Germfree living seemed to be an impossibility until 1885 when Louis Pasteur conceived the idea of artificial production of germfree animals. The first such animals were obtained by German Scientists in 1895, the birthyear of gnotobiology. Since then, life without microbes has been a possibility, and the technology of gnotobiosis advanced rapidly. Research on germfree life is conducted now in all countries of the world in view of the great importance of this biological field for medicine, biology, and cosmic science. The first Soviet gnotobiotic isolator, which is now in operation, was manufactured in 1966.