The September II, 2001 attacks caused Americans to realize terrorism was no longer remote televised images from foreign lands. Terrorism in the United States has become part of the fabric of American life and will likely remain for decades to come. With over half the Army's combat units in the National Guard, maintaining readiness for the National Guard's federal mission is crucial for national defense. The purpose of this study is to analyze the Army National Guard's current mission in Homeland Security to see what short- and long-term impacts will be to the Army National Guard's Federal mission. Appropriate National Guard Homeland Security roles and capabilities will be explored. This paper will include review of the legal and historical roles the National Guard plays for the State; consider the linkage among and between state agencies, state emergency operations, and the National Guard; identify the federal resources that can be called upon if needed; and enumerate the steps civil authorities can take to carry out their homeland security responsibilities.