This report was written in support of the Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) project The Human Dimension of the Expeditionary Air Force, which is investigating the leadership and sustainment of multifunctional, or diverse, teams in the Air Force. In order to conduct this research, a comprehensive understanding of the relevant historical and contemporary operations background that has shaped Air Force culture and identity and that has influenced Air Force team and leadership structures, characteristics and tasks is required. Furthermore, detailed information on Air Force team and leadership structures; the characteristics and tasks of the various Air Force communities; an analysis of those factors that impact on Air Force operations to include operations that are expeditionary, deployed and at static bases; and recommendations for further research is required. Canadian Forces (CF) leadership doctrine, in Duty with Honour and Leadership in the CF: Conceptual Foundations , recognizes that, because of the unique physical environments in which the Canadian Army, Navy and Air Force operate, they each have a unique body of professional knowledge, experience, and, therefore, culture. Furthermore, it is recognized that the three Environments of the CF manifest certain elements of the CF's ethos in different ways, for example, in leadership styles and command arrangements. Unfortunately for the Canadian Air Force, very little has been written about how its culture and professional working environment have influenced the development of unique Canadian air force leadership styles and command arrangements. This report, therefore, provides a description and analysis of certain aspects of Canadian air force culture and identity, team and leadership structures, and command arrangements from their origins to the present day.