The purpose of the GREAT II Studies is to identify and resolve conflicts resulting from separate legislative actions of Congress which mandated that the Upper Mississippi River be managed in the national interest for commercial navigation and as a fish and wildlife refuge. The concept of the study originated from a need to coordinate the maintenance activities of a 9- foot navigation channel by the US Army Corps of Engineers from Guttenberg, Iowa, to Saverton, Missouri, with other river uses. Great II was founded because of increasing concern by conservationists and the general public over the lack of information available about the impacts of US Army Corps of Engineers channel maintenance activities on many key resources of the river. The scope of the GREAT II Study is directed toward developing a river system management plan incorporating total river resource requirements. GREAT II was organized early in fiscal year 1977 (October 1976 through September 1977) and is studying the river from Guttenberg, Iowa, to Saverton, Missouri.