SERDP project CS1145 explored alternative control and assessment strategies for knapweeds and annual brome, two non-indigenous plant taxa, on US military installations. These plant taxa infest large areas of the Western United States and they are a major concern for military bases. Heavy maneuvering of troops and equipment causes large disturbances where native vegetation is stressed, soil is lost, and invasive noxious plants often take hold. Replacing stands of noxious weeds with native plant communities on military training grounds will reduce soil erosion and create more sustainable ecological systems. Non-indigenous invasive plants can also reduce and destroy forage for livestock and wildlife, displace native plant species, increase fire frequency, reduce recreational opportunities, and can poison domestic animals. It is imperative to find economical, ecologically sound methods to control these weeds to minimize control costs and degradation of military training grounds.