U.S. Army Test and Evaluation (T&E) is facing several complex and challenging issues: UNREALISTIC THREAT ENVIRONMENT -- Current threat representations do not provide a dynamic and free thinking threat that can act against and react to Blue systems and forces under test, especially in the key areas of Electronic Warfare (EW) and Information Operations (IO). DISCONNECT ACROSS SIMULATION DOMAINS -- No approach currently exists to support a realistic threat environment within the constructive domain that will adequately augment the live and virtual components of T&E. REAL TIME CASUALTY ASSESSMENT (RTCA) -- Current RTCA models and systems do not support real-time or near real-time feedback and assessment of Blue and threat force dynamic interchanges during T&E. RANGE RESTRICTIONS -- Many DoD test ranges preclude open air RF jamming; federal restrictions such as safety issues with regard to GPS jamming. RESOURCE CHALLENGES -- Availability of military units to participate in test events; simply can't fit a Unit of Action (UofA) or Unit of Employment (UofE) on existing test ranges. BECAUSE the live, virtual, and constructive arenas continue to merge into a cohesive environment for the support of testing and training, it is critical that threat realism, as related to EW and IO, is able to transition across all three. THERE EXISTS AN IMMEDIATE NEED for Electronic Attack (EA) models which support EW within the constructive testing environment and which will augment the live and virtual components of T&E; AND we need to integrate this capability in a manner that provides seamless interoperability across the simulation domains.