This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. The House approved conference agreements on the FY2006 defense appropriations (H.R. 2863) and defense authorization (H.R. 1815) bills on December 19, 2005. The Senate approved both measures on December 21, though only after removing from the appropriations bill a provision to allow oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. On December 22, the House approved an enrolling resolution that removed the ANWR provision, clearing the measure for the President. The appropriations bill is also a vehicle for other measures, including reallocation of $29 billion in Hurricane Katrina recovery funds, emergency funding of $3.8 billion for avian flu preparedness, and an across-the-board spending cut of $8.5 billion. The President signed the defense appropriations bill into law on December 30, 2005, P.L. 109-148, and he signed the authorization bill on January 6, 2006, P.L. 109-163. Key issues resolved by the conference agreements on the defense bills include the following: amount of defense appropriations, prisoner abuse, tribunals for prisoners, exit strategy in Iraq, women in combat, additional Iraq funding, Army and Marine end-strength, Navy shipbuilding, Reserve health insurance, and new nuclear weapons.