer was taking far too many lives. even though it took many years
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to try to figure out what should the approach me, it was a good thing to get the ball rolling in a significant way. about thisre we talk afternoon, we see the potential of really tackling the many types of cancer with a rational strategy with great hope of curing this disease. you say are we going to cure cancer? let's just say cancer is not one disease. disease.dreds of we have already cured some of them. there's a lot more. they are not all going to fall by the wayside at 1:00 on a thursday afternoon where someone says i have the answer. it will be a hard-fought battle and every answer would have a different series of steps. critics we want to talk -- >> we want to talk much about these desperate you received your medical degree a few years later in 1981.
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by attitudes have changed patients and their families, the diagnosis? how different is if or when you saw when you were getting your medical training? cancer strike fear into the heart of cancers and bring does their two families. patients who were subjected to treatments that been underwent disfiguring surgeries was a little reconstructive capabilities at that point. the chemotherapy was really harsh. even back then as a result of those advances which really occurred in the 1930's, 1940's, in 1950's, we have significant reduction in cancer mortality with about half of the patients losing their lives to cancer. now, it's about 2/3 that survive with cancer. nott of that has risen by just the treatment advances that we talking about but also the
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preventive strategies we understand a lot more about the indicators of cancer. patients are more empowered with knowledge to prevent cancer in the first place. and enlisted increasingly into more screening strategies where the chances for cure his greatest. that has led to profound prostate, in breast, cancerer diseases ,colon in particular. those are changes if you can do something about the disease to prevent or catch early and over half a dozen years in particular because of the insights that have been illuminated by a great deal of have a clearnow line of sight for many cancers as to how it really bends the art. patients feel more hopeful as a result of the enhanced
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diagnostics, enhanced capabilities we have on the treatment friends and so on. as a result, we have increasing survivors with improved quality of life. we are nowhere near where we need to the. >> i remember my first newspaper job in the 1970's where we did an obituary on every person who died in the state of kansas. families would ask you not to say or acknowledge it or someone died of cancer and we had a practice of which we would say they died after a long illness which was a code word. it was seen as so terrible to have had cancer. talk about the turning point. lastave talked about the decade or two, what has been the turning point that make so much difference? is there one? >> the biggest was getting an understanding of the fundamental -- behave the way
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it's supposed to and stops when is supposed to and starts growing despite all of the signals it should've shut it down. that really comes out of the recognition that there are genes in our book that is mutated in a certain way causes this to happen. them, they activate make themselves grow when they shouldn't. accelerator metaphor. others which are supposed to apply the brakes, is like losing your front and rear brakes and keep going when it should've stopped. and then other variations on top of that. more recently, things we are learning by the genome. basically, to have that kind of understanding about the mechanics of what controls cell growth was the essential step to move us into a war directed, more rational approach instead
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of him. colin and les see what happens. most of our strategies until we had the understanding where to come up with toxins substances. -- let's wait and see what happens. and tried to dial in at the point where you were killing the cancer cell's environment more than the regular cells. about the history. >> it is extremely important and you talked about one critical event, the initial paradigm. the genetic paradigm. and the 1960's, there was a vigorous debate as to whether or not mutations in genes had anything to do with cancer. some of the most significant minds of the last century honestly thought that the mutations of genes of cells are not relevant to the development of cancer. there was an especial irony
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because a discovery of a virus that contains a gene that caused bishop to their breakthrough and 17 7 -- 1976 that there are genes within us that look like the genes that cause cancer and viruses. int year i was graduating 1980 one, we began to identify mutations in those jeans. they were translocated or mutated and changed in cancer cell versus normal sells. it took a wild for us to begin to develop those collection of genes that were real drivers of the disease. a real critical breakthrough occurred in the 1990's thanks to dr. collins and the human genome project which gave us the blueprint for the human genome. 2007, when he the human cancer genome initiated
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under dr. collins' leadership and that has given us the periodic table for cancer where we know a lot, perhaps not all, but most of the genetic elements that are wrote that actually commandeered the cell. to me, the most significant advance against the back drop of the foundation i just described occurred within a narrow window of 2009, 2010 work across a broad front, a critical mass of knowledge that was prosecutable where we understood what caused certain cancers and we could do something about it and reduce the knowledge for practice. it also game changing technological advances. sequence genomes not in a decade in 1990's with billions of dollars but for house of dollars in a time period you can make clinical decisions. that was game changing.
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also advances in imaging. a couple of decades ago, the most common procedure in surgery was a laparotomy and you have to look inside to see what is going on and now we have noninvasive. the end -- and the advancing his profound. our ability and aggregate large volumes of data and use very powerful analytics that allow us not only to understand a disease but to actually inform clinical decision-making on that disease is before us. what is exciting to me is that within a very narrow window, we now have a very -- we are in a good position to make more delivered his assault on the cancer problem. this is something that it not exist because it took decades of research fundamental for us to be able to really move that knowledge to a position where we can act on it to help patients.
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the breakthroughs that brought us to the point where we are now. what is the breakthrough ahead that will make a great difference? what are you looking for? very articulately spoke about, we have the tools for any individual has developed cancer to read exactly what is going on inside of the tumor and what is making the cells grow. you to move what has been a one-size-fits-all operation to a personalized approach. it is a good thing we can do that because every tumor, if you look closely, is a little different. you take 10 people who have lung whatr and you actually ask is driving the cancer in those 10 people and will be a different collection of these genes and tumor suppressor's and other players. that means if you are trying to design a rational therapy, you ought to know that so you can
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choose your intervention accordingly. there is some complexities here, off course. that means making the old way of doing a clinical trial where you say anybody who has this particular cancer in this particular organ is an appropriate candidate. not so much. you have a targeted therapy. a particular genetic change of people were going to the best chances of respondent and where you want to run the trial. it sounds vague but let me give you an example. patients with lung cancer, which is a very scary disease and will not done so great on over the , there areany years individuals who have lung cancer who have a rearrangement are -- of a particular gene and it dries her cells to grow when they are not supposed to. there is a you recently and rapidly fda approved drug thanks to the trials that have been
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works in abasically very specific way to stop the growth of those sells that have but it isearrangement not doing thing for the rest of the patients who do not have a rearrangement. it is only about 5%-6%. different.lly and the past, lung cancer, radiation and strong chemotherapy and everybody got the same ink. not anymore. that's why the long of that efforts, lung cancer getting this forward is a great example of where we need to go. initially a clinical trial but so it out to the standard. ought to be standard when you have a chance. have a diagnosed to the base and figure out what that 3 billion instruction booklet looks like.
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look at the menu of targeted drugs which are being developed at a phenomenal pace, about 1000 of them now. and he out the ones that will be -- and pick out of the ones that will be a match and that is where you want to go. one more thing, at the present time, we are in a circumstance drug that idea of rational treatment for cancer based on understanding what is that tumor is a single drug. that can give you dramatic responses but unfortunately, they usually do not last. they are not cures. we should not be surprised by that when you consider that by the time a cancer has been diagnosed, the number of cancer sells that person has is in the billions. two to takes one or develop a different mutation and make them resistant to the drug to grow back and the trust
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targeted with that small number are resilient cells. how should we deal with that? thing about hiv. wheny similar situation people were diagnosed with hiv and we treated them with one drug and we got a response and they came back. the virus developed in resistance. human selves have the same -- -- c sails have the same have theel same ability. you reduce the chancels. cells have the same ability. -- you reduce the chance. but from my perspective, maybe that is our big, current challenge about our hope on the responses. >> i think when we think about
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reducing cancer mortality which is the bottom line and francis spoke to precision medicine and the promise of that. in fact, we have seen proof it is a way to go. when we end about cancer particularly in emerging countries, the challenges of limiting resources really means that we also have to approach the cancer problem on other fronts and be very aggressive. 50% of cancers can be prevented. the exciting thing is we understand a lot of the instigators of cancer and we can wise, education wise so we can really reduce the incidence in front of cancer and that is a great opportunity. think hbv vaccinations for children -- hpv vaccinations for children. tobacco, number one. hepatitis and of
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excessive exposure. that is during childhood. these are all opportunities where we can then did the art and in the screening, the chances for hearing is much better especially solid tumors. we have proof that is the case. ability tonhance our detect these cancers earlier stand on a path to doing it thanks to the nih, that will be one of the lowest of the low hanging fruit to really reduce cancer mortality. treatment for it targeted therapy going after the genes that are at variance and a cancer cell. what is exciting now as this new dimension of immunotherapy which does not really speak to what is going on inside of the cell but instead, harnesses the power of the immune system in the hopes, reawakens it so it recognizes that cancer and can attack the
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cancer. those therapies are giving responses in a large fraction of patients with advanced disease. combineif we begin to the targeted therapies going , harnesses the power of the immune system, i think what you will see over the next 5-10 years are significant reductions in cancer mortality. we are seeing cap for melanoma. and a variety of other cancers across the bar for. >> it sounds extremely complex to do targeted therapy based on specific genetic mutations. doctors, it is one greatto be at a institution, what if you are at some other place? are doctors able to keep up and care that isind of
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made such a difference? institutions, george washington here in this area and so on and so forth, the issue is really the knowledge gap that you are referring to. it is a significant one. there was a report on the unevenness of cancer care throughout the united states. on average, for example, the cancer, whenung there was a new therapy it took on average in a community usedng for to be routinely in the public domain. that is a critical issue and is widening the cause of this staggering complexity where physicians do not have the chance to keep up with m.d. anderson and we produce 10 papers a day.
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find at m.d. anderson on the oncology expert advice and be able to ingest data clinically in a community setting, not just in the walls of m.d. anderson. and how that system being taught by the world experts. what would they do essentially a second opinion? that would then give advice to the treating physician that is what the world experts would do and it would be the clinical trials you should consider and so on. will reduce -- once they get implemented. informations age of and is in fact is going to be on a practical level as most impactful and reducing the
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burden of cancer in our country. critics do you worry about this, dr. collins? if so, what can you do? >> we do not have a good track record of taking research and finding how they integrate into the standard of care across the country. a few years ago, somebody look at that timetable and concluded 20 years and that is unacceptable. there aren't good news aspects of the way things are going. ron talked about some related to the cancer field. the best art of the story is the patient's are no longer comfortable sitting back and waiting for someone else to make decisions about their care. we are in the era of the empowered patient and the internet has made that possible even for individuals who have no medical background to find information and ask pointed questions about how come you are doing this when you could be doing that. that alone motivates physicians
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to get up to speed. no physician wants to be embarrassed by their lack of understanding a patient brought to their attention. we are seeing improvement. ,he electronic health record michigan opportunity there and provide an opportunity for more patients to have access to clinical trials. in childhood cancer, it is the case for most hits with cancers. is a missedlts, it opportunity both for the research community and especially for patients who would benefit by enrolling and maybe giving them access to something that could've been much work targeted for their needs. we have to work hard on this. the other point is reimbursement. if we are going to see these types of events is finding their way into the standard of care, who his handclear and as a challenge with many of the new developments being sufficiently new and have not gone through the discussions.
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some of the new drugs are expensive. >> there was a piece on "60 minutes" about the high cost of cancer drugs. it made a scene it was random how much a cancer drug cost, is it? what determines the cost? andhe fundamental question that is an important issue is to think about what drives the cost . at the end of the day, for us to incentivize innovation and address major needs especially in pediatric cancers or rare cancers, etc., we have to do a much better job in reducing the extraordinarily high rate of failure in cancer drug development and testing. for every 20 drugs that enter into clinical trials today, only one will succeed into the common fda approved. and 56% of rate those failures incurred in
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sainsbury where the cost is very high and patience are sometimes benefiting but not achieve statistical significance. and vice versa. if you look at the root causes of why we fail, we are not doing enough that the plea -- preclinical stage due to the science needed to validate the target to develop the drug as the target, test and a very .ophisticated model system and develop a clear hypothesis to what patients you are going to be getting the drugs to in a setting and know if the hypotheses is validated. if we get it that way and put more effort on befriended and, you would reduce the high rate of failure and that would reduce the cost of the -- of developing the drugs. they are significant and their
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expense in part because we are paying for the high number of failures that occur in the clinical setting. someone has to pay, the taxpayer, the government, the investors, the patients with co-pays, etc. a key issue for us to focus on is, how is it that we can reduce the cost of developing drugs? the point precision medicine before, which patients would truly benefit from getting that drug? would have a durable response, low toxicity so that you have impact on their disease. i would like to see the dialogue be more balanced and thinking about the root causes of the issues as opposed to some of the dialogue that has been recently and in the public domain. >> i totally agree with what he is saying there.
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>> i am more invested in ever in the clinical space in being sure you are chasing after a model that is going to succeed and not one that is going to crash and burn after you have spent hundreds of millions of dollars on it. that means our models have to be increasingly reliable. we have cured cancer in mice more times than i can tell you. we will continue, but i think some of the time we have been misled. what we have.sing increasingly in the front end of the development timeline, we need to develop a lot more, all the way down to the three-dimensional structure of that particular drug and how did it fit into it target -- its target and questions about toxicity, which we can do in the -- or at ways using ir chips
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.laborate ways using biochips we can do that. take a biopsy, add the appropriate number of genes, cellshat into pluripotent , and coke that into becoming heart or muscle or beta cells for your pancreas or brain cells. you can bathe them in the substance you're thinking about using and find out if there are unexpected things you want to know about. basically fail early if you going to fail. way we do this is slow and expensive and involves small animals and large animals. we can do better.
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bottom line thomas -- bottom line, unless we come up with ways of reducing the failure rate, drugs are going to cost a lot of money, because companies have to remain solvent, and they have to pay for all these failures. the cost of success is much higher than you would want it to be. as au describe bankruptcy common side effect of cancer, which is very distressing for everyone. if the goal is curing all kinds of cancers, what's the biggest hurdle? what could make the biggest difference now in trying to ?rogress along this path take this one. >> i can start. , don't know if he can say this but one of the greatest proven success stories in the history ourhe nation has been
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research that has converted knowledge, basic insight into shings that matter for patient and what is very exciting for us. we have a clear line of sight on canceran impact on worldwide through prevention, screening, and therapeutic advances that are game changing, and patients are dying. families are being impacted. make ation needs to decisive assault on the cancer problem and other diseases for which we have a strong conceptual foundation at this point. we need to act. decisively.ct as the u.s. goes, so goes the
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world. invest in our research activities so we can make a difference in the cancer problem. >> is it fundamentally a matter of money? is that the number one thing? >> we are limited by ideas. we are not limited by talents. i think we are limited by resources. if you look at the opportunity scientifically in the field of cancer and many other disorders as well, i could say the same thing about alzheimer's or diabetes. we are at this remarkable moment scientifically. it's exhilarating to see how this landscape changes almost daily. that's one of my great privileges to look across the landscape and see what is happening almost every day. you are reading my blog. >> are you tweeting it?
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>> i am tweeting it. it is amazing to see the insides. they are coming out of all sorts of technologies we didn't have before. the things they are doing are getting better. the revolution giving us insight into how things work and how things go wrong. the efforts to understand the and the advent of electronic health records. all of these things are coming together in a way i would not have imagined in my lifetime, yet we are not nurturing that the way weiscovery could be. a statistic i think is particularly troubling, often discouraging to young scientists thinking of getting in the field is the following. what is your chance, if you have a great idea about cancer research and it is preclinical, but you


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