In the bloody aftermath of Operation Desert Storm hundreds of thousands of Kurds left their homes in northern Iraq seeking refuge in Turkey and Iran. It fell to the U.S. military to coax them back and protect those who feared for their safety. Operation Provide Comfort has now been succeeded by Provide Comfort II, with the U.S. military still heavily involved. This report documents the recent history of the Kurds, and gives a rundown on the power relations among the various groups in Kurdish society. At the same time, it warns our officers of possible dangers growing out of their mission, and suggests that the overall problem of the Kurds is much more explosive than the benign accounts appearing in the media would lead one to believe.