The Bachman's sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) is a small ground-nesting sparrow that is endemic to the southeastern United States. The former breeding range extended into the midwestern and northeastern States but has contracted to its current general limits of North Carolina, Kentucky, and central Arkansas. Birds winter along the lower Coastal Plain from North Carolina to eastern Texas and south Florida. The Bachman's sparrow is considered to be a species of special concern, as its population has declined significantly since the 1930s. This species is most common in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas, which are characterized by an open overstory and a ground cover of perennial grasses and forbs interspersed with a few shrubs; it also occurs in other open habitat types with early successional vegetation. Bachman's sparrows have been documented on at least 19 installations in the Southeast. This report is one of a series of Species Profiles being developed for threatened, endangered, and sensitive species inhabiting plant communities in the southeastern United States. The work is being conducted as part of the Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The report is designed to supplement information provided in plant community management reports for major United States plant communities found on military installations. Information provided on the Henslow's sparrow includes status, life history and ecology, habitat requirements, impacts and causes of decline, habitat assessment techniques, inventory and monitoring, and management and protection.