The time from initiation of the project (15-July-2015) until the first experiments could be conducted (January, 2016) was devoted primarily to obtaining IACUC approval (October 30, 2015), the subsequent ACURO approval (December 31, 2015),hiring new personnel, conducting baseline testing for procedures not involving animals, testing equipment, developing detailed experimental design, conducting required training and testing of all personnel, and setting up all necessary accounts. Beginning in January of 2016 and though the middle of July, we conducted experiments as per the SOW. Specifically, the formalin test was standardized and the morphine dose-response completed for this as well as the rat cold water tail-flick test. Carrageenan studies were conducted and effects of the compound on swelling and pain determined, along with initial experiments on the chemokine receptor antagonist (CRA) AMD3100. Methods were established for measuring a panel of chemokines and cytokines in tissue in the formalin and carrageenan assay. In year 2, it is planned to solidify studies with the formalin assay, the cold water test, and the carrageenan assay, and to complete studies with the combinations of morphine and CRAs in these tests. In selected assays, oxycontin will be compared to morphine using the CRAs. Studies will be initiated with the incisional pain model.