tv Cities Tour- Charleston WV PAAHTV CSPAN January 10, 2020 6:19pm-8:01pm EST
>> the impeachment of president trump next week the house will vote on impeachment managers, sending the articles of impeachment to the senate. follow the process live on c-span, on-demand at c-span.org/impeachment, and listen on the free c-span radio app. >> next, an american history tv exclusive. our cities tour visit to charleston, west virginia. where we learn more about its unique history and literary life. for eight years now, we've traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the literary scene and historic sites to our viewers. you can watch more of our visits at c-span.org/cities our. >> welcome to the west virginia state museum at the state culture center in charleston. the west virginia state museum
was founded in 1894 and has been continuous ever since. today we'll be going into the immersive west virginia state museum. we'll be talking about the early frontier and settlement period, the development of the state, becoming a state, the industrialization of the state, and we'll go into the later century, the 21st century, and see where west virginia is today. we're in the west virginia state museum settlement and frontier period. these are some of the earliest settlers of the land. we're standing beside george washington's case where it has specific artifacts such as his sword, his powder horn that he carved during the american revolutionary war, and the telescope that he used to survey land here, as well as in the eastern panhandle. george washington would have been here in the mid 1700's. during this time period frontier and early settlement, this was western virginia. it was part of the state of virginia at the time and it was
an area that wasn't greatly developed. a lot of the ideas of separation, becoming a separate state, was for the infrastructure and things of that nature were not being put into this mountainous area and mountainous terrain. these artifacts belonged to daniel boone when he settled in the area. he was in the valley for about 10 years, from 1789 to 1799. this is the rifle that daniel boone carried in the 1790's. this is his walking stick. a beaver trap that he used to trap beavers, and he was also a surveyer during that time. this is a signed deed that he surveyed land in the area. and this is also the way that he marked a stone, where he marked the property in that area. daniel boone was very important in the time period. one of the first representatives from the newly 179's -- nty in the
1790's. and he was very involved in both the politics and the development of the area. we're in the family cabin that was built in the 1870's. this cabin in the state museum is a showcase of what type of a structure that people lived in during that time. in fact this cabin itself was used as somebody's residence. it was a school house. it's been a little bit of everything. we've used it as kind of a showcase of artifacts because you wouldn't necessarily have everything that's in this in a cabin of this time period. but most of the artifacts that you see, whether it's a wall cabinet, a table to eat on, a cabinet to store your relics, a side board, and of course a fireplace, all of those things would have been in a caben from that time period. so what we're looking at here is a side board that was made by a member of the washington family up in the eastern panhandle. it's hand carved. it is very beautifully decorated.
just incredible collection piece. we next go over here and this is actually -- we call it the table from fort lee. dr. john p. hail, who was president of a society, which predated the state museum, there was a tornado that went through charleston during the 1890's and in order to preserve these pieces of fort lee, he made it into a table. and so it's a beautiful piece and it's a treasure with wonderful -- [indiscernible] -- this is a quiltwork coverlet made by sara to her husband. it was made in 173. it was one of the very first -- 1793. it was one of the very first coverlets in the collection. you know that sara, james is the inventor of the steamboat. so this was his daughter. we are in the john brown section of the west virginia state museum where currently, where we talk about harpers ferry and the raid on the harpers ferry armory, john
brown, october 16, 1859, secured a raid on that facility. he wanted to get additional weapons. he figured that people from the area would join and that would be the beginning of a huge movement. unfortunately for him, there was an african-american killed, the first person killed on the raid, and -- and other people that were from the town, and that got the people who were iving in that area to combat john brown and try to stop what he was trying to do. john brown is said to have started the very first beginnings of the civil war. john brown was captured and actually there is a mural in this exhibit. it shows john brown with a comrade laying beside him. these are individuals, the charges against john brown, and he was tried for treason and he was later hung.
we are currently in the room of the museum. this is the area that talks about and discusses the reasons for west virginia becoming a state in 1863. western virginians actually were longing -- looking to become a state much earlier than that and looking at improvements that were not happening in the area. the in-roads and transportation were not what they expected and when the civil war came along, and it became time in virginia to decide to join the confederacy, that's when western virginians forced separation and into statehood. western virginians were divided over the issue of slavery. there were, as well as a region, what side that they were involved in, there were brothers who one would fight on confederacy and the other one would fight for the union. so this area, even though they wanted statehood, they wanted to become a separate state,
state of west virginia, they were very divided on the issue of slavery. we're now in the transportation section of the museum. just after statehood. and west virginia, now that they are a state, is becoming -- they're developing railroad, they're developing transportation routes to get goods and services. one of the key things about this time period is the development in the coal and oil and gas industry. those are natural resources that west virginia had plenty of. with the development transportation they were able to get those goods and -- to market. and west virginia became a leader in the production both of coal and oil and gas. river transportation was very important in the time period. one of the great things about west virginia is we developed the lock and dam system and that was enabled to utilize our rivers to better get products out of the various areas and to market. the wheel you see behind me is
12 1/2 feet in diameter. it's from the o.f. sheer that was on the canal and ohio rivers. it was a paddle that was on the rivers in this area. earlier, when we were talking about sara's coverlet, we also referred to james, inventor of the steamboat. he actually developed the process and showed it to george washington. we have a model of that steamboat in the state museum collection. ome collection. some people have referred to him as the first engineer in the country. west virginia has been a lot of firsts in production, manufacturing throughout the history of the united states. ne of the leaders is the company that produced more china at one time than any other company in the world. today you would know it for fiestaware. that's a huge collector's time. but they also are very big in dinnerware. west virginia not only stops with china, but they go with glass as one of the top producers of glassware of
anywhere in the world. michael owens developed the first automated bottling plant here that was in the production of glass bottles. they also, right across the highway, was ford in charleston which was the largest producer of sheet glass of anybody in the world at one time. when you talk about west virginia leading the way and production in manufacturing, coal is one of the resources that has shaped the history of west virginia. it goes back, it actually ties a lot of things we've talked about together. it ties into the salt industry. it goes back to the early 1800's. coal's big boone started even as far back as the 1840's, 1850's. just before statehood. this also ties together the railroad. the railroad, especially the development of chesapeake and ohio railroad, helped to open up the coal mines and open up the lines of coal to become
what we are today, as one of the producers not only of the country, but of the nation and of the world. today coal in west virginia is a very significant part of the economy of the state. because of developments in how you mine coal, and equipment, there are not as many coal miners as there were at one point. the market depend pons a lot of things, but coal -- depends upon a lot of things but coal is still very important in the state of west virginia. we're currently in the art and craft room of the state museum. this room shows glass, pottery, woodworking, quilting, textile making, marble making, just a little bit of everything. this shows -- these are things that weave throughout the history of the state of west virginia. and today all of these are as important now as they were then. we have our annual quilt exhibition, some of the most beautiful quilts you will ever
see. we have our west virginia jury exhibition that happens every two years. a lot of this room showcases some of the talent of those from past years. as museum director, i'm often interacting with visitors and one of the things that they want to tell me after they've toured the west virginia state museum is that they understand what the state of west virginia is about. and that is what we want them to get. they understand that the hardworking people, the development of manufacturing, and all the other components and the fabric of our people are represented in this museum. west virginia is a proud people and we hope that once you go through the state museum, you understand the fabric and the istory of the state. >> we're at j.q. dickinson salt works in charleston, west virginia. it was once the salt capital of the united states. up next, we learn about the
history of the salt industry here and how j.q. dickinson is reviving it. >> j.q. dickinson salt works is a revival of a family business that started in the early 1800's. my ancestors started evaporating and crystallizing salt, along with about 50 other manufacturers in the region, which made this little valley here in west virginia the largest salt producing region of the country. so we are on top of the trapped ancient sea. it's the ippetus ocean. t's a 400-million to 600 million-year-old source. there's a freshwater aquifer which means it runs under us like a salty river. this is pushing up in springs in places, which was how it was discovered, mainly by large animals. first deer and elk, buffalo were here. native americans came for hunting and gathering salt for
themselves. and then as the european settlers moved west across algainey mountains, they found this really very valuable source of salt which we take for granted to. how important salt was before rerefrigeration. the salt industry really started to grow in the early 1800's. the rough in her family, the dickinson's and others really started to grow this industry. it was an industry that grew on the backs of slaves. this valley was one of the largest industrial slave uses in the country. like many other industries. but there were over 5,000 slaves in the valley and about 250 on this property alone. so by the 1840's, we were the largest salt making region of the country. most of the salt was leaving here and going to cincinnati. also called porkopolis because of all the hog farming going on
in ohio. once the meat packing industry started growing up in chicago, the market in cincinnati started to wane and the salt industry here really sort of started to go away. so the dickinson family made salt until 1945. then my brother and i revived the business in 2013. i grew up here in the valley and the salt history of our family just wasn't something that was shared. i vaguely knew that we made salt at some point. but i didn't know anything more than that. then i really started digging into the family history when i was in my 40's and at the same time filling up my pantry at home with salt, because i thought it was so fascinating, different salts from around the world. then it was just an ah-ha moment. we decided to revive the salt industry because of several key points. one, we had this amazing family history that our ancestors made
salt for 160 years here. but also the movement of chefs and consumers toward really high-quality foods made by producers they could trust. so we don't add anything to our salt and we want it to be produced naturally with solar evaporation and then we hand harvest it. it's a product of mother nature rather than the product of a machine. so we're here outside in our field and we're going to walk you through the salt harvesting process. which starts here at our well. it goes down 350 feet to draw the brian up to the surface, to fill our -- brine up to the surface to fill our tanks. with you pump about 7,500 gallons of brine a week to move through our sun houses. these are our holding tanks where we settle the brine. we have three of them. they're 2,500 gallons each. and we need to settle the brine for about five days, then we feed it into our sun houses
where it starts to evaporate. so we're in the quincy sun house, which is one of our three evaporating sun houses. we put the brine in here in these big beds where it evaporates. 're taking it from 4.35% saliniy to 50%. during that time we have calcium carbonate precipitate out and then we feed the bryan off of the calcium and into -- brine off the calcium and into crystallization. this takes anywhere from five to 10 to 15 days, depending on the weather. we're very much at the whims of mother nature. so we're in the building that we call the grainry. which is what our ancestors call the building where the actual grains form or the salt crystals. so we're looking at a bed here that is full of salt, which we fill each one of these 26 beds in this building with about an inch of the evaporated brine that's down to 15% selinity and we allow it to continue
evaporating until it crystallizes which happens at about 25%, which is when the solid forms. so it's harvest of salt, we use big scoops and scrapers and we basically just scrape the salt into a pile like this. and put it into the scoop. and then we put it into a bucket where it drains back into the bed and stays for a day until we take it into our production facility where we dry it and package. we are in our production facility. the salt comes in here after it's drained in the grainary for a day, then we put it into ur drying room where we have a dehumidifier that pulls extra moisture off the salt. then it goes through a cleaning process where we go through the salt and just for quality control, make sure it's 100% salt. we pull out anything that's not salt with tweezers.
and just to make sure we're getting 100% salt into the jar. our finishing salt is our flagship product. we also produce what we call popcorn salt or cooking salt and then we have a grinding salt. then we do some flavored salts. we do west virginia ramp salts. ramps are wild mountain onion. very, very indigenous to west virginia. and we do an applewood smoked salt and also a bourbon barrel smoked salt. we are all over the country. we're in over 600 accounts nationwide. restaurants and retailers. as well as we sell ecommerce worldwide. and that's exciting. it's a little piece of west virginia that goes everywhere. i do see us as an ambassador for the state of west virginia. you know, it's not a role that was given to us, but i think everybody in the state is an ambassador for what we love. we love our state and we love
the companies that are here. anything that we can do to lift each other up is important to me. and important to most other west virginia producers. >> the c-span cities tour continues its special look at charleston, west virginia, up next we visit the craig pattin house to learn about two men. one who helped found the city, and another who led troops for the confederacy in the civil war. >> today we're going to talk about two gentlemen that lived here. two gentlemen that had an impact on an expanding frontier. and not only the city, but the region as a whole. we are at the house located a mile and a half from our capitol. it is a greek revival architecture-style home. it was originally built in 1834. our james craik was the grandson of dr. james craik. one of george washington's
closest personal friends and comrades during the french and indian war, the revolutionary war. and throughout his term as president. james craik grew up in alexandria, virginia. he decided to settle the lands that his grandfather and george washington had discovered. in the 1820's, charleston was a city that was on the rise and that was in part due to the salt industry just outside of town. prior to that, it just -- the charleston area would have been a militia outpost, fort lee, which would have been at the mouth of the elk river. by the time that james craik had moved from his then-mason county home to charleston, it had a population of roughly 600 people, that included white, free black and enslaved. so it was a small town but a close-knit society where everyone seemed to know each other. james craik was a wealthy man. most of his wealth inherited from the bounties that he had received from his grandfather and father. he ended up traveling as a
circuit lawyer to different counties to practice law. for a period of time, approximately 14 years, he did that, but he was also serving as a director for the james river turnpike, which is a massive roads project that was intended to connect eastern and western virginia to the ohio river. when the episcopal church came to charleston, west virginia, one of the first trustees of st. john's church was james craik. he eventually went on to become a deacon and a rector before becoming the priest there. shortly before traveling from charleston to louisville, kentucky. jake craik built the home in 1834 and they left in 1844. so there was this 10-year period where they would have been here at the home working, where it was as a lawyer or ith the turnpike, or his
services with the church. the craik family, while living here, had a total of seven children. so the house was filled. there are only three bedrooms that we have, so you can imagine that it would have been pretty packed with folks. based on the 1840 census, we also know there were eight enslaved members living here with the family. the home itself is on a 2 1/2-acre lot. so there are different buildings, not everybody would have necessarily been in this home. but it would have been quite a large operation going on here at this house. one of the lasting impacts that james craik had on the charleston area is helping establish it as an economic engine for the rest of the future state of west virginia. creating roads for transport, working with the government to create reduced tolls for manufacturers to ship salt.
but what is pretty significant about the man is that he was a writer. following the raid on harper's ferry, he addressed the kentucky state legislature to calm fears and keep them from immediately joining into the secession movement. james craik's speech to the kentucky state legislature was so popular that it went through -- was published into a book that went through 12 editions and it was called "union," that's the short title for it. it goes on a little longer. but he had also given us a glimpse into his beliefs of a slave master's responsibility to his slaves. after james craik left for louisville, kentucky, in 1844, he sold the home to a local businessman named isaac reed. that gentleman lived here for about a decade before selling it to the pattin family. george pattin, susan pattin, ame to charleston in 1856.
his great-grandfather, what people might know, our george patton for, is probably his grandson, also named george patton. from world war ii. the famous field marshall, george patton. when patton came into this area , we also see an industrialized method of slavery that was unique in that it was not the agricultural style -- agricultural slavery that we're most familiar with when thinking about that period of time. conflict that erupted in 1859 after john brown's raid on harper's ferry created a lot of tensions and we see a lot of local governments starting to talk about secession. however, when the civil war broke out, the county itself voted to overwhelmingly against is you session -- secession,
but we do find pockets of individuals and we can trace back to see where southern sympathy was most presk lent. and we see that there was -- prevalent. and we see there was a large clifter of individuals here in charleston -- cluster of individuals here in charleston profiting off the slave industry that was keeping the salt industry afloat. when george patton came to charleston, west virginia, one of the first things did he was establish the minutemen, later named the riflemen. and that was a local militia unit that he became captain of. it was filled with men from the upper crusts. sons of doctors, measure chants and lawyers themselves. these people related to a particular caste of society. they were also nicknamed the kid glove unit because of their fancy -- just because of their fancy uniforms. shortly after the cannon fired on fort sump ter in april of 1961, the riflemen ended up becoming members of the 22nd
virginia infranity -- infantry, along with other militia units in counties throughout the valley. they saw action immediately in july of 1861. george patton was shot in the left shoulder and knocked off his horse during this battle. he was captured a few days later and ended up being paroled before returning in the spring of 1962. and it was in the shenandoah valley in 1864 that george patton was wounded by artillery hrapnel at the battle of the piquan or the third battle of winchester. this was a wound from a three-inch ordinance rifle that became infected and he wouldn't allow doctors to amputate. so the infected wound ended up costing george patton his life. susan patton moved to california after the civil war with her three children. her son, george smith patton, grew up there as well.
it was in california that he had his son, george s. patton, of world war ii fame. the home itself ended up becoming the property of a gentleman named dr. hogue and the hogue family owned the craik-patton house for a number of years. the home remained in downtown charleston until 1906. at that point in time, dunbar street was going to cut right through the home's property so it was divided into three sections. and moved to an area on lee street. the home remains there until the national society ended up purchasing it from the city for $1 and move it here today so -- moved it here today so it would be preserved. that took place in 1973. since then, it's been an ongoing project to maintain the home and really provide the public with what -- an idea of what it would look like for a family living in the 1830's and
1840's. once we move to the patton room, what it would look like for a family living here during the 1850's and 1860's. >> c-span is in charleston, west virginia, learning about the city's literary and history scene. from pepperoni rolls, up next, we talk to the author of the book "the west virginia pepperoni roll" about food's role in app lashan culture. >> i think one of the things that's really important is that appalachia is rooted in story telling. so i think the food culture plays into that. we pass these stories along through recipes, we pass these stories along through the items that you made with your grandma that aren't specifically measured. appalachian food is very complex. there's a lot of layers. appalachia's a huge region so there's a bunch of different
components that make it what it is. while many think of appalachian food as being the sort of monolithic, scots-irish cuisine, there's really many, many, many layers. so we have foods that are inspired from the south. we have foods that are inspired from italy. but most notably appalachian food is really rooted in place. so you'll see things like forging for regtables and you'll see -- foraging for vegetables and canning to preserve those vegetables through long, hard winters. we've used our ingenuity to really live off the land in some way. i write a lot about how my grandmother really inspired a lot of my food habits. i remember foraging for morells back when i was younger and she would batter them and fry them and i just thought it was so neat that we could go out behind her house and find something in the woods that we could eat. i think that that preservation
and that resilience really plays a huge role in our food ways. appalachia is known for many different kinds of food. so we're known for our local meats, we're known for fruits like paw-paws. we're known for rams. but west virginia specifically is home to the pepperoni roll. small peroni roll is a piece of dough that envelopes a spicy stick or slice of pepperoni. the pepperoni roll was inspired by the coal miners in the area. in north central west virginia, we had a huge italian immigrant population. and they were interested in some sort of meal that they ould take underground that was self-stable, delicious and easy and portable. so somewhere along the lines, between 1927 and 1938 we devised the pepperoni roll.
the pepperoni roll is really gaining popularity not only within the borders of the state, but even further outside of the state. so we see pepperoni rolls pop up in washington, d.c., we've seen pepperoni rolls in pennsylvania and ohio. but i think that what makes it really special is that it's really rooted in our culture and our industry. because it has roots in our coal mining history, it really means a little bit more to us. we're seeing appalachian food all over the place. so you'll see things like our salt at restaurants in large cities. you'll see some of our local beef in various restaurants. but the one thing that makes appalachian food what it is is its roots in place. place food has stories that you might not necessarily capture when they're kind of extracted from the place. so while those rams are delicious and they can make meals even better, it's really
important to know that farmer that grew them or that roadside stand where you were able to pick them up because they mean something more. it's that smalltown farm income. it's how that person is putting their kids through school. it's so much more than just the flavor and the recipe, is how have we survived from these ingredients and made them part f our food culture to make them so popular. i think that preserving the history and heritage of appalachia and specifically appalachian food is so important to the people in this region, that the biggest thing is for us to document that history and pay tribute to these different traditions and write down those recipes and save those seeds and really try to keep that culture alive and keep the place space in
appalachian food. >> booker t. washington was, for 20 years was the spokesman and leader of african-americans in america. and at the time, we had horrible jim crow race codes in the south. that didn't happen here in west virginia. it was a different sort of race relations. and what he observed with his boyhood heroes was the building of a black middle class. and that really became his path, his career path as he went from tuskegee to being a national celebrity. booker was born in a place called hails ford south of roanoke, virginia. about 225 miles from here. and in those first nine years, he was a slave boy. he didn't have pants. he wore a slave boy's shirt. shoes were two wooden slats with a piece of leather across
each -- across the top. he wanted very much to go to school. he saw white children going to school, he wanted to do that. but he really wasn't able to do any of those things. they leave the farm in virginia in 1865, pretty soon after the civil war ends. there's a soldier, a union soldier, who comes to the farm and reads the emancipation proclamation, announcing that they are free and that they can leave. his mother cried. she said that she never thought that she would live long enough to see her children liberated. after the civil war, west virginia did not have the devastation that the confederate south did. this area was -- except for a short period of about four months -- was under union control practically the whole war. throughout west virginia you did not have the economic devastation that you had in the confederate south. made a big difference after the war. the other thing that was different too is that the slave
population in west virginia is very small. probably the smallest of any area in the slave south. there was something like 4% of the state's population were african-americans. so there wasn't that threat by of the elite in west virginia that was posed by blacks like in the deep south. the family came to maleden because washington ferguson, the step-father, was working works, the salt salt factory, and also in the coal mines they owned here. he sent money to his wife in order to get a horse and buggy to bring her and the kids to the town. once they arrived, they find a wonderful community of christian believers that are centered in the ruffner slave
quarters. she gets the job first as a chambermaid for the ruffners and then as a cook. she gets them to hire booker as a garden and house boy, knowing that he would learn social graces, he'd have their big library available to him, that he wouldville have a lot of opportunities that -- he would have a lot of opportunities that he otherwise wouldn't have. as an important part of him being with the ruffners is he developed a familiar al relationship with -- fameni al relationship with the second wife -- familial relationship with the second wife. they really got on. he always asked her, am i doing well? he was honest, he was hard working and he was very bright. and i think she appreciated his talent. and i think that she did something for him that gave him a self-confidence that probably carried him through his career. because his career was full of crisis and dark hours. but he was able to see himself in her eyes, reflected as a
perfect being. he was here until he was about 15 and he went to hampton to school for three years. he would go during school term and then come back in the summers. and the second summer that he came back, his mother passed away suddenly. and it was really a hard time for him. and he credits ms. ruffner as helping friend and him get back helping him get back to hampton for his third year. when he graduates from hampton, he's the top student in his class. and he comes back here to teach school. and he says that his -- the favorite years of his life were when he came back and taught school here. but he was restless. this wasn't enough for him. so he went to washington to seminary to see if he wanted to be a minister. that didn't fit. then he tried reading for the law. that didn't fit. so he was trying to figure out who he was and what he wanted to do. one of the things that he did, and this is very important, is west virginia was having a referendum on where to place
the state capitol. and charleston was one of three cities. clarksburg and martinsburg. so people in charleston had a republican and a democrat leader to organize talks so that they could go out and convince other counties to vote for charleston. and booker was one who was supposed to go to -- along the railroad route and go to four or five counties to convince them to choose charleston. and so it was a speaking tour. it was his first speaking tour. very successful. all those counties voted overwhelmingly for it. maybe not because of booker but he was able to speak to the african-americans that were in those counties. they were mostly coal miners and farm workers. and -- but that set him on a road of being a public speaker and i'm not sure he's known for that, but he would speak to thousands of people every year. he would have tours, he would be on the stage with the governor and a congressman and
a senator and he would always be the star speaker. he was incredible. booker was working at hampton as a teacher when folks from tuskegee, alabama, requested that an educator be sent there to start a school. and so booker went down at age 25 and on july 4, 1881, he started a school at tuskegee. ow, he was really just using some abandoned buildings. everything there had to be built. president ter or so, mckinley pays a presidential visit to tuskegee. it's the most important institute for african-americans in america. he's celebrated as a great educator. his philosophy was that we will educate people here at tuskegee to send back home to their hometowns to educate others and to build that black middle class. that was his goal.
and he got that from his boyhood heroes who, you know, his parents bought a house to integrate the town, and he saw them with their church members working hard to help future generations, rather than themselves, to build a black middle class and they were successfulment and he thought that was the path that ought to be taken in the deep south too. he visited mauldin every year. he was very devoted to his sister and he would come every year. he was a national celebrity after he gave the atlanta cotton state exhibition speech called the atlanta compromise. it's a seven-minute speech, but it made him a national celebrity. and he always cultivated his celebrity status. he was always photographed in a coat and tie. he'd have a hat on if he was out of doors. there's a wonderful newspaper article where he comes to west
virginia to hunt and fish and relax and he's hunting, he has gun, hunting with a coat, tie and and bowler and then he's also fishing, has a fishing pole with a coat and tie and bowler and he would not be photographed looking casual or anything else. at a time when at a time when celebrity was new, he was conscious about maintaining that. booker didn't tell the facts. he saw it as a way of manipulating the story that he's telling. there are several instances. when he went to hampton, he said i was presented with two sheets and it was a puzzle. i didn't know what to do so i slept on both the first night. and on the second night, i slept under. he couldn't have lived all those years in the rough and not know
about what sheets were for and how they worked. he also said, at hampton, and this is shocking -- at hampton, he learned about eating meals with tablecloth and napkins. well, he couldn't. maybe he didn't use a tablecloth and napkin, but certainly wasn't very far away from it. so, he tells that to make it clear that what he's saying isn't about tablecloths and napkins. what he saying, he did not experience those kinds of normal social graces. and that simply wasn't true. but again, he was trying to tell a story. the story was more important that wereacts involved. when he wrote up for slavery, he serialized outlook magazine. a that magazine, there's
photograph of the home and the , this is the home booker t. washington left when he went to hampton. it's got a whitewashed font, nice-looking play, very tidy. defenses up. -- the fence is up. but he never used that photograph again. the one he used later was one that was current. there reports falling out of the house. it was a mess. it looked really, really said. when they bought the home in 18 1869, itooked -- in looks pretty good. he didn't want folks to know that because it would make it look like he lived a pretty blessed life. governor, he wrote that all those complaints that booker t. washington had about living with general ruffner weren't true.
he lived a very comfortable life. and his biographer said he learned -- lived a refined life, and that's something he wanted for himself. also, that life was important for him to prove he used himself as an example of the nation at large, that look, look at me. i'm a successful person. and i happen to be african-american. so, you know, he's using his life as an example, encouragement to blacks. but also as an example of proof of equality to whites. booker t. washington's life in west virginia was important, informative for him. it was because of the frontier values that were here, for the whites really were not aristocratic like in eastern virginia. they believed people were worth. they had self-worth. they believed in the individual.
it was a combination of all these things coming together they gave him the idea of an american dream and gave him the building -- >> c-span is entrusting, west virginia learning about the literary scene. up next, we speak with emily hilliard on her work to document the various cultures that make up appalachian heritage. ♪ >> in west virginia, we have a lot of people across the state who may not identify as artists, but are extremely creative, extremely important and how they're preserving traditions in their community, to storytelling to fiddle tunes. so, we really want to help these
people do the work they are already doing and practice their art form. with the program, we document, preserve, present, and support traditional artists, cultural heritage practitioners, and cultural communities across the state. travel all over the state and do oral histories and documentations of banjo players, fiddlers, neon sign wrestlers,ependent ramadan fast breaking dinners, serbian chicken roasts, any kind of aspect of cultural heritage or someone who practices an art form or foodways or some kind of practice of folklife in the state. in thinking about how we choose stories for the folklife program, there is so much to document, so many people to talk
to, and sometimes when i hear about a singer who is in her 90's, that will be a priority. somebody who is very old and has a lot of stories to tell, that will kind of push something to the top of the list. also, stories that kind of complicate the narrative about west virginia, either internally or outside. know, stories that show real community cohesion. so i've done a lot of work in the swiss committee. i worked pretty intensely over a year documenting their food waste traditions and their community festivals, like their snack festival, which is their swiss version of mardi gras with papier-mache masks, with a peru a perue they
-- where they parade from one dance hall to the other, which is about two blocks, and carry lanterns. and then have a square dance of old man winter. and at midnight, they cut him down from the rafters and burn him on the bonfire. of course, they all sing country roads. [laughter] how can you not document a story like that? when you think about appalachian, we think about irish. doing the work i do, people think these are the old tiny ways of white folks -- timey w ays of white folks in the mountains. there's a lot of diversity here. when you're looking at whose preserving their own cultural heritage, we have serbian communities,communities, lebane, african-american, italian, swiss. it runs the gamut. some of thehink
narrative about this place as being, being kind of homogenously white, we have kind of internalized, too. when we use the term appalachian, we need to think about what that might be a code word for and how we can shift it inclusive term that includes everyone who lives here and is engaged in the place. my goal for my audience is not necessarily the world outside, but it's for the communities themselves. so, it's kind of twofold. i really want the community to say you got this right, warts and all. it's not necessarily this romantic perception of the place, but that you got it right in all its complexity. [singing]
in west virginia's capital city of charleston, home to the radio program. the music show is heard on stations around the country on npr. up next, we speak with host larry gross for more on music's role in west virginia's culture. ♪ >> for music and west virginia public broadcasting, with support provided by daily and glasser, and the west virginia tourism office, welcome to another mountain stage with our host, larry gross. ♪ >> mountain stage is a two hour radio show. performances,ve musical performances, from all
kinds of music all across usa and around the world. the music varies from african bands to old-time appalachian fiddlers, and everything in between. ♪ [applause] 1983, in december, we started mountain states regular broadcasting. it was once a month. by 1986, i think it was 26 shows later, we were national. now we're on 240 stations in america. our idea wasnning, to show as many different styles of music as we could, reasonably, and that's what we still do. ♪ have been so many folks. many, before anybody else have
ever heard of them. people like lyle lovett and mary carpenter, way back in the early 1980's. alison krauss when she was 19 years old. we had sheryl crow once. nobody knew who she was. and then there were people who were very established when they were on the show, kinds like bill munro and ralph stanley and and byers and -- joan baez judy collins. randy newman. >> we're going to finish this band from up in morgantown, west virginia. please welcome for the first time to the mountain stage, hello june. [applause] ♪ >> we've had probably between 2050-300 front west virginia
musicians that have been featured on the show. we don't just put them on because they are from west virginia. but we want to help give them exposure. but having this variety of music, it breaks the stereotype in a way. many people think west virginia, fiddle, banjo, bluegrass, old-time, country. let it. that's not it. it, buto like that's not all it. people like rock. ♪ >> we like a lot of stuff. so do people in west virginia. that's what we try to show. this is an abnormal in west virginia. this is what west virginia is. it's one of the most asked -- accepting places. nobody ever asked us to say -- >> live performance radio. >> i started doing their early
because i wanted to. i wanted people to know where we were from. there were times when that was not popular. they wanted you, to be like, nowhere, so people can put it on their station and it wouldn't seem like -- it would seem it was produced by their station. you'll always know it's from west virginia. if you don't like that, you don't have to run the show. we're going to tell you where we're from. we're also trying to show west virginia by the personality of the show we have. by that, i mean we're straightforward. we're warm. we're friendly. we're not cute. we like the people we put on. we like the audience very much. and we want to give them something. west virginians are generous. west virginians are kind.
they're warm and they're friendly. they're not in your face. they're not great suffer from owners -- great self promoters. it feels like a friendly, nice, warm place. >> we want to go out and hear live music wherever you are. from the mountain state of west virginia. >> i'm on the steps of the sunrise mention, overlooking the skyline of charleston, west virginia, where she spent is learning about the city's history. up next, we speak with joe mansion on the state's economy and his ideas for its future. charleston, we spoke with former governor and current senator joe mansion. thank you for joining us today. >> thank you for having me. >> tell us about west virginia's
intensive space. where is west virginia and who lives here? >> i was born and raised in west virginia so i'm one of the lucky ones. a lot of people have moved here. those are the smart ones. a lot of people don't know who we are and are still out there exploring. we say come. there's so much to offer here. john f. kennedy came back because west virginia was pivotal for him to win to become president. it wasn't for west virginia, he never would have become president. , 1960 it was a religion. . we had a small percentage of catholics. he proved he could win in a state such as west virginia, and he went on to victory. but he came back in 1953, on the steps in june -- 1963, on the steps in june. it was raining cats and dogs. he said the sun is not always shining in west virginia, but the people do. that might define the people
more than anybody could have done it. the people do shine. they're optimistic. they're hard-working. we've always done the heavy lifting, whether the timbering lifting, whether the timbering way back when that built most of the east coast, to the mining, and the coal mining that basically made this deal, that built the guns and ships and factories, that defended us and built this great economy. west virginia plays a tremendous, pivotal role in who we are in the united states of america. if you look at the shape of our state, there is not another shape -- estate that has as many unlivable lines and borders and boundaries. with it, it was all abraham lincoln. he did that during the civil war and we became a state, one of only two that became estate during the conflict of the civil war. culture, deep in tradition. >> what are the biggest economic drivers? >> coatl has been for a long
time. but markets are changing. gas, propane and methane. that gives us a chance. if you look at how we came into being, being an energy driver, first it became the salt. then the salt mines led into the coal and oil. we had oil way back when. then the coal became a tremendous driver for us, for a whole century almost. and now there's new forms coming. with that, we've been a net exporter of energy. west virginia has kept most of the east coast with the energy they needed. they've kept physically the coal mines field through world war i and world war ii to victory. now we have the technology sector growing and blossoming. when you think about it, we can be the playground of the east. we have the river gorge, the
center, home to the boy scouts of america, which is now boys and girls. and we also have a way to build teambuilding, fortune 500 companies from all over the country, and companies from all over the world are coming now. then you have whitewater rafting, the things we can't do. the -- the beauty. a goes on and on and on. we just need to sell our self a little more than what people might know about us. there's an old saying, if you don't tell your story, someone will tell one on you. we've allowed people to tell too many stories about west virginia. >> sometimes there's a stereotype, west virginia can be the punchline to jokes. what do you think are the largest misconceptions? >> i tell people, all the students, i say i grew up there. i traveled with my parents somewhere and be out-of-state. someone say, where are you from?
as soon as you told them west virginia, the first time someone told a joke about your state has never been to your state. after a while, it starts wearing -- weighing on you. i got involved in public office. i had a chance to speak and talk to kids. here's what i want you to do. when you're traveling out of state, by yourself, with classmates, family, whoever, and you know that question is coming, where are you from? and you know the responses are going to get. if you don't enter into it properly. here's what i want you to do. when somebody says, where are you from? from. tell you where i'm i'm from a state that's the most patriotic state in the nation. i'm from estate basically produces more energy of this country, that help to build this country. we've done the heavy lifting. we've done it all. and on top of that, the good lord blessed us with the greatest venues you're ever going to see. my state is called west virginia.
you're going to want to come to visit. take the offense. you have to defend it. that's what we're trying to do. it's a pride we all should have. >> what problems does the state faced today? >> we face problems a lot of other super -- other states face. supply, more energy than any state in any part of rural america, southern west virginia. all of a sudden, they get left behind. we can't have that happen. we have to find a way to diversify. i'm looking at natural gas coming on strong. you look at butane, propane, and ethane, the building blocks for manufacturing. we have a tremendous chemical valley, up the ohio river. we can invigorate that tremendously with manufacturing coming back. and we can be the backup energy for the united states of america. right now, all the energy is
around louisiana and texas in the southwest. this is what we're fighting. there is always going to be a certain amount of fossil. and we can basically be showing the world how to use fossil in a much cleaner way. best of all, you should not -- that can be captured for valuable resource. same for coal. we can burn coal in a cleaner way. we're finding new technologies. so i've said, if you believe that you can change the climate by elimination, you're living in a fantasy world. because the rest of the world is using more fossil than ever before. they're coming into what we, 100 years ago, have said if you lived in west virginia in the 1930's, and most of rural 15-20% of people
had electricity. co-opsasn't for fdr, and going into areas where the market wasn't, because return on investment wasn't good, we were able to be really innovative in saying how can we get everybody in this great country the opportunity to have access to electricity to energy? the change to we were. change to we are today. and now we talk about how we have to do with broadband, high-speed internet. and we're behind there. so that's going to be the game changer. the opportunity for diversification, infrastructure including broadband and high-speed internet, cell services, getting ready for 5g, making sure we're ready for 5 g, these are things we're concerned about. we all moved together at the same time. >> the opioid epidemic has hit west virginia pretty hard.
what is the solution to that? how does the state recover? >> it's education, first of all. otcctors -- doctors should n be writing prescriptions for opiates every time you get a headache, every time you have a minor procedure. it's gotten out of hand. the fda back in the 1980's, they looked at pain being the fifth element of wellness. what is your pain level? it's really the military, out of the v.a.. they were returning people from combat, saying what is your pain level? guess what? we have a miracle drug called oxycontin. it will give you 24 hours of relief and no side effects and no addiction. well, that was a lie. and the rest is history. the genie is out of the box. the fda kept putting more and more stuff out, allowing more things to come to market. the doctors, if you ask the
doctor how much education have you had in dispensing? how much recurring education, what we call continuing ed, have you had to have to keep the license of dispensing? there is no license for dispensing. if you're a doctor, you're able to dispense. we have failed in so many segments. flooding the market, destroying lives. a lot of people have died in west virginia and around this country. unbelievable amount of deaths. more than any war or any two wars put together. with that, you need continuing education for doctors. doctors should have dispensing licenses and be upon their education of what's going out, not prescribing more than three days.e days, not 30-60-90 when i came into the senate in 2010, they were having vicodin on schedule two, schedule three, i'm sorry.
and that drug means you could dispense for 90 days. erase prescription for 90 days -- you write a prescription for 90 days, they were just calling in like m&ms. you destroy the state. when you have hard workers, there's going to be interest. when there's injuries, there's going to be doctors visits. here's the new miracle drug,. get you well. guess what? it didn't. we have a tremendous challenge on our hand. not just in west virginia, but around the country. >> you've been vocal about your feelings on washington, d.c. and missing west virginia. there was speculation you would come back and run for governor. you announced he would stay in the senate. why? what led to that decision? >> there's public service and there's self-service. from the selfish side of it, i wanted to come home. i wanted to run again. from the public service, that i
took that out, and i just got elected in 2018, i'm not the seniority. , ranking member on energy and natural resources. i'm on appropriations. i'm able to make sure was virginia doesn't get left behind. as energy changes, we're going to be able to still provide the quality of energy this country needs, and the cleanest fashion, and share the rest of the world how to do it, how we can be innovators and creators, and making sure, as we do high-speed disbursements, talking about $20 billion investment in rural america. guess what? the maps are wrong. i'm the only, at a 535 people in congress, 100 senators, 435 commerce people, -- congresspeople, i'm the only hostess -- office to challenge the fcc. we stopped the first 4.5 billion
from being distributed. we were left behind. they said we recovered. i said no we're not. i have a chance to do all that. i'm thinking i can walk away. someone new will come into the senate. they would be starting over as a freshman. we're right on the cusp now. lots happening in infrastructure. what's my purpose? public service or self-service? tough decision. >> you're one of the few moderate democrats. how does it play a role in what you do in the senate? >> i've never been a partisan person. i still believe my grandparents were democrats. my parents were democrats. and i'm a democrat because i always felt that, as a democrat, when everything is said and done, a democrat will go to the bottom of their heart to try and
find a way to help. and i've always felt good about that. they need this. but i've always been a responsible democrat, saying that i'll give you a hand up. i'm not going to continue to give you a handout when you can help yourself. you have to do something. i think the good lord gave us different challenges, if you will, and give other people different challenges to see how we would react. some people need assistance for the remainder of their life. and we've got to be there for them. and other people should be can to beating to help these people. the when you have -- should be contribute in to help these people. people thatu have don't step to the plate, we've not done our job. premise a lot of people believe that democrats are basically are all giveaway programs and nobody holding them
responsible. contrary to that, they're totally the wrong. when i was governor, we had the best financial position. we had everything. if you can get your financial house in order, you're not going to be able to help. my grandfather said don't worry. by pop, can i have five ucks, 10? who needed help. he was willing to help. he wanted them to help themselves. and then i saw him also, when we had a mine tragedy, someone got killed, he was the first one there with a load of groceries and helping that family month after month until they got on their feet. i've seen both of it. we're a product of our environment. i want you to get up off the couch and do something. i am not going to give you a handout.
i'll be the best partner you ever had. i'm not going to be your provider. but i will take care of those who can't take care of yourselves. that means you have to have a balance. not challenge at all because i don't feel challenged. if i can't come home and explain, i can't vote for you. i don't care if it's a democrat issue. i've been many times the only democrat voting for something because it makes sense to explain it back home. and there's been times where i felt very strongly about what my republican colleagues were doing, and unfair tax bill, or getting rid of formal care act. i'm not -- affordable care act. and usher i would have voted in 2009. i wasn't there when they passed it. but what they had in front of us, we had a chance to repair it. we cannot get mitch mcconnell to put the bills to repair it. they want to repeal it. they promised to repeal. guess what? i think we're there to fix
things. west virginia's loose pre-existing conditions, lose the ability to have health care. it's wrong. come on. have a heart and so. let's fix something. you proposed a bill that would strengthen background checks on gun sales. is there any effort to revive that now, in the wake of the things going on in our country? >>. absolutely 2013, how i came to be writing that piece of legislation, after that horrible tragedy in sandy hook, and these were babies, 5, 6 years old. they couldn't have open caskets. it was a renters. something has got to be done -- it was horrendous. .omething's got to be done it happened on a friday, i believe, thursday or friday. tuesday of next week, we were on
the floor of the senate. everybody talking, we're going that.n this, ban i said you're assuming because i'm a law-abiding gun owner i'm going to do something wrong. you have to look at the whole picture. someone was saying we're going to ban these weapons here. these are public people who have never shot a gun, don't know what they're talking about. there are horrific loopholes. we need school safety. we need mental health, mental identification to prevent people mentally deranged to be able to buy a gun. keeping guns out of the people, the wrong people for the wrong reason, should be the thing we should achieve. i said first of all, you can go to a gun show today, and you can go to wherever they're having it
and you can walk in there, and most of the tables are licensed dealers, licensed firearm dealers. they have to do a background check by law. but there might be a table, five tables, 10 tables with collectors selling their guns. they're not required to do any background check. saw isis and jihadists singh just go down to your local gun show and by what you want and wreak havoc in america, they are right. i said don't you think we ought to close that loophole? you, as- if i'm asking a law-abiding gun owner, to trust me. i'll do the right thing. i was taught not to sell to a stranger. i was taught not to sell to a criminal. i don't even loan to mike going to -- i don't even loan my gun to a family member that's not responsible. that how i was taught. on the other hand, if that's the
case, i sell a gun to a stranger, i don't know who that person is coming to the gun table, where the collector is selling it, who it is. the way the law is, interstate and intrastate. if you're in charleston, west virginia, anyone to sell the gun on the internet, nothing. send it and boom. but if you're in columbus, ohio, you're supposed to send it to a dealer and the person picks it up there. there's so many loopholes. we said this. commercial background check. the commercial background check. not universal, where a father couldn't give it to his son unless it's a background check. give me the benefit of the doubt. we took a very pragmatic approach. so yes, i still think it's important. i've spoken to the president many times. every week, there's another chaotic moment we are not taking care of the business we should be.
there will be another horrendous tragedy in america that shouldn't happen. we can get involved. parents know. people and families no. schools know someone who is different, who's changed, whose behavior is complete lee different, that we should be basically intervening before something horrible happens. >> as 2020 approaches, west virginians are going to the polls to vote. what do west virginia voters want to see from elected officials? >> i would hope they see somebody who has west virginia first and foremost in their heart and so. that's it. understands who we are. not just rhetoric, but really knows and leads by example. that's what we really need. there has to be someone that says listen, we're going to change education. there's not going to be a child who graduates without a career path. that should be number one.
community and technical education should move down to junior high and high school so we develop school sets -- skill sets early. we need to do that. every child should come out of public education, graduating from high school, with an associates degree. we need to do that. the opioid epidemic, we've got to get involved. we have 10,000 children who are homeless. there shouldn't be one child who doesn't have a bed to sleep in tonight. if there's one person that doesn't believe that, we have problems. that's what i hope for. i want you to vote for me. i'm running for governor. i'm running for congress. i'm running for state senate, or any public position. ask them why you want the job. they can't give you an answer, they don't know exactly what needs to be changed, if they are not willing to fight, if you don't see it, you've got the wrong person. >> thank you so much for your
time. >> the c-span cities tour is checking out the west virginia state capitol building. it's nearly 100 years old. coming up, we'll go on a tour and learn how charleston became west virginia's state capital. today, we are in the west virginia state capital. it's in charleston, west virginia. we are close to the south bank of the canal river, located in canal county, which is a centralized location in west virginia. with virginia became a state on june 20, 18 63. the first capital was located in wheeling, west virginia, in the panhandle. it was far enough away from the fighting during the civil war. and it was also the location of where the conventions were held when we were deciding to become our own state. the capital was moved to charlston for its more convenient location. wheeling is very out-of-the-way,
in a very mountainous state, made it very hard to travel up to that part of the area. if you walked around capital grants today, you would notice the most iconic statue we have is the lincoln walks at midnight. it is modeled after the poem. abraham lincoln was the president that proclaimed this as the 35th state. the outside of the dome is done in a zinc and copper alloy. it also has a lead lining to it. on top of that is a goldleaf. likeeaves are done to look various flora from west virginia. currently, the is under renovation due to some water damage and failure to the gutter system we have. the construction project began in the spring of 2019. and it's not expected to be
complete until spring of 2021. as soon as you enter one of the wings of the building, you'd be presented with the lovely marble that we see on the walls, which is made of tennessee marble. as soon as you make it to the middle of the capital, you will see the exquisite rotunda area, over tutored 70 feet. deal seat -- over 270 feet. crystalover it is a chandelier. ways of 15,000 pounds, the size of a small fiat, in a steel case. our main architect for the entire capital, they constructed the west wing first, and the east wing second in 1926, and finished in 1932. he originally designed the minnesota and arkansas capitals, as well as various buildings we
see in washington, d.c., including the u.s. supreme court. the west virginia supreme court almost mirrors the u.s. supreme court. he gained inspiration after constructing the west virginia supreme court building, and he used it to help him inspire when he was making the one in d.c. currently, we are standing in the senate chambers. here, all 34 members decide bills become law and our state. 1930's, carved out of black walnut, including the front desk where the president of the senate would sit. etched on the desk there in the podiums are equals, bald eagles, resenting freedom for our rodsry, and a bundle of represent extent and unity from roman times. in the archways, you notice flowers carved out of white
butternut would. the ceiling is done in a dome skyline,h a round painted glass. we have 34 members of the senate. the majority leading party is the republican party. they always sit to the right of the room. the minority side sits to the left. the senators can up to two terms, and each of those can be up to four years. now we've entered into the house chamber, where you'll see all 100 numbers of our house delegates. each desk here, again, is carved out of black walnut, and originally from the 1930's. the front is where the speaker will sit, roger hanshaw. above roger hanshaw's desk you'll see our official state seal, carved out of white butternut wood from west virginia. it displays the minor and former, two -- miner and farmer,
two of the most popular jobs in the state. that's the official date we became a state. underneath them are cross rifles. underneath that is our state motto, meaning mountaineers are always free in latin. also, above the rest, you can see various symbols representing our state. also, these were designed by cass gilbert himself. the bouquets are next to the leaves ofof various the mighty oak. we'll see each of the acorns and plumes coming from them are done in the zinc and copper alloy, as well. the capital is being constructed at the beginning of the great depression. so when the capital capital is deplete test completed, it would cost more to -- when the capital is completed, it would cost more
to put murals on the walls. you may notice that there are no portraits, as well, in the chambers, in the senate and the house. the only portraits you will see our of our former governors. you'll see them lining the walls of the ground floor, starting with arthur ingram borgman, our first elected governor, and the 36th governor. jim justice has not had his portrait made just yet. usually people have a certain mindset when they come to west virginia and they think of the state and its people. when they come to the capital, they see a stark reminder that it's more than just simple somees and stereotypes people have of the west virginia and culture -- west virginia and culture, as a whole. the capital is much more
beautiful than people expect, and its goal on top of this dome. spotalmost like a tourist to beckon more people to come and visit the wild and wonderful state. >> c-span is in charleston, west virginia, where we're learning more about the history and literary scene. up next, we take you to baseline printing, to create new works of art. the switch to turn on the motor. come back here to turn it all along. -- turn it all on. alright. hans a different process t
digital printing widely used today. that's what it stands out. you can see inconsistencies. it has this historic quality to it. when you touch it, you can feel that impression. you know you're touching something that handmade. base camp, we're a letterpress shop. we print posters, greeting cards, basically anything on paper using old-fashioned printing presses. we try to keep our process of printing identical to the process back when old-fashioned printing presses were modern technology. the way that we work when we're creating a poster or invitation, we actually use movable type. we handset individual letters to create imagery we hand carve out of linoleum blocks. we're basically creating a giant stamp and then using that template, that type and the
blocks, and just printing it one color at a time, one at a time. we have a pretty small retail space where people can come and shop for greeting cards and posters. and then after that, the rest of the space is our studio. it's an open room where you can peek through nc is working. it's really cool to have the space set up as we do. when you walking, you can smell the -- walk in, you can smell the ink and the printing press studio. you. that was for so, the collection is wooden theavings owned by wvu and creative arts college. it's a collection of thousands of wood engravings that were once used to print.
they're really detailed and beautiful. now, the collection is open to whond a few other printers create some original works with it. we create artwork, but we're also reliving history in a way. you can find these things that were once made for a specific ou're able toy reuse them and repurpose them and give them new life, something that might not have had ink on it for 100 years gets to be on a poster with shovels and wrote. -- rope. we make a poster for every mountain stage show. we'll make posters for west virginia businesses. we make original artwork about west virginia. we've worked with west virginia tourism for posters and postcards, anything we can make to plaster and celebrate
everything that's happening here in west virginia. i feel like if you ask anyone born and raised here, there's just like a certain effect it has on a person. it's this on expendable love for this place that's deeply rooted in you. and to be able to put that into art is so fulfilling. there isn't a lot of positive representations of west virginia, sometimes. feels,he way that it sometimes it can feel defeating living in this beautiful place that may be not everyone else fully recognizes. it must feels like you have this secret that you want to tell everyone about, so to be able to have this opportunity to share how i feel about the state, like with -- like my
talent and what we think -- what we've been given is really all we want to do. the c-span cities tour is on the campus of west virginia state university. up next, we'll learn the real-life story of the movie, ures," the story of a alum nest helped put man on the moon. >> what's your status on the computer? >> she's right behind you, mr. harrison. >> can she and -- can she handle analytic geometry? >> absolutely. and she speaks. >> yes, sir, i do. >> which one? >> both. can she find me the frame for this data -- >> the algorithm? yes, sir. i prefer it over the cornets.
>> kaplan has had the fortune of having hollywood china light on her life. there are people right here in west virginia that had no idea of what catherine johnson did for nasa and for the united states of america. and so when the movie came out, it showed everyone who catherine johnson was, what she did, and how profound she was in the pages of american history. catherine was hired as, what they called then, a computer, where she simply came in ended mathematical type of equations for manasseh -- for nasa. with the didn't realize was she was more than a computer. she was a mathematical genius. that's what catherine johnson was. >> godspeed, john glenn. 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. zero. glen, who saidn
this computer thing, not catherine, this actual computer that was built, calculated his actual trajectory into space. and he wanted that verified by catherine johnson. now here's the important part. he did ask them at the titian's from m.i.t.. he didn't ask the mathematicians from stanford or harvard. he asked the brilliant mathematician from west virginia state university to calculate my trajectory and make sure i get home safe. that says a lot about what catherine was to not only nasa, but what she meant to the individuals that she worked with. they relied on her. they put their lives in her hands. so, what she meant to nasa was that we won the space race. and catherine johnson played a very significant role in that. catherine is from a small town about two hours from west virginia state university called
white sulfur springs. we had the privilege before the rest of the world fell in love with catherine johnson, we had the privilege to have her little, beautiful face on our campus at the tender age of 10. because she was unable to go to high school in her hometown because of the hue of her skin. she and her family had to travel two hours to come to west virginia state university. we had an elementary and high school that was part of the university at that time. so, a young catherine johnson, with all of her mathematical skills and intelligence, came here, and she graduated at the age of 15. and then she entered what was then west virginia state college, now western state -- western virginia state university. 19 -- 19 debbie seven at the age of 13 -- 9037 -- she went into the field of teaching. she understood the very
significance of teaching and paying it forward. she went into teaching for about 13 years. catherine entered nasa at a time when african-americans and america overall was still living in dual worlds. we had a white america, and an african-american america. and catherine was having to very delicately walk in both worlds. and she went to work every day and gave nasa and the astronauts, none of who looked like her, 100%. and she said in spite of how i'm treated, where i can go and eat, what i can do, i'm going to come here and fight to make sure i do the best job possible for my country and for the space race. nasa, there were three significant space ventures that catherine played a very significant role in. the firstan shepard,
individual who entered into space. catherine calculated the trajectories for that space mission to happen. we also know she played a significant role in john glen, and john glenn has said throughout his life and at the end of his life, that he would not venture into space if catherine johnson was not checking the calculations on his spaceflight. and so the actual flight with john glen, where he orbited the earth, catherine johnson played a significant role in that. we also know she played a significant role in the moon landing. so those are three pivotal moments that changed space travel and how we, in the united states of america, see nasa today. i had the pleasure, on catherine's 99th birthday, to be with her at the green briar. of how sharpin awe
she still was. we left. -- laughed. we joked. we had a good time. she was as beautiful and radiant at 99 as she was on campus in the 1930's. when i left that birthday, i started asking myself, as people learn more and more about catherine johnson, the university we love so dear, we have to do something to help recognize or and make sure history never forgets how profound she was in helping nasa when the space race. so i got a team of my faculty and staff and students together and we started brainstorming. going tosten, we're honor catherine johnson by placing a statue of catherine johnson on our campus. we had about eight to nine months. the goal was to do it on her 100th birthday.
[applause] colemanatherine johnson, you are no longer and never again hidden. [applause] heand so, on august when 2018, we had catherine johnson and about a thousand supporters here on our campus. >> 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. [applause] day, it wasat beautiful. she was able to be with us. she loved the statue. her family was just in awe. and it was a crystallizing moment that catherine johnson, regardless of what she does from here on out, she will be part of west virginia state university forever. her story is
inspiring people all over the world. in fact, it is said catherine liked to count everything when she was younger. she counted rocks in the yard. she counted the steps to church. she counted everything she could get her mind around and her hands on. and when we dedicated this statute to her in 2018 on her 100 birthday, i told catherine i knew something she could not count, and that was the number of people that she's inspired. so that is the catherine johnson story, and it is my hope that young men and women of all races and all economic backdrops, will take more time to learn about this incredible american icon. >> our visit to charleston, west virginia is an american history tv exclusive, and we showed it
today to introduce you to c-span cities tour. for eight years now, we've traveled to u.s. cities, bringing the literary scene and historic sites to our viewers. you can watch more of our visit at c-span.org/citiestour. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2020] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> next, secretary of state mike pompeo and treasury secretary steven mnuchin announce new sanctions against iran in iran in to a missile response to a missile attack against u.s. bases in iraq. after that, the house majority leader and republican whip preview next week's agenda, with comments on the status of articles of impeachment. then the secretary of the army talks about the presence in the indo pacific region. our campaign 2020 coverage continues. live on saturday at 1:00 p.m. eastern, with andrew yang in bedford, new hampshire. and on sunday, live at 3:00 p.m.
eastern, with senator michael bennet in bedford. the 4:15 eastern, mayor pete buttigieg from las vegas. then on tuesday as he spent two, president donald trump's in milwaukee, wisconsin at a keep america great rally. watch our coverage on c-span and c-span2, on demand at c-span.org , or listen on the go at the free c-span radio app. ♪ >> campaign 2020. watch our continuing coverage of the presidential candidates on the campaign trail and make up your own mind. as the voting begins next month, watch our coverage of the iowa caucus on february 3. c-span's campaign 2020, your unfiltered view of u.s. politics. >> secretary of state mike
pompeo and treasury secretary steven mnuchin announced new sanctions against iran following missile strikes against u.s. bases in iraq. also commentedo on the recent crash of an airliner shortly after takeoff from tehran. good morning, everybody. thank you for being here today. i would just like to make a brief comment before we talk about iran sanctions. the dow is at 29,000. the president's economic plans are clearly working. we are looking forward to china signing usmca and a very strong economy this year. as previously announced by the president, we are imposing additional sanctions against the iranian regime as a result of attacks on u.s. and allied troops. first, the president is issuing