On 5 November 2009, a tragic shooting allegedly carried out by a military member at Fort Hood, Texas, left 13 dead and 43 wounded or injured. Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates subsequently established the Department of Defense Independent Review Related to Fort Hood. The report, Protecting the Force: Lessons from Fort Hood, was delivered to Secretary Gates on 15 January 2010. It concluded force protection measures focused solely on external threats are no longer sufficient. Force protection measures must now also consider internal threats - disaffected individuals within the force motivated to violence against the force The DoD report recommended that each of the Services conduct in-depth follow-on reviews. In response, Secretary of the Air Force Michael B. issued Terms of Reference on 25 January 2010 and directed Gen Stephen R. Lorenz, Commander of Air Education and Training Command, to chair an in-depth Air Force Follow-on Review (Air Force FOR) to identify and resolve policy, program, and procedural gaps that could create vulnerabilities to the health and safety of Air Force personnel, other supported personnel, and their families. Our review addressed three fundamental force protection shortfalls identified in the DoD report related to the internal threat challenge. First, there is no commonly accepted list of indicators concerning potential violence. Second, outside the medical field, there is no centralized process for assessing an individual's potential for violence. Third, there is no effective means for sharing information about those with a history of violence or those who may become violent. Our team confirmed the DoD findings and concluded that the current means available to unit leaders regarding internal threats are incomplete and may hinder prevention and response efforts. Removing this hindrance requires creating a new force protection culture that incorporates preventive measures aimed at internal threats.