The purpose of this review paper on workers compensation issues is to provide a brief description of workers' compensation and to examine the scientific literature on cost containment, case management, prevention, and intervention. Another objective is to formulate and proffer a remedy or process that would be expected to enhance the likelihood of returning the occupationally injured or ill employee to work and to reduce the increasing rate of medical, compensation, and disability costs. Effective case management involves the coordinated efforts of six principal participants, especially the attending case managing physician, the agency's care coordinator-case facilitator, and the line supervisor or employer. The importance of timeliness in managing each case and monitoring the return-to-work plan is emphasized as are the biopsychosocial concerns of the employee who has sustained an occupational illness or injury. A process, the Occupational Illness and Injury Contingency Management Process (OPTICOMAP), has been development by the Public Health Service to ensure the restoration of the injured or ill worker to his or her full potential as well as a quick return to work.