The Defense Science Board (DSB) Warfighting Transformation Task Force was charged with reviewing the transformation activities underway in the Department of Defense (DoD) to: provide an independent, comprehensive picture of transformation efforts that encompasses processes, organizational responsibilities, and anticipated products; identify opportunities to enhance, as well as the obstacles to, transformation progress; and recommend Criteria to gauge progress over the next several years. Transformation efforts within DoD today involve an inevitable tension between dealing with today's problems and preparing for tomorrow's. But an even more formidable tension exists between alternative views of tomorrow's challenges and between competing approaches to address them. Transformation is about defining and implementing a vision of the future different from the one embedded, if only implicitly, in DoD's current plans and programs. Such a transformation requires powerful, high-level support to survive in today's resource-competitive environment.