In its December 2001 Nuclear Posture Review, the Bush administration described its plan for transforming the roles and structure of U.S. nuclear forces to meet the realities of the 21st century. The updated posture laid out plans to reduce U.S. reliance on nuclear weapons by building up conventional strike capabilities, missile defenses, and a more responsive and robust defense infrastructure. To be effective, however, this new posture highlighted several key areas that need to be addressed. These include, reviewing the need for nuclear weapons, the affect of personnel retirement on the arsenal, NATO and treaty obligations, the role of missile defense, and the current state of the supporting infrastructure. Recommendations are provided to overcome challenges identified within the current force structure to ensure the United States' nuclear weapons complex and forces remain current, effective, credible, safe, and secure.