The objective of this project was to investigate the use of spectral holeburning technologies for quantum logic and parallel computing. To this end, we have made substantial progress on both experimental and theoretical fronts. In NV-diamond, we have demonstrated the alignment of spins, which can then be used as quantum bits for a quantum computer. We have performed high resolution imaging of color centers in NV-diamond, as a key step towards isolating and detecting individual quantum bits. We have also developed a detailed model for cavity induced coupling of qubits in this system. Furthermore, we have developed a concrete design for producing a photonic band gap based cavity directly in a diamond substrate. Such a cavity will have the requisite combination of high finesse and low loss necessary for photon-mediated coupling of qubits, which is not possible using bulk mirror cavities because of high surface reflection losses from an embedded crystal. We have also developed a novel model for cavity-induced coupling via the atom-cavity-dark-state, a process that is robust against atomic as well cavity decay. Finally, we have identified a mechanism for direct dipole-dipole coupling of the qubits as well. This scheme is particularly well suited for creating in parallel many quantum computers, each containing a small number of coupled qubits. Dubbed Type II Quantum Computing, this architecture is expected to outperform the best classical computers in specialized tasks such as modeling turbulence through the cellular automaton based lattice gas dynamics. In Pr:YSO, we have demonstrated a slowing (45 misec) and high-fidelity storage and recall of light pulses. This scheme is expected to enable the realization of a near-perfect quantum memory for single-photons, storing and recalling it with near 100% fidelity.